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unto them; as the Lord had spoken unto Moses."-Ex. 9: 12. "And the Lord said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him."-Ex. 10: 1. "And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand. And I, behold I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honor upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen."-Ex. 14: 8, 17. "But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the Lord thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into thy hand, as appeareth this day."-Deuteronomy 2: 30. "There was not a city that made peace with the children of Israel, save the Hivites, the inhabitants of Gibeon: all other they took in battle. For it was of the Lord to harden their hearts, that they should come against Israel in battle, that he might destroy them utterly, and that they might have no favour, but that he might destroy them as the Lord commanded Moses.”—Joshua Ĭ1: 19, 20. "And the three hundred blew the trumpets, and the Lord set every man's sword against his fellow, even throughout all the host: and the host fled to Beth-shittah in Zererath, and to the border of Abel-meholah, unto Tabbath."Judges 7: 22. "And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah."-2 Samuel 24: 1. "Now therefore, behold, the Lord hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets, and the Lord hath spoken evil concerning thee."-1 Kings 22: 23. "For thou hast hid their hearts from understanding: therefore shalt thou not exalt them."-Job 17: 4. "He turned their hearts to hate his people, to deal subtilely with his servants."Psalms 105: 25. "For the Lord hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes: the prophets and your rulers, the seers hath he covered."-Isaiah 29: 10. "They have not known nor understood, for he hath shut their eyes, that they can not see; and their hearts that they can not understand."-Isaiah 44: 18. "I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace and create evil. I the Lord do all these things."-Isaiah 45: 7. "And if the prophet be deceived when he hath spoken a thing, I the Lord have deceived that prophet, and I will destroy him from the midst of my people Ísrael."-Ezek. 14: 9. "The people an

swered him, We have heard out of the law that Christ abideth for ever; and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this son of man? Then Jusus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you: walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. While ye have light, believe in the light that ye may be the children of light. These things spake Jesus and departed, and did hide himself from them. But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him: That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again: He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their hearts; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them. "These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him."-John 12: 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41. "Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth."-Romans 9: 18. "And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie; That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness."-2 Thessalonians 2: 10, 11, 12. "For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled."--Revelation 17: 17.

I have quoted the passages upon which the defenders of this scheme lay the principal stress and would remark respecting them and all such like passages,

[1] That they prove nothing to the point. The question in debate is not whether God is or is not in some sense present in every event, or whether there be not some sense in which every thing may be ascribed to the Providence and agency of God, for this their opponents admit and maintain. But the true question at issue respects only the quo modo of the Divine agency of which these passages say nothing. It is neither affirmed or implied in these passages, nor in any other that God is the direct, efficient, irresistible agent in all those cases.

[2.] Other passages abundantly imply and affirm that he is not the direct, efficient, and irresistible agent in the production

of moral evil. Example: "Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and burn incense unto Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye know not; and come and stand before me in this house, which is called by my name, and say, We are delivered to do all these abominations?" Jer. 7: 14. "For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints."-1 Cor. 14: 33. "Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God can not be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man: But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death. Do not err my beloved brethren. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning."-James 1: 13-17. "But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth. This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish. For where envying and strife is, there is confusion and every evil work. But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle and easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy."-James 3: 14—17. These things have I written unto you concerning them that seduce you."-1 John 2: 26. "And they said one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear, therefore is this distress come upon us.”—Gen. 42: 21. "And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go."-Ex. 8: 32. "And Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked."-Ex. 9: 27. "Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the Lord your God, and against you. Now therefore, forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and entreat the Lord your God that he may take away from me this death only."-Ex. 10: 16, 17. "I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life that both thou and thy seed may live."-Deut. 30: 19. "And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go number Israel and Judah. And David's heart smote him after that he had numbered the people. And


David said unto the Lord, I have sinned greatly in that I have done: and now, I beseech thee, O Lord, take away the iniquity of thy servant, for I have done very foolishly."-2 Sam. 24: 9, 10. "For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their cars are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them."-Mat. 13: 15.

These passages plainly teach and imply that God's agency, to say the least, in the production of sin, is not direct, efficient, irresistible. Their Scripture argument then proves nothing to the purpose of this philosophy.

(2.) Another argument by which the Divine efficiency scheme has been sustained is that Divine foreknowledge implies it.

This is an assumption without the shadow of proof.
(3.) Third argument: The Divine purposes imply it.
This also is a sheer assumption.


(4.) Fourth argument: Prophecy or the foretelling of future events implies it.

This again is assumption without proof. These arguments assume that God could not know what future events would be, especially what the free actions of men would be unless he produces and controls them by a direct and irresistible efficiency.

(5.) Fifth argument: The bible ascribes both the holy and sinful actions of man to God, and in equally unqualified


This settles nothing of the quo modo in either case.

(6.) It is admitted, say some, that holy actions are produced by a direct divine efficiency; and as the bible ascribes the sinful actions of men to God in as unqualified terms as holy ones we have no right to infer a difference in the quo modo of his doing it.

We are not only allowed, but are bound to infer that his agency is different in the one case from what it is in the other. The bible has, as we shall see, settled the philosophy, or the manner in which he produces holy exercises in moral agents. It also every where assumes or affirms that he is concerned only providentially in the production of sin; that sin is an abuse of his providence and of the liberty of moral agents.

(7.) It has been assumed that it is naturally impossible for God to create a being that should have the power of originating his own actions.

This is purely an assumption, and of no weight whatever. It certainly is not an affirmation of reason; and I can not see any ground for such an affirmation.

(8.) It has been asserted that if such a creature existed, he would be independent of God in such a sense that God could neither certainly control him, nor know what he would do.

This is a mere begging of the question. How can this be known? This argument assumes that even Omniscience can not know how a free moral agent would act upon condition of his originating his own choices, intentions and actions. But why this assumption?


1. It is mere philosophy, and that falsely so called.

2. It is supported, so far as I can sec, only by the most unwarrantable assumptions.

3. Its tendency condemns it. It tends,

(1.) To beget and perpetuate a sense of divine injustice. To create a character by an agency as direct and irresistible as that of the creation of the world itself, and then treat moral beings according to that character so formed, is wholly inconsistent with all our ideas of justice.

(2.) It destroys a sense of accountability, or tends to destroy it.

(3.) It contradicts human consciousness. I know it is said that consciousness only gives our mental actions and states, but not the cause of them. This I deny, and affirm that consciousness not only gives us our mental actions and states, but it also gives us the cause of them, especially it gives the fact that we ourselves are the sovereign and efficient causes of the choices and actions of our will. In our passive states we can almost always recognize the cause of these phenomena. At least we can very often do so. I am as conscious of originating in a sovereign manner my choices as I am of the choices themselves.

4. This theory virtually denies, or rather stultifies the eternal distinction between liberty and necessity.

5. If this theory were true, with our present consciousness we can not believe it. We can not but affirm to ourselves that we are the efficient causes of our choices and volitions.

6. The philosophy in question really represents God as the only agent, in any proper sense of that term, in the universe. If God produces the exercises of moral beings in the manner

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