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an inestimable treasure which might for a Ah, charms of friendship, delicious errors, while render our abode on earth as happy as lovely chimeras, you are infinitely more capa. that in heaven, did not that wise Providence, ble of deceiving than of satisfying us, of poithat formed us for heaven and not for earth, soning life than of sweetening it, and of makrefuse us the possession of it.
ing us break with the world than of attaching It is clear by the writings of Solomon, and us to it! My soul, wouldst thou form unalter. more so by the history of his life, that his heart able connexions! Set thy love upon thy trea. was very accessible to this kind of pleasure. sure, esteem God, obey his holy voice, which How often does he write encomiums on faith- from the highest heavens says to thee, “ Give ful friends!“ A friend,” says he, “loveth at me thine heart!" In God thou wilt find a love all times, he is a brother born for adversity. A fixed and faithful, a love beyond the reach of friend sticketh closer than a brother," Prov. temporal revolutions, which will follow thee, xvii. 17, and xviii. 24. But where is this and fill thee with felicity for ever and ever. friend, who sticketh closer than a brother? 3. In fine, I will venture to affirm, that if Where is this friend, who loveth at all times any thing seems capable to render life agreeOne would think the Wise Man drew the por- ble, and if any thing in general renders it trait only to save us the useless labour of in- disagreeable, it is rectitude, and delicacy of quiring after the original. Perhaps you are in conscience. I know Solomon seems here to capable of tasting the bitterness of friendship, contradict himself, and the author of the Book only because you are incapable of relishing the of Proverbs seems to refute the author of the sweetness of it.
Book of Ecclesiastes. The author of the What friends do we make upon earth? At Book of Ecclesiastes informs us, that virtue first lively, eager, full of ardour: presently dull, is generally useless, and sometimes hurtful and disgusted through the ease with which they in this world: but according to the author of had been gratified. At first soft, gentle, all the Book of Proverbs virtue is most useful in condescension and compliance: presently mas- this world. Hear the author of Ecclesiastes. ters, imperious tyrants, rigorously exacting as “All things have I seen in the days of my vania debt an assiduity which can arise only from ty: there is a just man that perisheth in his inclination, pretending to domineer over our righteousness, and there is a wicked man that reason, after they have vitiated our taste. At prolongeth his life in his wickedness. All first attentive and teachable, while prejudices things come alike to all, there is one event to conceal their imperfections from us, ready to the righteous and to the wicked; to him that acquiesce in any thing while our sentiments sacrificeth, and to him that sacrificeth not: are conformable to their inclinations: but pre- as is the good so is the sinner; and he that sently intractable and froward, not knowing sweareth, as he that feareth an oath, chap. how to yield, though we gently point out their vii. 15. ix. 2. Hear the author of the Book of frailty, and endeavour to assist them to correct Proverbs. “My son, forget not my law: but it. At first assiduous, faithful, generous, while let thy heart keep my commandments; for fortune smiles on us: but presently, if she be length of days, and long life, and peace shall tray us, a thousand times more faithless, un- they add to thee. Let not mercy and truth grateful, and perfidious than she. What an forsake thee: bind them about thy neck, airy phantom is human friendship!
write them upon the table of thine heart. So I wish, however, through the favour of hea- shalt thou find favour, and good understandven, that what is only an airy nothing to other ing in the sight of God and man. Happy is men may become a reality in regard to you, the man that findeth wisdom, and the man and I will take it for granted, that you have that getteth understanding. For the merfound what so many others have sought in chandise of it is better than the merchandise vain. Alas! I must, yes, here I must deplore of silver, and the gain thereof than fine gold. your destiny. Multiplied, so lo speak, in the She is more precious than rubies; and all the person of that other self, you are going to mul- things thou canst desire are not to be compartiply your troubles. You are going to feel in ed with her,” chap. iii. 1—3. 13—15. that other self ills which hitherto you have felt How shall we reconcile these things. To only in yourself. You will be disgraced in his say, as some do, that the author of Proverbs disgraces, sick in his sicknesses. If for a few i speaks of the spiritual rewards of virtue, and years you enjoy one another, as if each were the author of 'Ecclesiastes of the temporal a whole world, presently, presently death will state of it, is to cut the knot instead of untycut the bond, presently death will dissolve the ing it. Of many solutions, which we have no tender ties, and separate your entwined hearts. time now to examine, there is one that bids Then you will find yourself in a universal soli- fair to remove the difficulty; that is, that tude. You will think the whole world is dead. when the author of the Book of Proverbs The universe, the whole universe, will seem to makes temporal advantages the rewards of you a desert uninhabited, and uninhabitable. virtue, he speaks of some rare periods of soAh! You who experience this, shall I call you ciety, whereas the author of Ecclesiastes de to attest these sorrowful touths' Shall I open scribes the common general state of things. again wounds which time has hardly closed? Perhaps the former refers to the happy time, Shall I recall those tremulous adieus, those in which the example of the piety of David cruel separations, which cost you so many re- being yet recent, and the prosperity of his grets and tears. Shall I expose to view bones, successor not having then infected either the and infection, and putrefaction, the only re- heart of the king or the morals of his subjects, mains of him who was your support in trouble, reputation, riches, and honours, were bestowyour counsel in difficulty, your consolation in ed on good men: but the second, probably, adversity?
