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Thebes. As to Herodotus, the Argive inscription in honour of Homer shows that it was the connexion of the Argives with the Trojan War, not with Argos, that aroused their pride. L. R. Taylor, The Latina Colonia of Livy XL. 43. T. discusses the identity of the Latin colony mentioned by Livy under the year 180 B.C. He examines the views of Mommsen and others, and suggests that the colony was established at Pisae, Rome's military and naval base against the Ligurians. D. Mc Fayden, The Princeps and the Senatorial Provinces. The view, widely accepted, that under the Augustan constitution the princeps possessed an imperium maius over the senatorial provinces is based upon certain passages in Dio Cassius and Ulpian. M. shows that the various accounts of the princeps' intervention in the affairs of these provinces are more easily explained if we reject these statements than if we accept them. The progressive movement towards absolutism in the emperor's relations with the Senate led Ulpian and Dio, writing in the third century, to assume that the senatorial no less than the imperial provinces were under the emperor's authority. C. D. Buck, Studies in Greek Noun-Formation. Continuing his studies of dental terminations, B. deals with words in -ās, -avтos. F. A. Wood, Greek and Latin Etymologies. In 'Notes and Discussions' W. A. Oldfather and J. B. Titchener deal with the sources of the Lexicon Militare, P. Shorey with the methods of the higher criticism of Homer, W. A. Heidel with two Sophoclean cruxes (Antigone 4, and Oed. Tyr. 44), and A. S. Pease with the sceleratum frigus of Virgil, Georgics, II. 256.

XVI. 2.

F. E. Robbins, The Tradition of Greek Arithmology. R. seeks to determine the sources and relationships of the ancient writers on arithmology. Starting from conclusions obtained in an earlier paper on 'Posidonius and the Sources of Pythagorean Arithmology,' he traces the connexion of each writer with the lost document, which he regards as a common source. Philo, Lydus, and Anatolius belong to an older strain of the manuscript tradition; Theon diverges from them in his account of the number 7, and is followed by Chalcidius, Capella, Favonius, Macrobius, and the compiler of the Theologumena Arithmeticae. A diagram of relationships is appended. G. Laing, The Origin of the Cult of the Lares. L. criticizes the view, revived in a recent article in the American Journal of Archaeology, that the Lares are ancestorspirits and their cult ancestor-worship. Ancient testimony gives feeble support to the theory, and the ceremonies adduced by Samter are poor evidence. L. refers to the youth's intention of changing his Lar in Plautus, Merc. 836, and to the inconspicuous place occupied by the Lares at the Parentalia. Wissowa's view that the Lares were originally divinities attached to places and not to persons over-emphasizes a single aspect of the cult. L. holds that they were spirits of the primitive Roman type, capable of helping or harming, but otherwise undefined as to function and number. The epithets mark a later stage of differentiation and definition. H. Craig, Dryden's Lucian. C. gives (1) a list of seventeenth-century translations of Lucian; (2) an account of Dryden's life of Lucian, prefixed to a new translation of all the works; (3) an analysis of the contents of this edition, with information about the translators. P. Shorey, Horace, Satires i. 3. 112-13 and Plato, Theaetetus, 172A, B. S. refers 1. 111 to the views of the ethical sceptics, set forth in Plato Republic II. and of Epicurus, and finds the ultimate source of ll. 113-14 in Plato, TheaeBS, 172A, B, which, presenting a modified form of Protagorean relativity, allows that the distinction between utility and inutility is not a matter of mere arbitrary enactment. He rejects entirely Wilamowitz's interpretation of the Platonic passage. W. I. Westermann, The "Uninundated Lands" in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt. II. W, shows that the aẞpoxos yn paid at least as high a rate of tax as the flooded lands, and concludes that the government by means of high rentals sought to force

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production on land of this class. He adduces the evidence of leases to show that the tenant attempted to avoid the laborious cultivation of the äßpoxos, or was reimbursed for it. A. E. R. Boak, Greek and Coptic School Tablets at the University of Michigan. An account of three school tablets from Egypt-two Greek and one Coptic-recently acquired. They contain various exercises in writing, spelling, and numbers. Under Notes and Discussions,' A. Shewan rejects Professor Bolling's view that the meaning applied to woon in the Iliad differs from that in the Odyssey. C. Ritter suggests that the difficult éàv enw ourwσí of Alcibiades in Plato, Symposium 212E, is an expression of his natural self-assurance, heightened by his drunken condition; 'wenn ich so sage, so gilt's.' C. Murley, connecting σukopávτns with the connotation of worthlessness which σúkivos frequently bears, suggests that it means 'trifle-revealer.' A. S. Pease quotes a few short passages which do not appear in von Arnim's Stoicorum veterum fragmenta.

Hermes. LVI. 2. 1921.

