صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

Canal.

principles. The excessive drought in 1799 convinced Count Sivers, then chief of this department, of the utility of this work, the reservoirs of Vyshney Voloshok being totally drained: he procured an order from the Sove

reign for the purpose; and the canal, now Mariensky called the Mariensky, was begun to be dug

between the Kofgia and Vitegra. The first, excepting a few places which require being cleared a little, is at all seasons pretty navigable, and a canal of about six versts is to unite it with the Vitegra. This canal is to be supplied with water from the Malco Lake (Malcosero), through which it takes its course; and the reservoir is to have an additional supply by a Cut from the great Kofgia Lake. This canal is to be furnished with twelve sluices, seven of which are to serve for the convoy of vessels from the Kolgia, up to the point of separation in the Malco Lake: the other five, to conduct them down to the Vitegra. This river requires infinitely more labour than the Kofgia, to be made navigable; considerable falls require nineteen sluices, to make a safe passage practicable; and in some places, the digging of circuitous passages, to shun the Falls, is absolutely necessary; extending in all to about eight hundred fathoms (of seven feet English). The whole

space requiring labour, the canal included, comprehends seven

teen versts.

Hitherto it has been successfully carried on: the canal is finished; ten versts on the Vitegra cleared, and thirteen sluices completed.

In 1801, the canal was supplied with ease, and the greatest part of the communication rendered navigable. The entire completion of the whole, including the time necessary for clearing the cataracts in the Vitegra, and improving the Kofgia, it is computed, will be in 1805'.

Independent of the benefits expected from this canal, in avoiding the inconveniences of that of Vyshney Voloshok, it is expected to open another track, and procure a new, and not a very circuitous passage, to the vessels going from the Sheksna to the Volga. The caravan from the Lower Volga will also be freed from detention in waiting for high water at Vyshney Voloshok and in the Msta River, by which the passage through the former will be rendered easier, and trade have a greater scope for exertion and increase; as Vyshney Voloshok, its most perfect state, cannot admit a passage for more than 4000 barks annually, and thereby

(1) 2,000,000 roubles were assigned for this work; and in 1799 and 1800, 500,000 roulles were expended. 400,000 were computed vecessary for 1801,

establish

impedes commerce. Still greater benefits would accrue from the Mariensky Canal, if the favourite plan of PETER THE FIrst were put into execution; viz. that of establishing a commu

nication by water between the ports of St. Project for Petersburg and Archangel, or the Baltic and the

White Seas. In 1800, by order of the Emperor, ing a communication its practicability was examined into, and found between St. feasible, by means of the River Sheksna, and and Arch- the Lake Kulenskoy. The proper arrangements angel.

were made, and the Department of Water Communication has it in view to put it into execution in due time. Giving this advantage to these two principal ports of the Empire would be of the greatest utility, not only with regard to trade, but the easy means of supplying the Admiralty of St. Petersburg with timber for the navy, from the abundant forests of the North of Russia. There are other inconveni

ences attending the navigation through Vyshney The Cata- Voloshok; viz. the Cataracts of the Volchof, and River Vol. the Outlet from the Ladoga Canal into the chof, and towing

Neva, where vessels are at times detained for a fortnight by contrary winds'. Measures were taken to lessen the danger of the Falls; and proper roads or tracks for towing vessels

racts of the

track.

(1) For clearing the cataracts, 118,000 roubles were allowed ; and for the towing road, 60,000 roubles; ninety versts of which are done.

Canal.

against the stream, for the return of them, were ordered to be made in 1799. To facilitate the passage out of the Ladoga Canal into the Neva, against wind and weather, a new outlet was begun to be made, at Schlussellurg, the same year. In 1798, a new passage was also effected at Ladoga. In general, the Canal of Ladoga, through length of time', requires annual and important repairs. This canal is now The Sískoy continued from the Volchof to the Sasy River, and thence called the Sáskoy. This work was entered

upon in 1769, and three versts thereof finished ; and then abandoned ; and again resumed in 1799* Great as the importance of the Ladoga Canal to the export trade of St. Petersburg, that of the Sáskoy is no less so, in consideration of the facility of conveying the foreign goods imported at St. Petersburg, and distributing them in the interior of the country. The chief object of these canals is, to avoid the Lake of Ladoga. From the River Sasy, merchandize is conveyed, through

through the River Tifenka, to the city of the same name; a landcarriage of ninety versts brings it to the wharf

(2) The new Outlets out of the Canal of Ladoga are, one at Schlusselburg, and another at the town of Ladoga.

(3) The Outlet at Schlusselburg was estimated to cost 117,000 roubles; that at Ladoga, 74,000 roubles.

(4) 240,000 roubles are assigned for this canal.

of Sominka; and from thence, by the rivers Tzagodotchia and Mologa, it is conveyed to the Volga, which supplies all the adjacent country. From the wharf of Sominskay, about 2,000,000 roubles in value, of foreign goods, is annually carried into the interior. The deepening of some of the rivers belonging to this inland navigation has increased this branch of trade; but the considerable land-carriage between the Somina and Tifin greatly impede its farther progress. The junction of these two last wharfs, by water, engaged the attention of PETER THE First; and proper measures for the discovery of the most eligible means were taken by Generals Dedenef, Resanof, and others, in 1765. In 1800, the examination was resumed, and the junction of the two wharfs found practicable, by a canal on the English plan, adapted to the navigation of such vessels as are now in use on the rivers Tifenka, Sasy, and Somina. The sluices to be constructed on this canal are to have no more than ten and twelve feet of breadth, when opened. If the plan of those of Vyshney Voloshok were to be followed, they being thirty-two feet wide, a sufficiency of water could never be collected; nor does the situation of the place admit of this mode of construction. By an Imperial ukase, the work was to begin in 1802, and conclude in 1804.

« السابقةمتابعة »