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land, and was about to give an account of the most important ministry God had ever entrusted to any mortal.

I enter now upon the subject. And after having again implored the aid of Heaven; after having conjured you, by the compassion of God, who this day pours upon us such an abundance of favours, to give so important a subject the consideration it deserves; I lay down at once a principle generally received among Christians. The legal, and the evangelical covenant. The covenant God contracted with the Israelites by the ministry of Moses, and the covenant he has contracted this morning with you, differ only in circumstances, being in substance the same. Properly speaking, God has contracted but one covenant with man since the fall, the covenant of grace upon Mount Sinai; whose terrific glory induced the Israelites to say, "Let not God speak with us, lest we die," Exod. xx. 19. Amid so much lightnings and thunders, devouring fire, darkness and tempest; and notwithstanding this prohibition, which apparently precluded all intercourse between God and sinful man, "Take heed-go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it: there shall not a hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through;" upon this mountain, I say, in this barren wilderness, were instituted the tenderest ties God ever formed with his creature: amid the awful punishments which we see so frequently fall upon those rebellious men; amid fiery serpents which exhaled against them a pestilential breath, God shed upon them the same grace he so abundantly pours on our assemblies. The Israelites, to whom Moses addresses the words of my text, had the same sacraments: they were all baptized in the cloud; they did all drink the same spiritual drink; for they drank of that spiritual rock which followed them, and that rock was Christ," 1 Cor. x. 2, 3. The same appellations; it was said to them as to you, "If ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people, for all the earth is mine," Exod. xix. 5. The same promises; for "they saw the promises afar off, and embraced them," Heb. xi. 13.

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Christ as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents. Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer," 1 Cor. x 5-10. You know the language of St. Paul.

Farther still: whatever superiority our condition may have over the Jews; in whatever more attracting inanner he may have now revealed himself to us; whatever more tender bands, and gracious cords of love God may have employed, to use an expression of a prophet, will serve only to augment our misery, if we prove unfaithful. "For if the word spoken by angels was steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward, how shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation?" Heb. ii. 2, 3. "For ye are not come unto the mountain that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words, which voice they that heard, entreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more. But ye are come unto Mount Zion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the first-born, which are written in heaven, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, and to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel. See that ye refuse not him that speaketh: for if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven," Heb. xii. 18-25.

Hence the principle respecting the legal, and evangelical covenant is indisputable. The covenant God formerly contracted with the Israelites by the ministry of Moses, and the covenant he has made with us this morning in the sacrament of the holy supper are but one covenant. And what the legislator said of the first, in the words of my text, we may say of the second, in the explication we shall give. Now, my brethren, this faithful servant of God required the Israelites to consider five things in the covenant they contracted with their Maker.

I. The sanctity of the place: "Ye stand this day all of you before the Lord; that is, before his ark, the most august symbol of his presence."

On the other hand, amid the consolatory objects which God displays before us at this period, in distinguished lustre; and notwithstanding these gracious words which resound in this II. The universality of the contract: " Ye church, "Grace, grace unto it." Notwith- stand this day all of you before the Lord, the standing this engaging voice, "Come unto me captains of your tribes, your elders, your of all ye that labour, and are heavy laden;" and ficers, and all the men of Israel: your little amid the abundant mercy we have seen dis-ones, your wives, and the stranger who is in played this morning at the Lord's table; if we the midst of your camp, from the hewer of should violate the covenant he has established wood to the drawer of water." with us, you have the same cause of fear as the Jews. We have the same Judge, equally awful now, as at that period; "for our God is a consuming fire," Heb. xii. 29. We have the same judgments to apprehend. "With many of them, God was not well pleased; for they were overthrown in the wilderness. Now these things were for our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted. Neither be ye idolaters, as some of them. Neither let us commit fornication as some of them committed, and fell in one day twenty thousand. Neither let us tempt

III. Its mutual obligation: "That he may, on the one hand, establish thee to-day for a people unto himself; and on the other, that he may be unto thee a God."

