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3. And he marked the posts of the gates. | not say to be applauded. William the Xth This is the version of the late Mr. Martin, but Duke of Aquitain, and Count of Thoulouse, allow me to lay aside all the versions of our declared himself against Innocent the Ild in modern divines, and even those of the most favour of Peter de Leon, an antipope who had celebrated Rabbies, and to abide by my Sep taken the name of Anacletus the Ild. The tuagint and my Vulgate. The Septuagint Duke had driven the Bishops of Poictiers, and renders it x«v *TATIV 571 TH5 bupes Th5 Tuins, and of Limoges, from their sees.

St. Barnard was the Vulgate says, et impingebat in ostia portia sent into Guienne to engage him to reconcile and he hurt himself, or he dashed himself against himself to the holy see, and to re-establish the the posts of the gate. Munster* pretends indeed two bishops, but he could not prevail with him that the Latin interpreter first wrote, et pingebat to be reconciled to the bishop of Poictiers. in ostia portiæ, and that it was afterwards While they were talking at the church gate, changed into impingebat; but though this in- St. Barnard went up to the altar and said mass. genious conjecture has been adopted by able Having consecrated the host, and pronounced critics, yet it seems to me futile, because on the benediction on the people, he took the body the one hand the Vulgate evidently follows the of the Lord in a patine, and going out with a Septuagint, and on the other, because the Latin countenance on fire, and with eyes in a flame, interpreter would have contradicted himself, col- he addressed with a threatening air these terrilabebatur inter manus eorum, et pingebat in ostia ble words to the Duke: “We have entreated portiæ, if he fell into their hands how could he you, but you have despised us. In a former write, or scratch with his fingers on the gate interview, a great number of the servants of or the door? Nor is it necessary with the cele God besought you, and you treated them with brated Lewis Capelf to suppose the change of contempt. Behold, now the Son of the Virgin a letter, and to say that the Septuagint reads comes to you, the head and lord of the church vajatoph, instead of vajetau. The verb tava you persecute. Behold your judge, at whose signifies to mark, to make an impression, or name every name in heaven, earth, and hell, some print with the hand, or an instrument, bow. Behold the avenger of your crimes, into and to shake, and make the body tremble whose hand, sooner or later, your stubborn where the mark is imprinted. David. was soul shall fall. Have you the hardiness to de violently hurt against the posts of the gate, so spise him? And will you contemn the master that marks were left in his flesh. This signifi- as you have done the servants:” The spectacation of the verb is agreeable to the Chaldean tors were all dissolved in tears, and the count language, in which teva signifies to tremble, to himself, unable to bear the sight of the abbott, shiver, and in the Arabic, where the same root who addressed him with so much vehemence, signifies to be troubled or astonished.

and who held up to him all the while the body 4. King Achish uses another word, which of the Lord, fell all shaking and trembling, to modern translations render fool, madman. Lo, the earth. Being raised up by his soldiers, he you see the man is mad. Have I need of mad- fell back again, and lay on bis face, saying nomen, and so on. The Septuagint, which I thing and looking at nobody, but uttering deep follow step by step, and the authors of which groans, and letting his spittle fall down on his understood Hebrew better than we, translates it, beard, and discovering all the signs of a person adcu adoro avópx TVAHTtov and so on: Why have convulsed in an epilepsy. St. Barnard apyou brought this man. Do you not see that proached, pushed him with his foot, commanded he is attacked with an epilepsy?' Have I need of him to rise, and to stand up and hear the de epileptics, that you have brought him to fall cree of God. “The bishop of Poictiers, whom into convulsions in my presence? This single you have driven from his church, is bere; go testimony of the Septuagint ought to determine and reconcile yourself to him; and by giving this question.

him a holy kiss of peace become friendly, and 2. My second class of arguments is taken reconduct him yourself to his see. Satisfy the from the scope of the place, and I think, oven God you have offended, render him the glory supposing the original terms were as favourable due to his name, and recall all your divided to the idea of folly or madness as they are to that subjects into the unity of faith and love. Subof an epilepsy, yet we should be more inclined mit yourself to pope Innocent; and as all the to the latter sense than to the former.

