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ruling script in Southern Italy,' as many MSS. attest, it would none the less be odd for a MS. of South Italian origin to have all its additions in ordinary minuscule and none in Beneventan. This consideration leaves open the possibility that the MS. is a product of some scriptorium north of the Beneventan zone. It shows no resemblance to the MSS. of famous North Italian centres like Bobbio and Verona. Of schools in Central Italy we know too little to help us in forming a judgment. As the famous Naples MS. of Festus was written, as has been shown, in Rome or vicinity,2 it is not at all unlikely that this important compilation of glossaries, which shows much dependence on Festus, may also come from a centre in Rome or vicinity.

To sum up the MS. is certainly Italian. It is probably South Italian, though there is a possibility of its being central Italian, or even Roman. The most probable date is about the middle of the eighth century, before 750 rather than after.

1 Cf. The Beneventan Script, p. 84 sqq.
2 Cf. Berliner philologische Wochenschrift, No. 29

(1911), col. 917 sq.

E. A. Lowe.


In response to a suggestion in the Class. Rev. (XXXIII. 106), the two MSS. of the Liber Glossarum preserved at Tours have recently been examined. Since they had not been seen by Goetz when he published his excerpts, the following short descriptions may be added to the introduction of Vol. V. of the Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum:

1. Tours, Bibliothèque de Ville, MS. No. 850; end of the ninth century; foll. 493, of which 1, 491, 492 are mere corners; cmm. 49 by 29. The last item is an Isidore gloss, Zatenen: gemmam. Gaps due to loss of folia occur between Abiectus and Abdolet; Dextera manus and Dialogus; Faber and Impulitum; Res diuinae and Samsacus. There are no corrections except between folia 197 and 300, where a thirteenth-century hand has checked the MS. by means of another copy of the Lib. Gloss. The items are drawn up in two columns, and the alphabetical arrangement agrees for the most part with that of Vat. Pal. lat. 1773. Marginal indications of the sources of the items are numerous except between Profanum and Remeantes; where two or three neighbouring items come from the same source, the marginal mark is repeated; and towards the end of the MS., where the scribe takes to writing two items in the same line, the indication is also carefully transferred. This is important in view of Goetz' theory that the source of an unlabelled item is that given by the last preceding label.

2. Tours, MS. No. 851; fifteenth-century Italian hand; foll. 269, all but eight written continuously. Ends with Zatenen, as MS. 850. Gap between Res diuinae and Samsacus, where three foll. have been cut out. No marginal marks. The items are frequently abbreviated and lemma words are not repeated. In many places short gaps, left deliberately by the scribe, have been filled in from T. 850. In details of omission and insertion the MS. differs from 850 of which it is clearly a descendant but certainly not an apograph.

Many items of the Lib. Gloss. contain quotations from classical authors, especially those items labelled DE GLS (i.e., taken from glossaries). Goetz, in his monograph 'Der Liber Glossarum' (Abhandlungen der sächsischen Gesellschaft, Band 13, 1891), postulates that one of the sources of such items was a 'Glossar mit zahlreichen Citaten,' which illustrated the meaning and occasionally the gender of words. The same label DE GLS, however, is used for glosses which we know to have come from the Abstrusa glossary; and it was suggested in the Class. Quart. (XI. 128) that the glosses with quotations should be more carefully investigated with a view to defining more clearly the nature of this supposed Quotation-glossary' and determining the separating line between it and the items which the Lib. Gloss. borrowed from Abstrusa and likewise labelled DE GLS. The only way to assure ourselves about this 'Quotation-glossary' is to collect and examine all the DE GLS items of the Lib. Gloss, which contain quotations; and at a later date I hope to publish a full study of such items. For the present I shall content myself with presenting and commenting on a few of those items which may appeal to a wider circle than students of mediaeval dictionaries.

I. After one has extracted all the items labelled DE GLS which contain quotations, there remain quite a number of other items with quotations; and these latter,


even if unlabelled, can frequently be traced to a very definite source. Of these I give two examples:

(a) A gloss labelled 'Esidori': Iaculum: genus piscatoriae retis, a iactu dictum. Plautus 'probus quid<em> ante iacula torseras' (leg. iaculator eras). (= Plaut. frag. 175). This item unmistakeably comes from Isidore, Etym. 19, 5, 2; and it is interesting to note that while our existing MSS. of Isidore present the un-Plautine form of the adverb, antea, the Lib. Gloss. preserves the truer reading.

