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of our race, except the first human pair, would ever have had an existence.
6. But for the Atonement, no man could have been treated with lenity and forbearance any more than Satan can.
7. The lives, and all the blessings which all mankind enjoy, are conferred on them on account of the Atonement of Christ; that is-God could not consistently wait on sinners, and bless, and do all that the nature of the case admits to save them, were it not for the fact of atonement.
8. That it was made for all mankind, is evident, from the fact that it is offered to all, indiscriminately.
9. Sinners are universally condemned, for not receiving it. 10. If the Atonement is not intended for all mankind, God is insincere in making them the offer of salvation through the Atonement.
11. If not, sinners in hell will see and know that their salvation was never possible; that no Atonement was made for them; and that God was insincere in offering them salvation.
12. If the Atonement is not for all men, no one can know for whom, in particular, it was intended, without direct revelation. Hence,
13. If the Atonement is for none but the elect, no man can know whether he has a right to embrace it, until by a direct revelation, God has made known to him that he is one of the elect.
14. If the Atonement was made but for the elect, no man can by any possibility embrace it without such a revelation. Why can not Satan believe in, embrace, and be saved by the Atonement? Simply because it was not made for him. If it was not made for the non-elect, they can no more embrace and be saved by it than Satan can. If, therefore, the Atonement was made but for a part of mankind, it is entirely nugatory, unless a further revelation make known for whom in particular it was made.
15. Ifit was not made for all men, ministers do not know to whom they should offer it.
16. If ministers do not believe that it was made for all men, they can not heartily and honestly press its acceptance upon any individual, or congregation in the world; for they can not assure any individual or congregation, that there is any Atonement for him or them, any more than there is for Satan. But upon this subject, let the Bible speak for itself: "The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world."
"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world, to condemn the world: but that the world through him might be saved." "And said unto the woman, Now we believe, not because of thy saying; for we have heard him ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Savior of the world."-Jno. 1: 29; 3: 16, 17; 4:42. "Therefore, as by the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life."-Rom. 5: 18. "For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead: And that he died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them, and rose again."-2d Cor. 5; 14, 15. "Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time." "For therefore we both labor and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of those that believe."-1st. Tim. 2: 6; 4: 10, "And he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.”—1 Jno. 2: 2.
That the atonement is sufficient for all men, and, in that sense, general, as opposed to particular, is also evident from the fact that the invitations and promises of the gospel are addressed to all men, and all are freely offered salvation through Christ. "Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else." "Ho! every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? and your labor for that which satisfieth not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness. Incline your ear, and come unto me: hear and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David."-Isa. 45: 22; 55: 1, 2, 3. "Come unto me all ye that are weary and heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart; and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light." "Again, he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready; come unto the marriage.”—Mat. 11: 28, 29, 30; 22:4. "And sent his servant at
supper time to say to them that were bidden, Come, for all things are now ready."-Luke 14: 17. "In the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.."-Jno. 7: 37. "Behold I stand at the door and knock, if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.' "And the spirit and the bride say Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely."-Rev. 22: 17.
Again: I infer that the atonement was made, and is sufficient for all men, from the fact that God not only invites all, but expostulates with them for not accepting his invitations. "Wisdom crieth without; she uttereth her voice in the streets: She crieth in the chief place of concourse, in the openings of the gates; in the city she uttereth her words, saying, how long ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity? and the scorners delight in their scorning, and fools hate knowledge? Turn you at my reproof: behold I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you."-Prov. 1: 20—23. "Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow, though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool."-Isaiah 1: 18. "Thus saith the Lord, thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am the Lord thy God which teacheth thee to profit, which leadeth thee by the way that thou shouldst go. Oh that thou hadst hearkened to my commandments! then had thy peace been as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea."-Isaiah 48: 17, 18. Say unto them, as I live saith the Lord God, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked; but that the wicked turn from his way and live; turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways; for why will ye die, O house of Israel?" -Eze. 33: 11. "Hear what the Lord saith: Arise, ye now contend thou before the mountains, and let the hills hear thy voice. Hear ye, O mountains, the Lord's controversy, and ye strong foundations of the earth; for the Lord hath a controversy with his people, and he will plead with Israel. O my people what have I done unto thee? and wherein have I wearied thee? testify against me.-Micah 6: 1-3. "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and would not!"-Mat. 23: 37.
Again. The same may be inferred from the professed sin
cerity of God in his invitations. "O that there were such an heart in them, that they would fear me, and keep all my commandments always, that it might be well with them, and with their children forever!"-Deut. 5: 39. "O that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end!"-Deut. 32: 29. "For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness; neither shall evil dwell with thee."-Ps. 5: 4. "Oh that my people had hearkened unto me, and Israel had walked in my ways! I should soon have subdued their enemies, and turned my hand against their adversaries. The haters of the LORD should have submitted themselves unto him: but their time should have endured for ever."-Ps. 81: 13-15. "O that thou hadst hearkened unto my commandments! then had thy peace been as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea."-Isaiah 48: 18. "For I have no pleasure in the death of him that dieth, saith the LORD GOD: wherefore turn yourselves, and live ye."Eze. 18: 32. "And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it, saying. If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! But now they are hid from thine eyes."-Luke 19: 41, 42. "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved."-John 3:16, 17. "I exhort therefore, that first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men: for kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior; Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth."-1 Tim. 1-4. "The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is long-suffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance."-2 Peter 3: 9.
Again the same inference is forced upon us by the fact that God complains of sinners for rejecting his overtures of mercy: "Because I have called, and ye refused; I have stretched out my hand, and no man regarded."-Prov. 1: 24. "But they refused to hearken, and pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their ears, that they should not hear. Yea, they made their hearts as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the Lord of hosts hath sent in
his Spirit by the former prophets: therefore came a great wrath from the Lord of hosts. Therefore it is come to pass; that as he cried and they would not hear: so they cried, and I would not hear, saith the Lord of hosts."-Zechariah 7: 11, 12, 13. "The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king which made a marriage for his son. And sent forth his servants to call them that were bidden to the wedding: and they would not come. Again, he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the marriage. But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise: and the remnant took his servants, and treated them spitefully, and slew them."-Matthew 22: 2,3,4, 5, 6. "And sent his servant at supper-time to say to them that were bidden. Come; for all things are now ready. And they all with one consent began to make excuse. The first said unto him, I have bought a piece of ground, and I must needs go and see it: I pray thee have me excused. And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them: I pray thee have me excused. And another said I have married a wife; and therefore I can not come."-Luke 14: 17, 18, 19, 20. "And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life."-John 5: 40. "Ye stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers did, so do ye."-Acts 7: 51. "And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season I will call for thee."-Acts 24: 25.
Again, the same is inferable from the fact that sinners are represented as having no excuse for being lost and for not being saved by Christ. "And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither, not having a wedding-garment? And he was speechless."-Matthew 22: 12. "For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; and Godhead; so that they are without excuse.". Romans 1: 20. "And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life."-John 5: 40. Now we know, that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God."-Romans 3: 19.
VII. I now proceed to answer objections.
I. To the fact of atonement. It is said that the doctrine of atonement represents God as unmerciful.