church obeys him, resign yourself to this eminent First, if there be some examples of persons pontiff chosen by God himself. At these words frightened into folly or madness, there are the count ran to the bishop, gave him the kias more of persons terrified into an epilepsy. of peace, and re-established him in his see.” Among the yarious causes of this sickness, the 2. I return, sir, from this digression, which author of a book on the subject, supposed to be is not quite foreign to my subject, to observe, Hippocrates,t has given sudden fright as one. in the second place, that the sacred historian It would be needless to multiply proofs when attributes to David the three characteristica! a sorrowful experience daily gives us so many marks of the falling sickness, falling, convulBut I recollect one instance of the zeal of St. sion, and frothing. Falling, for it is said he Barnard, § which deserves to be relatod, I do

processit filius virginis, qui est caput et Dominus

ecclesiæ, quam tu persequeris. Adesi Judex lous, in • Munsterus in h. I. in criticis magnis.-See Bayle cujus nomine omne genù curvatur cælestium, terrestrium Achish. Rem. C.

et infernorum. Adest vinder tuus, in cujus manua illa
İL. Capellus criticiæ sacra libro. ir. cap. 5. S. 35. anima tua deveniet. Nunquid et ipsum spernes? Nun-
Hippocrates περι ιερας νοσου, S. p. 336.
Vita Sancti Bernardi. lib. ii. cap. 6. n. 38. Roga- quid et ipsum sicut servos ejus contemnes?

Elevatus a militibus, rursum in faciem ruit, nec quip vimus te, et sprevisti nos, supplicavit tibi in altero piam alieni loquens, aut intendeds in aliquem, salivàs in quam jam tecum habuimus, conventu servorum Dei barbam defluentibus, cum profundis etbalis gemitibus, ante te adupata multitudo, et contempsisti. Ecce ad te epilepticus videbatur,

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fell into the hands of the officers of the avoided them, and thought, to meet them was
king: convulsion, for he hurt himself against a bad omen. Dion Cassius says, the Roman
the posts of the gate:” and frothing, for he senate always broke up, when any one of them
let fall his “spittle upon his beard." These happened to be taken with an epilepsy, for
are symptoms, which Isidore of Seville gives which reason it was called morbus comitialis, *
of an epilepsy,* cujus tanta vis est, ut homo witness these verses of Serenus Sammonicus:
valens concidat, spumetque. We may see the Est subiti species morbi, cui nomen ab illo est,
cause, or at least what physicians say of it, in Quod fieri nobis suffragia justa recusat:
the work of Hippocrates just now quoted, in Sæpe etenim membris acri languore caducis,
the posthumous works of Mr. Manjot, and in

Consilium populi labes horrenda diremit.
all the treatises of pathological physic. The Pliny the elder, who relates the same thing,
manner in which Hippocrates explains the informs us of another custom, that was, to spit
symptom of froth seems very natural, compou os at the sight of an epileptic: Despuimus comi-
** TOU FTOH*Tos, &c. The froth, that comes tiales morbos, hoc est, contagia regerimus;
out of the mouth, proceeds from the lungs, simili modo et fascinationes repercutimus,
which, not receiving any fresh air, throw up dextræque clauditatis accursum. There was
little bubbles, like those of a dying man. then as much superstition in this custom as

3. The horror of king Achish concerning the aversion to the illness. Accordingly Theocondition of David, is a third reason, which phrastes has not forgotten, in his character of confirms our opinion. “You see,” said this a superstitious man, to represent him seized prince to his officers, “ this man is epileptic, with horror, and spitting at meeting a madshall such a man.come into my house? And man, or an epileptic. This was so common, he drove him away,” as it is said in the title and so much confined to an epilepsy, that it of the thirty-fourth psalm. According to the was frequently called the sickness to be spitted common opinion, David feigned himself a na- at: Thus Plautus, in the comedy of the Captural, a fool, not a madman: he did actions of tives, where Tyndarus, to prevent Hegio from imbecility, and silliness, not of madness and staying with Aristophontes, accuses him of befury. Now the ancients, far from having any ing subject to the illness that is spit at. aversion to this sort of fools, kept them in In this custom of spitting at the sight of an

their palaces to make diversion. Tarquin the epileptic, I think I have formed a very probaproud kept Lucius Junius Brutus in his family ble conjecture on another famous passage of less as a relation of whom he meant to take Scripture; but, sir, I shall do myself the honour care, than as a fool to please his children by to treat of this in a future letter to you. At absurd discourses and ridiculous actions. Ana- present, I avail myself of this custom to explain charsis, who lived about three hundred years why Achish discovered so much indignation

after David, could not bear this custom of the against his courtiers, and so much disdain for Greeks. This wise Scythian said, “Man was a David, and why he drove him so quickly from thing too serious to be destined to a usage so his palace. xidiculous:" Seneca, in one of his letters to 4. In fine, I think, it is easy to see in the Lucilius, speaks of a female fool, whom his thanksgiving psalms, which David composed wife had left him for a legacy, and who had after he had escaped this imminent danger, suddenly lost her sight. I She did not know several indications of the nature of the illness she was blind, and was always asking to be let that had seized him so suddenly. It is agreed out of a house where she could see nothing. that he composed the thirty-fourth and the