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(b) A long unlabelled gloss runs: Metalempsis est dictio gradatim pergens ad id quod ostendit, ut . . . item Varro ponam bisulcam et crebri[s]nodam arundinem.' This item is identical with the passage printed by Keil (Gram. Lat. V. 324) from the seventhcentury grammar of Julian of Toledo whom we know to have been one of the sources used in the compilation of the Lib. Gloss. (cf. Goetz, Der Lib. Gloss. 287). The interest of the item lies in the Varro citation. Keil himself used a MS. of Julian (Vat. Pal. 1746), which gave the reading crebrinodosam; but Buecheler in his edition of Varro's Menippean Satires (appended to his edition of Petronius, 1912) emended Keil's text and made an iambic line (frag. 578) by reading crebrinodam. The MSS. of the Lib. Gloss. now confirm this emendation with their crebrisnodam.

In discussing the existence of the Quotation-glossary' and its relation to Abstrusa, one consequently puts aside all such quotation-items as the two just given, since their sources can be definitely traced to authors who, we know, formed the groundwork of the Lib. Gloss. directly.

II. A great part of that full form of the Abstrusa glossary which was described in Class. Quart. XI. 128 consisted of excerpts from Vergil scholia of Donatus and others (suggested Class. Quart. XI. 123 and illustrated Class. Quart. XIV. 87); and this full form of Abstrusa was one direct source of Lib. Gloss. items. If therefore any quotation-item cannot be referred to one of the extant sources of the Lib. Gloss., but bears in itself traces of having come from some scholium on Vergil, we should be on safer ground in attributing it to Abstrusa (of whose existence we are sure) than in calling in the aid of a hypothetical 'Quotation-glossary.' I cannot hope to convince my readers that Goetz' separate and independent Quotation-glossary' is a myth until a full list of these particular items is published; meanwhile the two subjoined notes may be of interest:


(a) Goetz (Der. Lib. Gloss. 279) specifically mentions the item: Fungeretur : exemplum operis facere monstraretur. Virgilius summoque attigit ore' ut bibentis fungeretur officiis. Here clearly the quotation does not explain the meaning of the lemma word fungeretur; indeed it has no immediate connexion with fungeretur at all. In point of fact the word treated is one which occurred in a scholium on Aen. I. 737; the source of the item therefore was itself based on Vergil scholia, that is to say, the source of the item is very probably Abstrusa.

(b) The following item is found not only in the Lib. Gloss. but also in the secondcentury grammarian, Caper (Keil, VII. 98): Lacteus (leg. -ens) est quod lacte alitur, lactans qui decipit, lacteus lacte abundans; ut 'lactentes ficos.' Lucilius lactantia coagula cum melle,' <Horatius ' lactea> laudas brachia.' Now Caper was not one of the immediate sources of the Lib. Gloss. but he was frequently used by commentators on Vergil. We are therefore on fairly safe ground in deriving this item from Abstrusa, whose compiler found at Georg. I. 315 (frumenta in uiridi tipula lactentia turgent) a scholium which quoted Caper's distinction between lactens and lactans.

This item is worth further mention for (as Professor Lindsay points out to me) Marx in his edition of the fragments of Lucilius seems to have misinterpreted it. We know from Charisius (Keil, I. 128) that the line, fici dulciferae lactantes (-entes ?) ubere toto, comes from Ennius and not from Lucilius to whom Marx ascribes it as frag. 1198. On the other hand, Marx refuses to ascribe to Lucilius the line which Caper quotes (lactantia coagula cum melle) because coagula is unmetrical. Professor


SOME QUOTATIONS IN THE LIBER GLOSSARVM Lindsay would scan coagula (like coagulet in Divae, 74) and restore the account of these 'differentiae' thus:

<Lactans est quod lacte alit>, lactens quod lacte alitur; lactans qui decipit, lactens lacte abundans (ut <Ennius> lactentes ficos,' Lucilius lactentia cogula cum melle <bibi>'); lactea candida (<Horatius lactea> laudas brachia"). Thus two meanings of lactans and two of lactens were contrasted, and of the second meaning of lactens examples were given from Ennius and Lucilius. The lactea in the Horace quotation, in place of cerea, is presumably a slip of memory by Caper, who (like most Latin grammarians, especially Servius) did not verify his quotations.





In the last number of the Classical Quarterly (July-October, 1920, p. 172) Dr. Holmes has asked if a trustworthy observer has ever seen with the naked eye a moon not more than 27 hours old in an atmosphere no clearer than that of Geneva. Hoping that I am a trustworthy observer, I will enumerate the cases where I have observed crescents of an age less than 27 hours. I have also constructed tables with which I find the moment when the moon becomes visible. I believe the minimum for Heidelberg is 20 hours from February 1 to April 1, if the moon is at her perigee and the argument of latitude is between 60° and 120°. All times given here are mid-European time (= Greenwich mean time+ 1 hour). I have never used a binocular. Heidelberg is 35 m. east of Greenwich, and 25 m. west of the mid-European meridian.

