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strength (without which laws cannot be executed, nor the people preserved) is in the people, and the prince's interest in them therefore if you withdraw your help, in time of need, you desert and betray your rulers, whom you should defend. If you say, It is they that are your protectors: I answer, True; but by yourselves. They protect you by wisdom, counsel, and authority, and you must protect them by obedience and strength. Would you have them protect you rather by mercenaries or foreigners? If not, you must be willing to do your parts, and not think it enough in treasons, invasions, or rebellions, to sit still and save yourselves, and let him that can lay hold on the crown, possess it. What prince would be the governor of a people, that he knew would forsake him in his need?
Direct. xxx. Murmur not at the payment of those necessary tributes, by which the common safety must be pre-served, and the due honor of your governors kept up.' Sordid covetousness hath been the ruin of many a commonwealth. When every one is shifting for himself, and saving his own, and murmuring at the charge by which their safety must be defended, as if kings could fight for them, without men and money: this selfishness is the most pernicious enemy to government, and to the common good. Tribute and honour must be paid to whom it doth belong. For they are God's ministers, attending continually on this very thing"." And none of your goods or cabins will be saved, if by your covetousness the ship should perish.
Direct. xxxI. 'Resist not, where you cannot actually obey: and let no appearance of probable good that might come to yourselves, or the church by any unlawful means, (as treason, sedition, or rebellion) ever tempt you to it.' For evil must not be done, that good may come by it: and all evil means are but palliate and deceitful cures, that seem to help a little while, but will leave the malady more perilous at last, than it was before. As it is possible, that lying or perjury might be used to the seeming service of a governor at the time, which yet would prepare for his after danger, by teaching men perfidiousness; even so rebellions and treasons may seem at present to be very conducible to the ends of a people or party that think themselves oppressed:
Rom. xiii. 6, 7.
but in the end it will leave them much worse than it found them *.
Object. But if we must let rulers destroy us at their pleasure, the Gospel will be rooted out of the earth: when they know that we hold it unlawful to resist them, they will be emboldened to destroy us, and sport themselves in our blood as the Papists did by the poor Albigenses, &c.'
Answ. All this did signify something if there were no God, that can more easily restrain and destroy them at his pleasure, than they can destroy or injure you. But if there be a God, and all the world is in his hand, and with a word he can speak them all into dust; and if this God be engaged to protect you, and hath told you, that the very hairs of your head are numbered, and more regardeth his honour, and Gospel, and church, than you do, and accounteth his servants as the apple of his eye, and hath promised to hear them and avenge them speedily, and forbid them to avenge themselves; then it is but atheistical distrust of God, to save yourselves by sinful means, as if God either could not, or would not do it: thus he that saveth his life shall lose it. Do you believe that you are in the hands of Christ, and that men cannot touch you but by his permission; and that he will turn all your sufferings to your exceeding benefit? And yet will you venture on sin and hell to escape such sufferings from men? Wolves, and bears, and lions, that fight most for themselves, are hated and destroyed by all; so that there are but few of them in the land. But though a hundred sheep will run before a little dog, the master of them taketh care for their preservation. And little children that cannot go out of the way from a horse or cart, every one is afraid of hurting. If Christians behaved themselves with that eminent love, and lowliness, and meekness, and patience, and harmlessness, as their Lord hath taught them and required, perhaps the very cruelty and malice of their enemies would abate and relent; and "when a
x Bilson of Subject. p. 236. Princes have no right to call or confirm preachers, but to receive such as be sent of God, and give them liberty for their preaching, and security for their persons: and if princes refuse so to do, God's labourers must go forward with that which is commanded them from heaven; not by disturbing princes from their thrones, nor invading their realms, as your holy father doth, and defendeth he may do; but by mildly submitting themselves to the powers on earth, and meekly suffering for the defence of the truth, what they shall inflict. So he.
man's ways please God, he would make his enemies to be at peace with him";" but if not, their fury would but hasten us to our joy and glory. Yet note, that I speak all this only against rebellion, and unlawful arms and acts.
Direct. XXXII. Obey inferior magistrates according to the authority derived to them from the supreme, but never against the supreme, from whom it is derived.' The same reasons which oblige you to obey the personal commands of the king, do bind you also to obey the lowest constable, or other officer: for they are necessary instruments of the sovereign power, and if you obey not them, the obedience of the sovereign signifieth almost nothing. But no man is bound to obey them beyond the measure of their authority; much less against those that give them their authority.
Direct. XXXIII. No human power is at all to be obeyed against God for they have no power, but what they receive from God; and all that is from him, is for him. He giveth no power against himself; he is the first efficient, the chief dirigent, and ultimate, final cause of all. It is no act of authority, but resistance of his authority, which contradicteth his law, and is against him. All human laws are subservient to his laws, and not co-ordinate, much less superior. Therefore they are 'ipso facto' null, or have no obligation, which are against him: yet is not the office itself null, when it is in some things thus abused; nor the magistrate's power null, as to other things. No man must commit the least sin against God, to please the greatest prince on earth, or to avoid the greatest corporal suffering". "Fear not them that can kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do; but fear him, who is able to destroy both body and soul in hell: I say unto you, Whether we ought to obey God rather than men, judge ye." "Not fearing the wrath of the king: for he endured, as
seeing him that is invisible. cepting deliverance," &c.
y Prov. xvi. 7.
fear him "."