Seneca says, that he had a great dislike to this fifty-sixth on this occasion, as the titles assure kind of singularities; that if ever he should us, and to them I add the thirty-first and the take it into his head to divert himself with a hundred and sixteenth, concerning which I beg fool, he need not go far in search of one, that leave to make two remarks. he would make a fool of himself: and he agree- First, that the hundred and sixteenth has so ably compares mankind with their defects to much connexion with the fifty-sixth, and the Harpasta the fool of his wife. Every body thirty-first with the hundred and sixteenth, knows, adds this philosopher,ş ambition is not that it is very evident these three psalms were my vice, but we cannot live otherwise at composed at the same time, and in view of the Rome. I dislike luxury, but to live at a great same deliverance: with this difference, howexpense is essential to living in this great city; ever, that in the fifty-sixth David confines and so on. Pliny the younger, writing to one himself to the malignity of his enemies, to the of his friends, complained of having misspent punishment they might expect, and to his own his time at an elegant supper through the im- confidence in God, who engaged him to despise pertinence of these fools, who interrupted con- all their efforts; whereas in the thirty-first he versation: he says, that every one had his own expresses more clearly the terror which had whim; that he had no relish for such absurdi- been excited in him by the conversation of ties; but that some complaisance was necessary Achish and his officers, and the prayers which to the taste of our acquaintances.

he had addressed to the Lord in his distress. It was not the same with madmen, and In the hundred and sixteenth he attends more particularly epileptics. Every body carefully to the success of these prayers, and to the gra

Litude he felt for deliverance from his great
Isidor, Hispaliensis originum lib. iii. cap. 7. De danger, and to the profound impression which
chronicis morbis, voce Epilepsia. p. 33. Col. A. lit. c.
Hippocrat. ut supra.

* Dio Cassius. lib. 37.
Apud Eustathium in Homerum.

Plin. lib. xxviii. cap. 4.
Seneca. Epist. 30.

Theophrastes Charact. πoρι δεισιδαιμονιας.
Hoe, quod in illa videmus, omnibus nobis accidere 6 Plut. Capt. Act, iii. Scen. 4. ver. 15, &c. morbus qui
liqueat tibi. -Plin. Ep. lib. ix. 17.

insputatur.

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his late situation had made on his mind. Al is in their hands, spit them, or vomit them out. bare parallel of these three hymns discovers a Now, sir, would it be improper to apply this great resemblance both in sentiment and ex- verse to my explication, and to affirm, that pression. Compare Ps. lvi. verses 5. 9. 11- David here manifestly alludes to two of the 14, with cxvi. 8. 12, 13. 17. 14. 18. 8. 9.—and symptoms of an epilepsy, which he himself cxvi. 1-3. 11. 16, with xxxi. 23, 24. 3. 10, 11. had lately experienced This holy man prays 23. 17.

to God that his enemies might be treated in a The second observation I make on the thirty- manner which had some resemblance to the first and hundred and sixteenth psalm is, that illness they had caused him; that as he had they perfectly agree with the occasion of the frothed and cast out his spittle, so God would two other psalms, and that some passages seem spit or vomit them out of his mouth; and as to refer to the supposed epileptic fit. The he fell to the ground through their hands, so cause is remarked Ps. xxxi. 10, 11, 14. The they might be degraded and cast out. The effects and consequences are spoken of in the former image is used by an inspired writer, same psalm, ver. 12, 13. The condition to Rev. iii. 16, “ Because thou art lukewarm, I . which the illness had reduced David is de- will spue thee out of my mouth." scribed Ps. cxvi. 11.-Ps. xxxi. 23, (22 in the Perhaps, sir, you will think another obserEnglish version,) “I said in my haste, I am cut vation which I am going to make, not suffioff from before thine eyes. All men are liars.” ciently solid. David says, while he is celeHowever the Hebrew words rendered in my brating the deliverance God had granted him, haste be translated, either with the Septuagint Ps. xxxiv. 20, that “the Lord keepeth all the in my ecstacy, or with Symmachus in my swoon bones of the righteous man, not one of them is or fainting fit, or with the old Italian version, broken.” It is not worth while to refute the in my great dread, or with St. Jerome in my Jews on this article, for they quote these words stupefaction, * either of the senses supposes and in proof of a little bone, which they call luz, confirms my opinion. Suidas explains the word and which they place in the form of a small ecstacy, which the Septuagint uses here by almond at the bottom of the back bone. They θαυμασμος και αλλοιωσις. This last word is the pretend that David had this bone in view; same as that in the title of the thirty-fourth that nothing, neither fire, nor water, nor time, psalm, where David is said to have changed can destroy it, and that it is the germ of the countenance, for so I think it should be trans- resurrection of the body. Probably it was lated.