IV. The extent of the engagement: an engagement with reserve. God covenants to give himself to the Israelites, as he had sworn to their fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The Israelites covenant to give themselves to God, and abjure not only gross, but refined idolatry. Take heed, "lest there should be among you man or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the

Lord your God, to go and serve the gods of | in its clearness;" an emblem which God chose these nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood." V. The oath of the covenant; "Thou enterest into the covenant and the execration by an oath."

1. Moses required the Israelites to consider the sanctity of the place in which the covenant was contracted with God. It was consecrated by the divine presence. "Ye stand this day all of you before the Lord." Not only in the vague sense in which we say of all our words and actions, "God sees me; God hears me; all things are naked and open to him in whose presence I stand;" but in a sense more confined. The Most High dwells not in human temples. "What is the house ye build to me, and where is the place of my rest? Behold the heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee, much less the house that I have built." He chose, however, the Tabernacle for his habitation, and the Ark for his throne. There he delivered his oracles; there he issued his supreme commands. Moses assembled the Israelites, it is presumed, near to this majestic pavilion of the Deity, when he addressed to them the words of my text; at least I think I can prove, from correspondent passages of Scripture, that this is the true acceptation of the expression, "Before the Lord."

perhaps, because sapphire was among the Egyp tians an emblem of royalty; as is apparent in the writings of those who have preserved the hieroglyphics of that nation.

The eyes of your understanding, were not they also enlightened this morning? God was present at this house; he was seated here on a throne, more luminous than the brightest sapphire, and amid the myriads of his host. It was before the presence of the Lord descended in this temple as on Sinai in holiness, that we appeared this morning; when, by the august symbols of the body and blood of the Redeemer of mankind, we came again to take the oath of fidelity we have so often uttered, and so often broken. It was in the presence of God that thou didst appear, contrite heart! Penitent sinner! he discerned thy sorrows, he collected thy tears, he attested thy repentance. It was in the presence of the Lord thy God that thou didst appear, hypocrite! He unmasked thy countenance, he pierced the specious veils which covered thy wretched heart. It was in the presence of the Lord thy God that thou didst appear, wicked man! Thou, who in the very act of seeming to celebrate this sacrament of love, which should have united thee to thy brother as the soul of Jonathan was knit to David, wouldst have crushed him under thy feet. What a motive to attention, to recollection! What a motive to banish all vain thoughts, which so frequently interrupt our most sacred exercises! What a motive to exclaim, as the patriarch Jacob, "How dreadful is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven."

The Christians having more enlightened notions of the Divinity than the Jews, have the less need to be apprized that God is an omnipresent Being, and unconfined by local residences. We have been taught by Jesus Christ, that the true worshippers restrict not their devotion to Mount Zion, nor Mount Gerizim; they worship God in spirit and in truth. But II. Moses required the Israelites in renewing let us be cautious, lest, under a pretence of re- their covenant with God, to consider the unimoving some superstitious notions, we refine versality of the contract. "Ye stand all of you too far. God presides in a peculiar manner in before the Lord." The Hebrew by descent, and our temples, and in a peculiar manner even the strangers; that is, the proselytes, the heads "where two or three are met together in his of houses, and the hewers of wood, and drawers name:" more especially in a house consecrated of water; those who filled the most distinguished to his glory; more especially in places in which offices, and those who performed the meanest a whole nation come to pay their devotion. services in the commonwealth of Israel; the woThe more august and solemn our worship, the men and the children; in a word, the whole more is God intimately near. And what part without exception of those who belonged to the of the worship we render to God, can be more people of God. It is worthy of remark, my breaugust than that we have celebrated this morn-thren, that God, on prescribing the principal ing? In what situation can the thought, "I am seen and heard of God;" in what situation can it impress our hearts if it have not impressed them this morning?