G. Wissowa, Die Varronischen di certi und incerti. W. reopens the discussion of the meaning of these terms which he started in 1885, and maintains his original view against Usener, Bickel, Sam Wide, and others. The certitudo, which is the basis of Varro's classification of gods, refers merely to the certainty or uncertainty of Varro's own information, and not to the certainty or uncertainty of the character of the gods themselves. R. Laqueur, Scipio Africanus und die Eroberung von Neukarthago. A very elaborate investigation of the sources used by Polybius in Book X., provoked by E. Meyer's paper in Berl. Sitzungsber. 1916. The earliest elements in the narrative of S.'s attack on New Carthage are ultimately derived from the bald account, admitting divine intervention, given by some fighter engaged in the action but ignorant of S.'s strategic ideas. P. only got to know the plan of operations later when he met Laelius, and Laelius, the confidant of S., is the source of P.'s knowledge of the purpose behind S.'s undertakings, diplomatic and military alike. This is true as well of the 'Scipionic' features in P.'s account of Hannibal's march, and Laqueur, rejecting the view that P. got these from the younger Scipio, now asserts that they are all alike derived from Laelius. TheLaelian' elements in Book III. were incorporated between 160 and 155. Laqueur goes on to discuss the development of P.'s historiography. He began in the 'rhetorical' Hellenistic school, of which he was later the bitter enemy; but as he collected more material and saw more of Roman power, there grew on him the idea of a system working towards Roman supremacy. Finally, influenced by the Stoa, he arrived at the conception of world-history, and at the same time, but not before, became the complete rationalist. MISCELLEN: Karl Praechter, Notes on Porphyrius' commentary on Aristotle's Categories, p. 123, 29 ff. (Busse). F. Bechtel, On the name "Aλŋños (Paus. II. 30. 5).

LVI. 3. 1921.

E. von Stern, Zur Beurteilung der politischen Wirksamkeit des Tiberius und Gaius Gracchus. A criticism of recent views on the political activity of the Gracchi. Von Stern's own view is that they were doctrinaire revolutionists rather than reformers. They attempted to apply the doctrines of Greek political philosophy to Rome, e.g. the principle of the immediate sovereignty of the people. They were no statesmen, and failed because they were blind to the difference between the Greek polis and a world state. C. Robert, Zu Euripides' Troerinnen. A discussion of Cassandra's monody 308 ff, and other passages. L. Deubner, Zum Freiburger Makedonierdialog. A fresh examination of a dialogue on the divinity of Alexander the Great first published by W. Aly in the Heidelberg. Sitzungsbericht, 1914, Abp. 2. U. Kahrstedt, Sparta und Persien in der Pentekontactie. An attempt to show that Sparta made a

formal peace with Persia about the year 476-5. O. Weinreich, Blutgerichte év vai@py. W. explains the practice as due to ritual hygiene. Sunlight and rain counteract the pollution. MISCELLEN: W. Spiegelberg maintains that Váydav (Athen. 690 E) is the old Egyptian sgnn with the masculine article p- prefixed. O. Weinreich shows that Apuleius Met. VI. 8 septem sauia. . . mellitum is only a coarse version of Moschus' Ερως δραπέτης line 4. K. Praechter suggests in Philodemus περὶ ὀργῆς, Fr. E (P. 4 Wilke) Tv Tv Ty Bakтηрíą] TÚTTEL F. Bechtel on the Thessalian river τῆ[ν βακτηρίᾳ] τύπτει, names Κερκινεύς and Βουλεύς. They are derived from Καρκίνος (ablaut form Κερκίνος) and from βῶλος, i.e., the river that carries down βῶλοι.

Revue de Philologie. XLIV. 3. 1920.

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V. Bérard, Sur les Scholies et le texte de l'Odyssée. A long series of emendations of the scholia based upon a comparison with Strabo, who drew much of his information from Alexandrine voμvýμara, and Eustathius. F. Cumont, Lucrèce et le symbolisme pythagoricien des enfers. Lucr. III. 978-1023, where Hell is explained as the torments inflicted on men by their passions in their life on earth, is not borrowed from the source from which the end of the third book is derived. The doctrine is neo-pythagorean and not epicurean. It is found in Philo, who derived it either directly or through Posidonius from Pythagoreanism. Lucretius is probably echoing Ennius, who developed the doctrine of metempsychosis at the beginning of his Annals and in his satire Epicharmus.' P. Roussel, Rémarques sur les Suppliantes et le Promethée d'Eschyle. Traces references to the participation of the Egyptians in the battle of Salamis in 742 kaì λéyw πрòs eidóτa and in 713-722, and argues that the date of the Supplices cannot be earlier than 478-473. In P.V. 440-42 is a reference to Prometheus distributing the yépa of the gods, a story which must have been familiar to the audience, and which is known to us from Hesiod, Theog. 535 sqq. Aeschylus deliberately rejects Hesiod's version that P. deceived the gods. B. Haussoullier, Inscriptions de Didymes; Classement chronologique des comptes de la construction du Didymeion. Continued from 1919, p. 175, and 1920, p. 31. Deals with work done between 176-75 and 172-71. The method of consulting the oracle is discussed in an appendix.