from this Jewish tradition that Peter LomIn regard to the two psalms before mentioned, bard,* the master of the sentences, derived his which were always understood to be composed little piece of flesh, which every man inherits on this occasion, they both of them furnish a from the flesh of Adam, and which renders us great deal to establish our opinion.

all corrupt, and on account of which we are In the fifty-sixth psalm, there is a verse, the called the children of Adam. Much less will seventh I mean, which modern interpreters I pretend to dispute the application which St. seem not to have well understood. David John makes of this oracle to our Lord Jesus there, speaking of his enemies, says, according Christ, of whom it was both predicted and to our version, “ Shall they esca pe by iniquity? prefigured, that not one of his bones should be In thine anger cast down the people, o God.” broken, chap. 36; Exod. xii. 46; Numb. ix. 12. I think the words may be rendered, without Nothing hinders our taking this verse in its violence to the original, O God, because of literal sense. David here blesses his God for their iniquity spue them out, and cast down watching so marvellously to prevent him, that the people in thine anger;t because the Hebrew in spite of his violent epileptic fit, and of the word palleth, which in the conjugation kal fall, that might have broke all his bone signifies to escape, when it is in the conjugation especially as he was so hurt by falling against piel signifies to vomit, to reject; so the celebrated the posts of the gate, as to receive marks or Rabbi David Kimchi says. Indeed the Chaldee scars in his flesh, yet not one of his bones was paraphrasti uses it in two places in this sense, broken. Lev. xviii. 28. 25, “ The land itself vomiteth For the rest, if any one should think proper out her inhabitants—That the land spue not to take occasion, from this one convulsion fit, you out also, as it spued ont the nations before to dispute the inspiration of the excellent psalms you.” Jon. ii. 10, “The fish vomited out of David, or only to diminish our esteem for Jonah.” This word is used in the Talmud, the works or the person of this prince, the which forbids a disciple ever to vomit in the following considerations may set aside such a presence of his master; for, according to this frivolous objection. Rabinnical code of law, he who spits before 1. As soon as the malady is over, the mind his master, is worthy of death. According to recovers its freedom and firmness, and is preMr. d'Arvieux,g the Arabians religiously ob- sently as well as before. serve this custom to this day. Among them 2. Even supposing frequent attacks to enno man ever spits before his superior, it would feeble the mind, yet this would not effect David, be considered as treating them with disrespect for he had only one fit. and contempt. The Chaldee paraphrast un- 3. Great men have been subject to this illderstood this psalm in this sense, and rendered ness, but they have not been the less esteemed the passage thus, because of the falsehood that on that account; as for example a Julius

Cesar, f who was held by his army in more than * Hierom, in Epist. 135. | Hammond's Annotations on Ps. lvi. 7.

* Pet. Lemb. lib. ii. Distinct. 30. N. p. m. 218. | Mag. Lex. Chaldaic. Thalm. et Rabbinicum Eur Transmisit adam modicum quid de substantia sua in cortorf. in verb. palleth.

pore siliorum, quando eos procreavit, &c. La Roque Voyage dans la Palestine. p. 140.

| Plutarch in Cæsare. T. i. f. 715. Suidas in roce.

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DAVID'S SUPPOSED MADNESS.

admiration; Plotinus too, that celebrated Pla-esteemed of God, and so a Christian may reatonic philosopher, to whom, after his death, son, believing himself to be beloved of God, altars were erected in divers places.

and an heir of his kingdom, though afflicted
4. Far from deriving from my explication a all his days with this malady, provided he imi-
consequence so unreasonable, we ought, on the tate the zeal and piety of David. I submit, sir,
contrary, naturally to conclude, that there is a all my conjectures to the penetration of your
good and wise Providence, which knows how judgment, and I have the honour to be, with.
io deliver its children by means unthought of, all imaginable respect,
and even when their ruin seems certain. A

Sir, Your most humble
Christian, now afflicted with this sad disorder,

And most obedient servant,
may find in our sentiment a solid ground of

DUMONT consolation. The man after God's own heart

ROTTERDAM,
had an epileptic fit; but he was not the less September 2, 1725.

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