1899, March 12, Berlin. Found at 6 h. 37 m., 21 h. 44 m., after new moon, 34 m. after sunset. Moon set 7 h. 25 m. Seen till 7 h. 0 m. The lower part of the horizon was covered with mist.

1915, March 16, Heidelberg. Found at 7 h. 1 m., 22 h. 16 m. after new moon, 32 m. after sunset. Moon set 7 h. 32. m. Seen only a moment, because a cloud came in front of the moon.

1916, April 3, Heidelberg. Found at 7 h. 25 m., 26 h. 6 m. after new moon, 28 m. after sunset. Moon set 8 h. 22 m.

1916, May 2, Heidelberg. Nothing found, about 14 h. 15 m. after new moon. 1918, March 13, Ciney (Belgium). Found at 7 h. 8 m., 22 h. 17 m. after new moon, 28 m. after sunset. Moon set 8 h. 3 m.

I have made a great number of other observations, but all more than 27 h. after new moon. I believed that 20 h. after new moon was the minimum, but now I have read in the Journal of the British Astronomical Association the sensational observation made 1916, May 2, in England, 14 h. 30 m. after new moon. On that evening I found nothing, but it is possible that I overlooked the crescent.



December 5, 1920.



[These summaries will in future deal only with original work appearing in the periodicals. Reviews of books will be mentioned in the summaries published in the Classical Review. Also an account of the contents of Neue Jahrbücher for the years 1916-1920 inclusive appears in the Classical Review for AugustSeptember, 1921.-EDD. C.Q.]

American Journal of Philology. XLII. 2.


W. P. Mustard, Petrarch's Africa. An analysis, with a number of illustrative quotations and remarks on possible classical models both prose and verse, and a few brief notes on language. W. N. Brown, Bluff in Hindu Fiction. The writer discusses the various forms of the 'bluff' motif, indicating and illustrating their range of use, and endeavours to determine the relation of some folk or oral stories to literary sources. Charles W. Peppler, Comic Terminations in Aristophanes. Part V. article deals with verbs in ύλλω, ύττω, άττω, ιάω, and ίζω, and with comic coinages in This verbs, adverbs, interjections, and miscellaneous words. Bosom. A discussion, with parallels from various languages of the exact meaning of Paul Haupt, Abraham's the phrase and the particular part of the body denoted by κóλTOя. F. A. Wright, Horace and Philodemus. Suggests that several passages in Ovid, as well as the episode of the pirate turned gardener in Vergil, Georgic IV., are worked up from epigrams by Philodemus (who is quoted by Horace, Serm. I. 2. 120) by Leonidas. Tenney Frank, Hor. Carm. III. 4 Descende caelo. An endeavour to explain this ode as 'a dedicatory poem that for some reason is out of the position for which it was intended,' and not as forming part of the 'cycle' in praise of virtue. B. O. Foster, Livy VII. 14, 6-10. Proposes to remove the difficulty of the words instructo uani . . . ueris uiribus profuit by adopting the new Oxford punctuation, and reading instructos (agreeing with montes) for instructo.

Classical Philology. XVI. 1. 1921.

C. D. Adams, rà уéрра éveπíμжраσav, Demosthenes XVIII. 169. Accepting ancient testimony that yeppa were the materials of which the σkηvaí were made, A. revives Reiske's view that the object of burning them was to secure a place for the instant assembling of the militia. He quotes Andocides' account of a similar situation in 415 B.C. (On the Mysteries, 45). He rejects the proposed emendation тà yépp' åveπetáVvorav (they stretched the hurdles '), which rests on a misinterpretation of the scholion on Aristophanes, Acharnians, 22. Both there and in the Speech against Neaera, § 90, yeppa naturally means the wicker mats of the tradesmen's booths. W. L. Westermann, Land Registers of Western Asia under the Seleucids. W. examines a few inscriptions dealing with grants of land made by the Seleucid kings. Detailed descriptions of the smaller land units were kept in the local registers, and were absent from the central register, which was constructed on broader lines. J. A. Scott, Homer as the Poet of the Thebais. The theory that Homer was regarded in the seventh century as the poet of the Thebais rests (1) upon the supposed reference to Callinus in Pausanias, IX. 9. 5; (2) upon the identification with the Thebais of Tov 'Oμnpeiwv éréшv of Herodotus, V. 67. But in Pausanias Callinus is a purely conjectural reading, and Pausanias refers to Antimachus as the poet of the expedition against

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