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cataracts' are perfectly cleared; about eight remain to be worked on; and it is expected, that, from the year 1805, the river will be navigable; which will

will confer inestimable advantages on the country, particularly in furnishing the interior of Russia with salt, which will render the importation of it by the Baltic unnecessary, and save great sums of money to the Russia-Polish provinces, which they pay, in coin, for this commodity in foreign dominions. Below the Cataracts, the Dnieper has a resemblance to the Volga; though it is intersected by many islands and flats, which, however, do not much impede the navigation. The current in general there is not strong; and admits, not only of the use of oars for vessels going up, but of sails with very little wind. Its morassy shores, in some districts, preventing the use of the towing-line, it is necessary to establish paths for this

purpose; as most certainly it will accelerate the return of barks with salt, silk, cotton, and other products of the Levant, without which the fabrics and manufactories in the interior cannot exist. All these improvements, or rather new regulations, are carrying into execution very slowly. To the foreign, or export trade of this river, most certainly the Leman, or its estuary, opposes great difficulties.

(1) “The work goes on slowly, and was not half finished at the end of the summer of 1805. A float or transport of timber, which arrived while I was at Odessa, had been two years in coming down, from the impediments of the cataract and above descent."

Note by Mr. R. Corner.

Its influx into the Euxine being through several branches, and its current extremely slow, it is natural that sand banks should be formed. In summer it has hardly six feet water, and merchant vessels are obliged to load beyond its mouth (thirtyfive versts), at the Gubokaya pristan, or deep wharf; which, notwithstanding its denomination, is very unfit for the purpose; the road being at times unnavigable from November to May: and when the dock-yard was at Cherson, the men-of-war were obliged to be transported, on camels, over the sand flats, with which the Leman abounds. These two inconveniences forced Government to look for a more eligible situation; and Nicholaef, by its favourable situation on the Bog and the Ingul, was chosen for the seat of the Admiralty, and the yard for building men-of-war; which place, however, is not convenient for trade, as having too distant a communication with the Dnieper. Tradingvessels lost so much time in going up the Bog, even with a favourable wind, that more time was often spent in effecting a passage to Nicholaef, than was necessary to make a voyage from the leman of the Dnieper to Constantinople. Not having attained the desired point at this place, it was resolved to find a port for merchant vessels at another, that offered less difficulties in the establishment; and also to which the carriage of merchandize could be more easily effected by transports. The Bay of Hadgily was pitched upon as fit for constructing the Port of Odessa; whose vicinity to Poland, Podolia, and Volhynia, made the choice more eligible and favourable, not only to trade, but also answering some naval purposes. The navigation is uninterrupted the whole year (not true) at this place. Magazines and store-houses are erecting for the goods brought from the Dnieper by water, not only here, but along the Dniester, for the prodụcts of Galicia and Podólia.

Not above 300 vessels and boats go down the Dnieper to Nicholaef and Cherson ; but vast floats of timber descend for the Admiralty. This however is comparatively little, to what this commerce will amount to, when the Cataracts are cleared'. From Krementchúk, about sixty barks, with salt, go already up the river to Smolensk, as well as up some of the branches of the Dnieper ; viz. the Pripit, Desna, Beresang, to the wharfs of Novogorod, Severskoy, Pinsk, and Borovitz. . The salt is conveyed above 700 versts by land, to Krementchúk, from the Crimea, by a great number of oxen.

(1) “ It will be observed, that the Cataracts of the Dnieper, and Shoals in the Dniester, are the great obstacles to the interior communication from the Black Sea: it is therefore most astonishing, that

a nation,

When the Cataracts are cleared, the land-carriage will be reduced to 120 versts, from the Crimea to the Bereslasskoy Wharf on the Dnieper; and the salt may be conveyed straight by water from the Salines of Kinburn.

Branches of, or Rivers falling into, the DNIEPER.

A river of the Dnieper's magnitude has naturally many smaller streams falling into it; which are the more worthy of attention, as their banks and circumjacent country abound with vast forests of oak, &c. out of which hardly any timber has yet been drawn. Most of these rivers, particularly those falling into the Upper Dnieper, are already navigable, or capable of being made so, unless in such seasons of great drought when even the Dnieper itself is hardly passable.

a nation, with the command of men that Russia has, does not surmount the difficulty. Greater exertions have been made by Companies of individuals in England."

Note by Mr. R. Cornar.

The Druza, small and not navigable, joins the

Dnieper at Rogatchef. BERESINA, pretty considerable. 700 versts

along this river, masts are carried down to the town of Borisof, and even to the wharf of Pedoserskoy. In this passage, a landcarriage of thirty versts was unavoidable, from the wharf to the town of Kransnio Luki; whence they were floated down by Essa, to the Oulla, at Lepela, Measures were, in consequence, taken to effect a junction between the Beresen and the Essa, In 1801, the work was already done, except some sluices, and other improvements necessary to be made,

The Beresen was to be joined to the Rivulet Sergutz, and the Lake Plavio, and Beresta; and thenee, with the Skogy and Menezso, with the Essa and Oulla. This will be of immense advantage to the trade of the Dnieper with the ports on the Baltic. On the Beresen three wharfs are already established; at Bobrusha, Borisof, and Pedoser : the last is only for timber. To the two first, about twenty barks are annually towed up, with salt, for the province of Minsk. Among the great number of rivulets falling into the Beresen, the most considerable is the Svirtotz, which is navigable as far as Minsk, from the Spring

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