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IN the Glossary-codex, Vat. Lat. 1469, written in the year 908 (see Goetz, Corp. Gloss. Lat. IV. pref., p. xvii; V. pref., p. xviii, p. xxx), fol. 83 has been assigned to 'glossae collectae.' They begin (83 I med.): IN PASSIONE APOSTOLORUM. Iussit eum inaumachia (sic) cathomis consumi. Cathomis: uirgis nodosis. Hic naumachia forum signat Romanorum quod Prorostris dicitur eo quod rostra, etc. (=C.G.L. V. 573, 19). IN SANCTO Sebastiano. Saturnus apocatasticus (sic): id est dispositor et destructor fatorum. Annus tuus ex diametro susceptus est. Diametrum est, etc. Glossae collectae' from the Bible and from Jerome's prefaces come next.

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The MS. looks as if it came from a scriptorium in Central Italy. Presumably the library contained the Passio Petri et Pauli (Lipsius 'Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha') and the Acta S. Sebastiani Martyris (Migne xvii, 1020), but unglossed. The librarian, having access to glossed copies, transcribed these glosses and entered them in that MS. in his library which was used as the monastery dictionary. The MS., as will be seen from Goetz' account, contains more than one glossary (Asbestos Glossary, Eucherius Glossary, Auxilius' extract glossary from Isidore's Etymologies, etc.). If ever it came to be transcribed, its contents would probably be all thrown together into one mass which would be arranged alphabetically. Imagine the difficulties of a modern editor of the composite transcript! He might succeed in unravelling the chief threads-Asbestos, Eucherius, Auxilius, etc.-but a residue of glosses would puzzle him. These glosses, as the Vatican MS. teaches us, are a mere handful of 'glossae collectae' which had been thrown into the common store. When editions of the leading Latin glossaries are published (and the time for such publication seems to have come), will critics please remember that, in spite of all an editor's efforts to trace each gloss to its source, there is likely to be a residue with the label' source unknown'?

Luckily this Vatican MS. survives to show us the source of some not uninteresting items. A pair may serve for illustration. The source of C.G.L. V. 550, 12 (Cathomus: uirga nodosa) is now shown to be some version of the Passion of St. Peter. But what is the value of the gloss? In my opinion, nothing at all. Some monastery teacher made a guess at the meaning of the word, which really meant a hoisting for flogging' (xaт' ¿μóv, Kат' wμοús. See the Thesaurus, s.u. catomum). Ignorant of the Greek origin, he sought an explanation from the context. Or perhaps from another version. For the parallel passage (Lipsius I. pp. 168, 169) ὅθεν κελεύω τούτους κινάρας σιδηρᾶς λαβόντας ἐν τῷ Ναυμαχίῳ ἀναλωθῆναι, with the Latin version: et ideo cardis ferreis acceptis iubeo eos in Naumachia consumi,' throws light on the varieties

of the gloss (C.G.L. V. 563, 64) Cathomus: scorpio uel cardus ferri; (V. 494, 5) Cathomis: cardi ferrei uel uirgae nodosae.

And what of the gloss Naumachia? Is it ancient tradition or medieval guess? Surely a guess, based on the literal sense of the word and on Isidore Etym. 15, 2, 27; 18, 15, 1. Lipsius' Greek versions offer the neuter form, his Latin versions the feminine, while the Corpus Glossary has Naumachium: locus naualis exercitationis, Naumachia: naus 'templum,' machia ‘pugna' (!), Naumachium: pugna naualis, Naumachiae: lacus. The use of the word for the tank in which the (mimic) naval battle was represented (as well as for the battle itself) is known to our dictionaries. Naumachiam should get that sense in Martial 1, 5. I:

Do tibi naumachiam, tu das epigrammata nobis (uar. lect. naumachias) :
Vis, puto, cum libro, Marce, natare tuo.

The full list of these 'glossae collectae' of Vat. Lat. 1469, fol. 83′-83ˇ, seems worth printing:

IN PASSIONE APOSTOLORVM. Iussit, etc. (see above). IN SANCTO SEBASTIANO. Saturnus... susceptus est (see above). Diametrum est: quod in eundem circulum et mensuram reuoluitur; quia mathematici diuersis figuris linearum fata colligebant cum stellis, et a quali stella natiuitas oriebatur, in eundem cursum putabant necesse esse ut tota uita duceretur. Aut climacterica tibi in centro sunt nata.' Climacterica sunt: quae gradatim discurrunt, quia Graece clima gradatio dicitur. Aut synditus fuit cum malo.' Syn Graece con dicitur. Synditus uidetur dici compositus. Ephymeris: id est cotidiana; ephimeridis possessiuum est; ab eodem ephimere. Mathesis centrum: id est disciplinalis punctus, quo circulus uoluitur. Cohors: quingentorum hominum turma. Mathesis centrum: disciplinalis punctus circuli. Matho Graece: disco dicitur. Centrum: punctus quo circulus uoluitur. Scrinium est: ubi omnia quae ad scripturam pertinent seruabantur, ut chartae, epistolae et similia. Primiscrinius princeps eorum qui in eodem ministerio erant deputati.