Others were tortured, not ac"Be it known unto thee, O
* Rom. xiii. 1-4. xi. 36.
Si aliquid jusserit proconsul, aliud jubeat imperator, nunquid dubitatur, illo contempto, illi esse serviendum? Ergo si aliud imperator, aliud jubeat Deus, quid judicatur? Major potestas Deus: da veniam O imperator. August. de Verb. Domin. Matt. Serm. 6.
Luke xii. 4.
Acts v. 29.
d Heb. xi. 27. 35.
king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image," &c.
Object. If we are not obliged to obey, we are not obliged to suffer for the law obligeth primarily to obedience, and only secondarily ad pœnam,' for want of obedience. Therefore where there is no primary obligation to obedience, there is no secondary obligation to punishment.'
Answ. The word obligation,' being metaphorical, must in controversy be explained by its proper terms. The law doth first constituere debitum obedientiæ, et propter inobedientiam debitum pœnæ.' Here then you must distinguish, 1. Between obligation in foro conscientiæ,' and in foro humano.' 2. Between an obligation ad pœnam' by that law of man, and an obligation 'ad patiendum' by another divine law. And so the answer is this: first, If the higher powers, e. g. forbid the apostles to preach upon pain of death or scourging, the dueness both of the obedience and the penalty, is really null, in point of conscience; however in foro humano' they are both due; that is, so falsely reputed in that court: therefore the apostles are bound to preach notwithstanding the prohibition, and so far as God alloweth they may resist the penalty, that is, by flying for properly there is neither debitum obedientiæ nec pœnæ.' Secondly, But then God himself obligeth them not to "resist the higher powers," and "in their patience to possess their souls." So that from this command of God, there is a true obligation ad patiendum,' to patient suffering and non-resistance, though from the law of man against their preaching, there was no true obligation aut ad obedientiam, aut ad pœnam.' This is the true resolution of this sophism.
Direct. XXXIV. 'It is one of the most needful duties to governors, for those that have a call and opportunity (as their pastors) to tell them wisely and submissively of those sins which are the greatest enemies to their souls; and not the smallest enemies to their government, and the public peace. All Christians will confess, that sin is the only for
8 Vetus est verumque dictum, Miser est imperator cui vera reticentur. Grotius de Imp. p. 245. Principi consule non dulciora, sed optima; is one of Solon's sentences in Laert. de Solon. Therefore it is a horrid villany in the Jesuits, which is
feiture of God's protection, and the cause of his displeasure, and consequently the only danger to the soul, and the greatest enemy to the land. And that the sins of rulers, whether personal, or in their government, have a far more dangerous influence upon the public state, than the sins of other men. Yea, the very sins which upon true repentance may be pardoned as to the everlasting punishment, may yet be unpardoned as to the public ruin of a state: as the sad instance of Manasseh sheweth. "Notwithstanding the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations that Manasseh had provoked him withal "." "Surely at the commandment of the Lord came this upon Judah, to remove them out of his sight for the sins of Manasseh according to all that he did; and also for the innocent blood that he shed (for he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood) which the Lord would not pardon." And yet this was after Josiah had reformed: so Solomon's sin did cause the rending of the ten tribes from his son's kingdom: yea, the bearing with the high places, was a provoking sin in kings, that otherwise were upright. Therefore sin being the fire in the thatch, the quenching of it must needs be an act of duty and fidelity to governors: and those that tempt them to it, or sooth and flatter them in it, are the greatest enemies they have. But yet it is not every man that must reprove a governor, but those that have a call and opportunity; nor must it be done by them imperiously, or reproachfully, or publicly to their dishonour, but privately, humbly, and with love, honour, reverence and submissiveness.
Object. But great men have great spirits, and are impa
expressed in Secret. Instruct. in Arcanis Jesuit. pp. 5-8. 11. To indulge great men and princes in those opinions and sins which please them, and to be on that side that their liberty requireth, to keep their favour to the society. So Maffæinus, lib. iii. c. 11. in vita ipsius Loyola. Alexander Severus so greatly hated flatterers, that Lampridius saith, Siquis caput flexisset aut blandius aliquid dixisset, uti adulator, vel abjiciebatur, si loci ejus qualitas pateretur; vel ridebatur ingenti cachinno, si ejus dignitas graviori subjacere non posset injuriæ. Venit ad Attilam post victoriam Marullus poeta ejus temporis egregius, compositumque in adulationem carmen recitavit: in quo ubi Attila per interpretem cognovit se Deum et Divina stirpe ortum vanissime prædicari, aspernatus sacrilegæ adulationis impudentiam, cum autore carmen exuri jusserat: a qua severitate subinde temperavit, ne scriptores cæteri a laudibus ipsius celebrandis terrerentur. Callimach. Exp. in Attila, p. 353.