God, in contracting this covenant with the Israelites on Sinai, which Moses induced them to renew in the words of my text, apprized them that he would be found upon that holy hill. He said to Moses, "Lo I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever. Go unto the people, and sanctify them to-day, and to-morrow, and let them wash their clothes, and be ready against the third day: for the third day the Lord will come down in the sight of all the people, upon Mount Sinai," Exod. xix. 9. It is said expressly, that Nadab and Abihu, and the seventy elders, should ascend the hill, and contract the covenant with God in the name of the whole congregation; they saw evident marks of the Divine presence, 66 a paved work of sapphire-stone, and as it were the body of heaven

ceremonies of the law, required every soul who refused submission to be cut off, that is, to sustain an awful anathema. He hereby signified, that no one should claim the privileges of an Israelite, without conformity to all the institutions he had prescribed. So persuaded were the people of this truth, that they would have regarded as a monster, and punished as a delinquent, any man, whether an Israelite by choice, or descent, who had refused conformity to the passions, and attendance on the solemn festivals.

Would to God that Christians entertained the same sentiments! Would to God, that your preachers could say, on sacramental occasions, as Moses said to the Jews in the memorable discourse we apply to you: "Ye stand all of you this day before the Lord your God; the captains of your tribes, your elders, your officers, your wives, your little ones, from the hewer of wood to the drawer of water." But alas! how defective are our assemblies on those solemn oc

casions! But alas! where were you, temporizers, Nicodemuses, timorous souls? Where have you been? it is now a fortnight since you appeared before the Lord your God, to renew your covenant with him. Ah! degenerate men, worthy of the most pointed and mortifying reproof, such as that which Deborah addressed to Reuben: Why didst thou stay "among the sheep-folds, to hear the bleating of the flocks," Judges v. 16. You were with your gold, with your silver, sordid objects, to which you pay in this nation the homage which God peculiarly requires in climates so happy. You were, perhaps, in the temple of superstition; while we were assembled in the house of the Most High. You were in Egypt, preferring the garlic and onions to the milk and honey of Canaan; while we were on the borders of the promised land, to which God was about to give us admission.

Poor children of those unhappy fathers! Where were you, while we devoted our offspring to God who gave them; while we led those for admission to his table, who were adequately instructed; while we prayed for the future admission of those who are yet deprived by reason of their tender age? Ah! you were victims to the indifference, the cares, and avarice of those who gave you birth! You are associated by them with those who are enemies to the reformed name; who, unable to convince the fathers, hope, at least, to convince the children, and to extinguish in their hearts the minutest sparks of truth! O God! if thy justice have already cut off those unworthy fathers, spare, at least, according to thy clemency, these unoffending creatures, who know not yet their right hand from their left; whom they would detach from thy communion, before they are acquainted with its purity!

Would to God that this was all the cause of our complaint! Oh! where were you, while we celebrated the sacrament of the Lord's supper? You, inhabitants of these provinces, born of reformed. families, professors of the reformation! You, who are married, who are engaged in business, who have attained the age of forty or fifty years, without ever participating of the holy eucharist! There was a time, my brethren, among the Jews, when a man who should have had the assurance to neglect the rites which constituted the essence of the law, would have been cut off from the people. This law has varied in regard to circumstances; but in essence it still subsists, and in all its force. Let him apply this observation, to whom it peculiarly belongs.

III. Moses required the Israelites, in renewing their covenant with God, to consider what constituted its essence: which, according to the views of the Lawgiver, was the reciprocal engagement. Be attentive to this term reciprocal; it is the soul of my definition. What constitutes the essence of a covenant, is the reciprocal engagements of the contracting parties. This is obvious from the words of my text; that thou shouldst (stipulate or) enter. Here we distinctly find mutual conditions; here we distinctly find that God engaged with the Israelites to be their God; and they engaged to be his people. We proved, at the commencement of this discourse, that the covenant of God with the Israelites, was in substance the same as that contracted

with Christians. This being considered, what idea ought we to form of those Christians (if we may give that name to men who can entertain such singular notions of Christianity,) who ventured to affirm, that the ideas of conditions, and reciprocal engagements, are dangerous expressions, when applied to the evangelical covenant; that what distinguishes the Jews from Christians is, that God then promised and required; whereas now he promises, but requires nothing. My brethren, had I devoted my studies to compose a history of the eccentricities of the human mind, I should have deemed it my duty to have bestowed several years in reading the books, in which those systems are contained, that I might have marked to posterity the precise degrees to which men are capable of carrying such odious opinions. But having diverted them to other pursuits, little, it is confessed, have I read of this sort of works: and all I know of the subject may nearly be reduced to this, that there are persons in these provinces who both read and believe them.