Abram et ascopa in Iudith. Abram: ancillam siue libertam intellegimus; quod si Latinum est, dicta abra quasi ab ara, quia ad aram liberum uel seruum secundum legem faciebant. Ascos Graece : uter dicitur; ascopa: quae ad similitudinem utris de pelle fit.

PROLOGVS: caput compositionis uel sequentis operis prephatio; et dicta prephatio quasi prelocutio. Proimium est . . . aures coaptantur (= Isid. Etym. 6, 8, 9). Praesagium: id est praescientia uel signum futurorum. Praesagus : praescius futurorum. Pentateuchum: quinque librorum. Obtrectatorum: id est detrahentium. Suggillationem: id est suffocationem. Suggillare est gula <m> stringere. Suggillo uerbum actiuum, et facit passiuum suggillor. Cudere: id est condere. Fedare: sordidare. Asterisco: id est stella, *. Obelo: id est ueru uel uirga, Iugulat: id est condempnat. Syntagma: compositio.

Aeque: similiter. Apocriphorum: dubiorum. Hiberas: id est nomen gentis, Ispanas. Nenias: uanitates uel mendacia seu res superuacuae uel nouissima cantica quae mortuis dicuntur. Autenticos: auctoritate plenos uel antiquos. Dogma: doctrina. Vatem: prophetam uel sacerdotem. Nisi forte putandus est Tullius Oeconomicum Xenofontis et Platonis Pitagoram et Demostenis pro Thesifontem afflatu[s] rhetorico in Latinum interpretati sunt. Emulus inuidus. Charismata: dona. Pene: prope. Liuore: uulnere uel inuidia. Proethesixenofontis: proprium nomen auctoris. Consulere: interrogare, etc.



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'Glossae collectae' like these should no longer be ignored. They may preserve for us words or sentences of a lost book (e.g. the Latin-Irish glossae collectae' published in the Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie vii. 266 come from the lost Prouerbia Graecorum). They may throw light on the history of a text's tradition (in one word, Ueberlieferungsgeschichte) or of medieval learning. It may be worth adding that they are not always divorced from the book to which they belong. A ninth-century Vatican MS. of Boethius (Vat. Lat. 3363), with text copiously glossed, has at the end (fol. 60o), in another hand of the same century: Incipiunt glosae huius libri. Cluis: illuminans, Luenda protegenda, Exerta: nudata,' etc. These extend to the end of fol. 60, but this last page is now illegible.



LOEWE (Prodromus, p. 144) drew attention to the fact that Apuleius is one of the authors drawn upon by the compiler of the Glossary that has come to be known as 'Abolita'; and Professor Lindsay in his article on this Glossary (J.P. Vol. XXXIV. p. 275) gives as examples of Apuleius glosses three short batches from the CA-, the CI-, and the CO- sections. These batches are respectively as follows:


(1) C.G.L. IV. p. 29, 33= Met. 7, 12 or 8, 13: 34= Met. 9, 16: 35=Met. 11, 16. (The Abstrusa' portion on this page runs from No. 6 to No. 32, and it is possible that the last item of the preceding Abolita' portion, p. 29, 5 'causor: accuso[r] uel queror' comes from Apol. 79—causari.)


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(2) p. 34, 34 Met. 2, 9: 35= Met. 3, 2: 36= Socr. 8: 37= Apol. 33.

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(3) p. 40, 14=Met. 1, 24 (or 5, 8): 15= Met. 1, 24 or 5, 31: 16-Met. 9, 2: 17 Apol. 49 or 50. An Abstrusa' portion follows, Nos. 18-43, but the Apuleius glosses begin again at No. 44 = Apol. 20: 45= Flor. 17, which completes p. 40, and it is possible that the trail may be picked up once more at p. 41, 5-' congermanescere: coniungier' Met. 2, 10.

In the same article Professor Lindsay also points out the danger of claiming every Early Latin gloss in Abol. for Festus, and he cites as possible items from Apuleius p. 193, 40= Apol. c. 50. The chances that this is an Apuleius gloss are enhanced when we observe that there is a short Apuleius batch just before this, p. 193, 32-34: 32 = Met. 8, 22 (Goetz, Thes. Gloss., s.v. 'uiscus,' tentatively suggests Virgil as the source): 33= Met. 9, 12: 34 Met. 9, 14. In the same way Aquariolus, the suggested emendation of Ouasiolus, p. 135, 7, may be Apol. 78.


