صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

APPENDIX.

No. I.

The following document is inserted to prove the remarkable fact, that during a period when England was not at war with Russia, two English Gentlemen, accredited by their Government, and bearing with them recommendatory letters from the English Secretary of State, were detained prisoners in that country, contrary to the laws observed between civilized nations.

It is an answer, from the Governor of Moscow, to their petition for a passport to return to England; after every application to the Emperor, by means of their Minister at Petersburg, had failed of effect; given verbally and literally.

“ Le Comte Soltijcof est mortifié qui'l ne peut pas contenter Messieurs Cripps et Clarke, en leurs procurant la permission de sortir hors des frontières, par la raison que ça ne dépend que de Sa MAJESTĚ L'EMPEREUR même. Ce qui concerne l'envoi de la lettre au Ministre d'Angleterre à Petersbourg, ces Messieurs la peuvent faire remettre par la poste, et elle sera rendue en toute sureté."

TRANSLATION. “Count Soltijcof is concerned that he cannot gratify Messrs. Cripps and Clarke in obtaining permission for them to pass the frontiers, since that depends solely on his Majesty the Emperor. As to the conveyance of the letter addressed to the English Minister at Petersburg, those Gentlemen' may send it by the post, and it will be delivered in perfect safety.”

As a comment upon this curious communication, it may be necessary to add, concerning the pretended security of letters entrusted to the post in Russia, that few of them ever reached their destination: they were all opened and read by the police; and often destroyed, or sent back to their authors. We had, at that time, no other means of intercourse with our Minister, than by sending a messenger the whole way from Moscow to Petersburg ; a distance nearly equal to five hundred miles; and it was in this manner we obtained his instructions for attempting an escape by the southern frontier.

No. II.

TRANSLATION

OF THE

REPORT made by a BOARD of RUSSIAN ENGINEERS,

ON THE STATE OF THE

INTERNAL NAVIGATION OF RUSSIA.

of Vyshney

The present water communication between the The Canals Volga and the Baltic, having the Canals of Veloshok. Vyshney Voloshok for its point of separation and reservoir, dates its origin from the year 1711. One part of the reservoirs, sluices, &c. at this place, serves to improve the navigation of the Tveret; and the other, to render the

of the craft, over the Borovitsky Falls (in the Msta), less dangerous. This part of Inland Navigation is brought to all the state of perfection it is capable of; except finishing the Cut from Vilievsky, for an extraordinary supply of water, in Vilievsky time of drought, out of the Lake Velia. This Canal was begun in 1779, but soon abandoned. In 1797, the work was again resumed. In 1798, an extraordinary drought prevailed, and exhausted the reservoirs of Vyshney Voloshok to that degree, that the vessels bound to St. Petersburg

passage

Canal,

were in danger of being totally stopped '; which circumstance was a convincing proof of the absolute necessity to complete this Cut from the Lake Velia'. But, as the sole object of this undertaking was the mere supply of water to Vyshney Voloshok, after leaving of which the barks were exposed to new danger, in passing the Cataracts of Borovitsky, and in navigating the Lake Ilmen (which not only subjects them to loss of time in watching for favourable weather, but to imminent risk of the total loss of capital, and many lives, from the natural turbulency of this water), the merchants frequenting this track voluntarily proposed paying a toll of ten roulles for each vessel, to make a passage practicable round the Ilmen leading from the Msta direct to the 'Volchof. The plan was adopted, on examination, in 1775; but the work not begun till 1797, under the denomination of the Novogorodsky Canal'. In 1800, the spring caravan, taking advantage of the high water, usually prevalent at that season, effected a passage through this canal with ease, though not yet

Novogorodsky Canal.

(1) To extricate the caravans, cost 20,000 roubles.
(2) For this purpose, 18,000 roubles were appropriated.

(3) 250,000 roubles were assigned for this work. The toll collected, produced 50,000 roubles; and the whole sum of 300,000 roubles is already expended.

perfectly finished. Its completion was to be in 1802.

The Canals of Vyshney Voloshok (forming, as before mentioned, the chief point of separation, on which depends the whole communication) being the mere work of art, are liable to accident, from many natural causes. The destruction of a dam, sluice, or other work of like consequence, notwithstanding all human foresight or precaution, may put an entire stop, at least for a time, both to the conveyance of the necessaries of life and articles of trade to the capital. Independent of this circumstance, this track of navigation requires annually an unmeasurable quantity of wood, for the construction of vessels, which can never return home for future use (the Borovitsky Cataracts rendering it an absolute impossibility); consequently the forests will be exhausted, and, in a certain space of time, this communication will decline of itself, and, finally, be totally abandoned, for want of building materials. These inconveniences were observed by Peter the Great: at the very beginning, he took measures to find other means of communication; and, after a survey, had resolved on the junction of the Rivers Kofgia and Vetegra. His demise put a stop to the execution of this project at that time: it was however resumed in 1785, and, on a further survey, adopted on the same

« السابقةمتابعة »