Without attacking by a long course of causes and consequences, a system so destructive of itself, we will content ourselves with a single test. Let them produce a single passage from the Scriptures, in which God requires the acquisition of knowledge, and engages to bestow it, without the least fatigue of reading, study, and reflection. Let them produce a passage, in which God requires us to possess certain virtues, and engages to communicate them, without enjoining us to subdue our senses, our temperature, our passions, our inclination, in order that we may attain them. Let them produce one passage from the Scriptures to prove, that God requires us to be saved by the merits of Jesus Christ, and engages to do it, without the slightest sorrow for our past sins, without the least reparation of our crimes, without precautionary measures to avoid them,-without the qualifying dispositions to participate the fruits of his passions. What am I saying! Let them produce a text which overturns the hundred, and the hundred more passages which we oppose to this gross supralapsarian system, and with which we are ever ready to confront its advocates.

We have said, my brethren, that this system destroys itself. Hence it was less with a view to attack it, that we destined this article, than to apprize some among you of having adopted it, at the very moment you dream that you reject and abhor it. We often fall into the error of the ancient Israelites; frequently forming as erroneous notions of the covenant which God has contracted with us, as they did of that he had contracted with them. This people had violated the stipulations in a manner the most notorious in the world. God did not fulfil his engagements with them, because they refused to fulfil their engagements to him. He resumed the blessings he had so abundantly poured upon them; and, instead of ascribing the cause to themselves, they had the assurance to ascribe it to him. They said, "The temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord," Jer. vii. 4. We are the children of Abraham; forget not thy covenant.-And how often have not similar sentiments been cherished in our hearts? How often has not the

same language been heard proceeding from our |
lips? How often, at the moment we violate
our baptismal vows; at the moment we are so
far depraved as to falsify the oath of fidelity
we have taken in the holy sacrament; how
often, in short, does it not happen, that at the
moment we break our covenant with God, we
require him to be faithful by alleging-the
cross-the satisfaction-the blood of Jesus
Christ. Ah! wretched man! fulfil thou the
conditions to which thou hast subscribed; and
God will fulfil those he has imposed on him-
Be thou mindful of thy engagements,
and God will not be forgetful of his. Hence,
what constitutes the essence of a covenant is,
the mutual stipulations of the contracting par-

illustration of the original terms which our versions render "gall and wormwood." They include a metaphor taken from a man, who, finding in his field weeds pernicious to his grain, should crop the strongest, but neglecting to eradicate the plant, incurs the inconvenience he wished to avoid.

The metaphor is pertinent. In every crime we consider both the plant and the root productive of gall and wormwood; or, if you please, the crime itself, and the principle which produced it. It is not enough to crop, we must eradicate. It is not enough to be exempt from crimes, we must exterminate the principle. For example, in theft, there is both the root, and the plant productive of wormwood and gall. There is theft gross and refined; the act of theft, and the principle of theft. To steal the goods of a neighbour is the act, the gross act of theft; but, to indulge an exorbitant wish for the acquisition of wealth;—to make enormous charges;-to resist the solicitations of a creditor for payment;-to be indelicate as to the means of gaining money;-to reject the mortifying claims of restitution, is refined fraud; or, if you please, the principle of fraud produc tive of wormwood and gall.-It is the same with regard to impurity; there is the act and the principle. The direct violation of the command, "thou shalt not commit adultery," is the gross act. But to form intimate connexions with persons habituated to the vice, to read licentious novels, to sing immodest songs, to indulge wanton airs, is that refined impurity, that principle of the gross act, that root which speedily produces wormwood and gall.