Acting on these hints, and with the help of the Delphin Index to Apuleius, we can make out the following to be Apuleius glosses. The harvest is neither rich nor easily gathered in comparison with the Virgil-batches (C.Q. XII. pp. 22 sqq.), or the Terence-batches (Gnueg, De Glossis Terentianis Cod. Vat. 3321, Jena, 1903), which are more numerous and therefore more easily discerned.


p. 86, 6. Histrionis: scenici[s]. Apol. 13.

7. Heluo: gulosus uel adsumptor. Apol. 57 or 59.

8. Ebenum genus ligni. Apol. 61.

9. Aerumna: miseria uel calamitas. Met. 1, 6.

10. Aerugo: sanguisuga. Met. 1, 21.

The IN-section provides us with a bigger bag :

p. 90, 5. Inuestis: sine barba. Met. 5, 28 (cf. p. 100, 18. inuestem inberbem. W. M. Lindsay, A.J.P. Vol. XXXVIII., 'The St. Gall Glossary ').

6. Intempestiuum: intemperatum. Met. 9, 28.

7. Instruit componit uel docet. Met. 9, 37.

46. Ingluuies: gula uel guttur. Met. 5, 17.

47. Insultare: insolenter inuadere. Met. 7, 22.

p. 90, 48. Indecorum: foedum, inhonestum. De Mundo 27.

49. Indiuiduum: quod solui non potest aut separari. Apol. 53:

Socr. 16.

50. Inuiolatus: intactus uel incontaminatus. De Dogm. Plat. I. 8.

53. Intercapedo: interiectum temporis. Socv. 4.

54. Improuiso: non ante uiso sed subito. Flor. 2, 16.

p. 91, 54. Inenodabile: quod solui non potest. Apol. 4.
55. Infensus iratus uel infestus. Apol. 66.

p. 94, 5. Infamatum: infamem, turpem uel abiectum. Met. 6, 23.
6. Infortunio: infelicitate. Met. 8, 1.

7. Infecta: non facta uel tincta. Met. 8. 1.

8. Infesti: inuidentes. Met. 8, 14.

9. Infit: infatur, hoc est dicere, incipit. Met. 8, 28.

p. 98, 49. Interula: tunica interior. Met. 8, 9.

50. Interibi pro interea. Apol. 73.

51. Interuenit: superuenit. Socr. 12.






The PE-section on p. 142 yields us some Apuleius items, but the sequence is broken with intruders: 31 (reading 'pestifero <<s> : mortifero<s>')= Met. 8, 2: 32= Met. 8, 22: 33= Met. 9, 14: 35= Met. 10, 23: 36- Apol. 38: 38- Apol. 50: 39 (reading 'percellere ') = De Mundo 18: 40= Met. 10, 18: 41 Met. 10, 25. As examples of shorter batches we may take the EX-section, p. 69, 24 = Met. 1, 16: 25= Met. 9, 32 (reading 'exolescere'): 28 Flor. 9; 29= Flor. 9. The OB-section, p. 130, 43 Met. 2, 20: 44 Met. 3, 28: 45 Met. 3, 28: 47 Met. 4, 15. TI-section, p. 184, 36= Met. 7, 4, etc.: 37 Met. 4, 33: 38 Met. 5, 21: 39= Met. 5, 25. The TU-section, p. 187, 49 Met. 2, 7: 50 Met. 4, 7: 51 Met. 6, 25. There are a few glosses standing by themselves which may be claimed for Apuleius, though they do not form parts of Apuleius-batches, at any rate in the present state of the Glossary. E.g. p. 13, 37- Met. 6, 18 (the only instance of the ablative singular of the word in the Latin Thesaurus): p. 36, 21= Met. 8, 28: p. 50, 23 Met. 8, 5 or 10, 24: p. 191, 3-Met. 9, 29.







Two possible explanations of these solitary Apuleius glosses at once offer themselves: first, they may be the remains of what were once Apuleius-batches, now broken up and scattered owing to later attempts at rearrangement; secondly, it may be that works of Apuleius, now lost, were used in compiling the Glossary. This is certainly within the bounds of possibility, though it admits of no proof. It might explain some at least of the shorter batches, and account for the presence of apparent intruders in others; while the solitary glosses may in many cases form part of batches that cannot now be reconstructed.

Apart from this, however, it is clear that Apuleius is one of the sources of 'Abolita.' But it is a far from easy task to detect the items that belong to him with certainty. We are forced to conclude from those that can now be made out that he was used much more sparingly than either Virgil or Terence. Nor is this to be wondered at. Virgil and Terence would be in constant use as textbooks by the monastery teachers where the Glossary was compiled, while an author like Apuleius would naturally be read less frequently. The presence of Apuleius in the Glossary is probably to be explained by supposing that the monastery where the Glossary was compiled had a copy of Apuleius with marginal notes, and the compiler would not

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