LANGUAGE.

Glotta. XI. Band. I. 2. Heft. 1921.

Albert Debrunner writes on The Use of av with the Indicative in Subordinate Clauses in the Hellenistic Age, eg. μακάριος ἦν αὐτῶν ὅντινα ἂν καὶ μόνον προσέβλεψα, Lucian, Dial. Mort. 9. 2. This idiom is an independent growth, and has no connexion with the iterative av' used by the classical writers in main sentences; it came in to replace the optative without ἄν' : λέγει ὅ τι ἂν βούληται became (for past time) ἔλεγεν ὅ τι ἂν ἐβούλετο instead of ἔλεγεν ὅ τι βούλοιτο. Hugo v. Helle discusses The Division of Syllables in Latin. F. Slotty's Studies in Vulgar Latin include (1) a discussion of 'words for the three dimensions'; (2) 'the type Châlons-sur-Marne in Latin.' E. Schwyzer has a few notes on Greek dialectic forms; and E. Kieckers and W. Kroll deal with the question of the 'appositional clause' in Latin and Greek, the so-called 'accusative (or nominative) in apposition to the sentence.' R. Munz on yλŵrтa and diáλeктos, and a Fragment of Posidonius. The remaining fifty pages are devoted to summaries and notices of books and articles published in 1917.

ABLATIVE case in Virgil, 183 ff.

INDICES

I. GENERAL INDEX.

Abstrusa and Abolita glossaries (oldest extant
MS.), 189 ff.

accent in Doric, the, 55

accusative, the adverbial, 24

Achilles Tatius, notes on, 8 ff.

-ada passive in Gothic, 55

Aeschylus, date of the Supplices of, 198

Allen (T. W.), notes on Greek geography, 107
av with indicative in subordinate clauses, 198
Anna Perenna, 51

Apuleius glosses in the Abolita glossary, 41 f.,
107

Aristotle, on Eth. Nic. i. c. 5, 85 ff.

arithmology, Greek, 196

Arnold (E. V.), 'a wilful exaggeration,' 174

Asia Minor, case-usage in the Greek of, 22 ff.
Astures, I10 f.

Atticae (Orosius), 110

Augustus' war in Spain, 110

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Lindsay (W. M.), 'glossae collectae' in Vat.
Lat. 1469, 38 ff.

Line, the, in Plato's Republic, 131 ff.

Lobel (E.), Sappho, book i.: the Nereid ode,
163 ff.

Lowe (E. A.), the oldest extant MS. of the com.
bined Abstrusa and Abolita glossaries, 189 ff.
Lucan vii. 460-465, 172 ff.

Lucian, Dryden's life, 196

Lucilius ix., the fragments on ei and i, 11 ff.

Lucretius, notes on, 18 ff.

Lumb (T. W.), notes on Achilles Tatius (con-
tinued), 8 ff.

Manilius, the codex Lipsiensis of, 175 f.
Martial's literary criticism, III
McKenzie (Roderick), Graeca, 44 ff., 186 ff.
Merà with genitive to express instrument, 28
Moon, earliest visible phase of, 194

Mountford (J. F.), some quotations in the Liber
glossarum, 192 ff.

Mulvany (C. M.), on Eth. Nic. i. c. 5, 85 ff.
Μυρμιδόνων πόλις, 107

narrative poetry of Rome, earliest, 31 ff.
νέποδες καλῆς 'Αλοσύδνης, 125
Nereid ode of Sappho, 163 ff.

Nero, date of his birth, III

New Carthage, Scipio's attack on, 197

-o ablaut, 54

Pascoli, J., III

Peruigilium Veneris, corrigenda on article by

J. A. Fort, 7

Phthiotis, 107

Pisae, Latin colony at, 196

Platnauer (Maurice), Greek colour-perception,
153 ff.

Plato's simile of Light, 131 ff.

theory of vision, 135 n. I
Platt (Arthur), Sophoclea, 126 ff.
Plautine metre, nuances in, 99 ff.
Polybius, sources of book x., 197
Posidonius, IIO

Powell (J. U.), ἔρρε κακὴ γλήνη, 165
ἱερὰ ῥέζειν, 165

νέποδες καλῆς ̔Αλοσύδνης, 125

Sappho, book i.; the Nereid ode, 163 ff.
Saturnians, 36 f.

in Faliscan and Paelignian, 54

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