This is what we engaged to prove. IV. Moses required the Israelites to consider, in renewing their covenant with God, the extent of the engagement: "That thou shouldest enter into covenant with the Lord thy God, and into his oath; that he may establish thee to-day for a people unto himself; and that he may be unto thee a God." This engagement of God with the Jews implies, that he would be their God; or to comprehend the whole in a single word, that he would procure them a happiness correspondent to the eminence of his perfections. Cases occur, in which the attributes of God are at variance with the happiness of men. It implies, for instance, an inconsistency with the divine perfections, not only that the wicked should be happy, but also that the righteous should have perfect felicity, while their purity is incomplete. There are miseries inseparable from our imperfections in holiness; and, imperfections being coeval with life, our happiness will be incomplete till after death. On the removal of this obstruction, by virtue of the covenant, God having engaged to be our God, we shall attain supreme felicity. Hence our Saviour proved by this argument, that Abraham should rise from the dead, the Lord having said to Moses, "I am the God of Abraham; God is not the God of the dead, but of the living," Matt. xxii. 32. This assertion, "I am the God of Abraham," proceeding from the mouth of the Supreme And, if you would have an adequate idea of Being, was equivalent to a promise of making those curses, read the awful chapter preceding Abraham perfectly happy. Now he could not that from which we have taken our text, "If be perfectly happy, so long as the body to thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the Lord which nature had united him, was the victim thy God, to observe and do all his commandof corruption. Therefore, Abraham must risements, and his statutes, which I command thee from the dead.

When God engaged with the Israelites, the Israelites engaged with God. Their covenant implies, that they should be his people; that is, that they should obey his precepts so far as human frailty would admit. By virtue of this clause, they engaged not only to abstain from gross idolatry, but also to eradicate the principle. Keep this distinction in view: it is clearly expressed in my text. "Ye have seen their abominations, and their idols, wood and stone, silver and gold." Take heed, "lest there should be among you man or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away from the Lord, to go and serve the gods of these nations." Here is the gross act of idolatry. "Lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood." Here is the principle. I would not enter into a critical VOL. II.-39

V. Moses lastly required the Israelites to consider the oath and execration with which their acceptance of the covenant was attended: "that thou shouldest enter into covenant," and into this oath. What is meant by their entering into the oath of execration? That they pledged themselves by oath, to fulfil every clause of the covenant; and in case of violation, to subject themselves to all the curses God had denounced against those who should be guilty of so perfidious a crime.

this day, then all these curses shall come upon thee. Cursed shalt thou be in the city, and cursed shalt thou be in the field; in the fruit of thy body, in the fruit of thy land, in the increase of thy cattle. Cursed shalt thou be when thou comest in, and cursed shalt thou be when thou goest out. The Lord shall send upon thee cursing and vexation, in all thou settest thine hand for to do, until thou be destroyed; because of the wickedness of thy doings, whereby thou hast forsaken me. And thy heaven, that is over thy head, shall be brass; and the earth that is under thee shall be iron. The Lord shall cause thee to be smitten before thine enemies, thou shalt go out one way against them, and flee seven ways before them; and thou shalt be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth. And thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in dark

ness. Thy sons and thy daughters shall be given unto another people. Thine eyes shall see it; because thou servedst not the Lord thy God with joyfulness, and gladness of heart, for the abundance of all things. Therefore thou shalt serve thine enemies which the Lord shall send against thee, in hunger, nakedness, and want. The Lord shall bring against thee a nation swift as the eagle; a nation of fierce countenance. He shall besiege thee in all thy gates, until thy high and fenced walls come down, wherein thou trustedst. And thou shalt eat the fruit of thy own body, the flesh of thy sons and thy daughters, in the siege, and in the straitness. So that the man that is tender among you, and very delicate, his eye shall be evil towards his brother, and towards the wife of his bosom; so that he will not give to any of them of the flesh of his children whom he shall eat," Deut. xxviii. 15, &c.

These are but part of the execrations which the infractors of the covenant were to draw upon themselves. And to convince them that they must determine, either not to contract the covenant, or subject themselves to all its exeerations, God caused it to be ratified by the awful ceremony, which is recorded in the chapter immediately preceding the quotations I have made. He commanded one part of the Levites to ascend Mount Ebal, and pronounce the curses, and all the people to say, Amen. By virtue of this command, the Levites said, "Cursed be he that setteth light by his father or his mother; and all the people said, Amen. Cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the stranger, the fatherless, and widow; and all the people said, Amen. Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour secretly; and all the people said, Amen. Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them; and all the people said, Amen;" Deut. xxvii. 17-26.

The words which we render, "that thou shouldest enter into covenant," have a peculiar energy in the original, and signify, "that thou shouldest pass into covenant." The interpreters of whom I speak, think they refer to a ceremony formerly practised, in contracting covenants, of which we have spoken on other occasions.

On immolating the victims, they divided the flesh into two parts, placing the one opposite to the other. The contracting parties passed in the open space between the two, thereby testifying their consent to be slaughtered as those victims, if they did not religiously confirm the covenant contracted in so mysterious

a manner.

The sacred writings afford examples of this custom. In the fifteenth chapter of Genesis, Abraham, by the divine command, took a heifer of three years old, and a ram of the same age, and dividing them in the midst, he placed the parts opposite to each other: "and behold, a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp passed between those pieces." This was a symbol that the Lord entered into an engagement with the patriarch, according to the existing custom: hence it is said, that "the Lord made a covenant with Abraham."

In the thirty-fourth chapter of the prophecies of Jeremiah, we find a correspondent pas

sage. "I will give the men that have transgressed my covenant, which have not performed the words of the covenant, that they made before me, when they cut the calf in twain, and passed between the parts, the princes of Judah,-I will even give them into the hands of their enemies." If we do not find the whole of these ceremonies observed, when God contracted the covenant on Sinai, we should mark what occurs in the twenty-fourth chapter of Exodus; "Moses sent the young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the Lord. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins: and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar; and the other half he sprinkled on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant which the Lord hath made with you. And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, all that the Lord hath said, will we do, and be obedient. What is the import of this ceremony, if it is not the same which is expressed in my text, that the Israelites, in contracting the covenant with God, enter into the execration oath; subjecting themselves, if ever they should presume deliberately to violate the stipulations, to be treated as the victims immolated on Sinai, and as those which Moses probably offered, when it was renewed, on the confines of Palestine.

Perhaps one of my hearers may say to himself, that the terrific circumstances of this ceremony regarded the Israelites alone, whom God addressed in lightnings and thunders from the top of Sinai. What! was there then no victim immolated, when God contracted his covenant with us? Does not St. Paul expressly say, that "without the shedding of blood, there is no remission of sins?" Heb. ix. 22. And what were the lightnings, what were the thunders of Sinai? What were all the execrations, and all the curses of the law? They were the just punishments every sinner shall suffer, who neglects an entrance into favour with God. Now, these lightnings, these thunders, these execrations, these curses, did they not all unite against the slaughtered victim, when God contracted his covenant with us;-I would say, against the head of Jesus Christ? O my God! what revolting sentiments did not such complicated calamities excite in the soul of the Saviour! The idea alone, when presented to his mind, a little before his death, constrained him to say, "Now is my soul troubled," John xii. 17. And on approaching the hour; "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even unto death. O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me," Matt. xxvi. 38, 39. And on the cross; "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me!" Matt. xxvii. 46.-Sinner! here is the victim immolated on contracting thy covenant with God! Here are the sufferings thou didst subject thyself to endure, if ever thou shouldest perfidiously violate it! Thou hast entered, thou hast passed into covenant, and into the oath of execration which God has required.


My brethren, no man should presume to dis

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