speaks of what came to pass soon after. la
the first period life was amiable, and living in hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that the world delicious: but of the second the can hold no water,” Jer. ii. 13. Wise Man says, “I hated life because the This was what influenced Christians, more work that is wrought under the sun is griev- inexcusable in this respect than Jews and Paous unto me.
gans, because their religion breathes nothing To which of the two periods does the age but disgust with the world, and alienation in which we live belong Judge by the de- from the idols of life: and yet they are as scription given by the preacher as he calls him- much in love with worldly splendour, as eager self.
in pursuit of wealth, as much intoxicated Then mankind were ungrateful, the public with diversions, gaming, amusements, and disdid not remember the benefits conferred on sipations, as ever Jews and Pagans could posthem by individuals, and their services were sibly be. unrewarded. “There was a little city be This was the charm that operated on your sieged by a great king, who built great bul- ancestors; on those who governed the state warks against it, and there was found in it a before you, magistrates: on those who ascendpoor wise man, who by his wisdom delivered er this pulpit before you, ministers: on those the city, yet no man remembered that same who attended the worship of God in this place poor man," chap. ix. 14, 15.
before you, Christian people: all these, except Then courtiers, mean and ungrateful, base- a few, followed the multitude, ran, with the ly forsook their old master, and paid their world, to the same excess of riot, and made court to the heir apparent. "I saw all the the world their god, just as we all, except a living under the sun walking after the child, few, yet make the world our god, yet follow who shall stand up next instead of the king,' the multitude, yet run with the wicked, to the chap. iv. 15.
same excess of riot. Then strong oppressed the weak. “I con God, in order to undeceive mankind, and to sidered all the oppressions that are done un- dissolve the charms that fascinated their eyes, der the sun, and behold, the tears of such as often showed them the world in its true light. were oppressed, and they had no comforters, He often added extraordinary ills to the ordinary and on the side of their oppressors there was calamities of life; he made winds his angels, power, but they had no comforter."
and flaming fires his ministers," Ps. civ. t; he Then the courts of justice were corrupt. "I sent war, mortality, flaming eruptions, pestisaw the place of judgment, that wickedness lence, and earthquakes: in a word, he often was there"
chap. iii. 16. We will visited them, as he yet visits us, and with the not finish this disagreeable picture. “I hated same design. To them he says, as he yet says life, because the work that is wrought under to us, “Love not the world, neither the things the sun is grievous unto me."
that are in the world. Vanity of vanities, all Such is the idea the Wise Man gives us of is vanity. Fear God, and keep his commandthe world. Yet these vain and precarious ob- ments, for this is the whole duty of man, jects, this world so proper to inspire a rational John ii. 15; Eccles. i. 2, and xiii. 13. All this mind with disgust, this life so proper to excite was useless, just as it is now.
Then man hatred in such as know what is worthy of es- kind made a god of the world, and so they teem, this is that which has always fascinated, continue to do. and which yet continues to fascinate the bulk My brethren, taste is not subject to arguof mankind.
ment, and if life seems to you supremely amiThis it was that infatuated the inhabitants able in spite of all the imperfections and sins of the old world, who, even after God had that imbitter it, in vain do I stand here depronounced this dreadful decree, “My spirit scribing it to you. However, condescend at shall not always strive with man, for he is least to see whither every living thing is tendflesh, and after a hundred and twenty years ing; and allow me to perform the duty of this he shall be no more,'t forgot themselves in the day, which requires me to treat of the dying and pursuit of present pleasure, “ They were eat- the dead. A modern author has published a ing and drinking, marrying and giving in mar- book with this singular title, “ Subterranean riage, until the day that the food came, and Rome," a title full of instruction and truth, took them all away,” Matt. xxiv. 38, 39. a title that may serve to teach that living
This was what bewitched the whole hea- haughty city, that there is another Rome then world, who lived “without hope, and dead and buried, a natural image of what the without God in the world,” Eph. ii. 12. present Romne must shortly be. Such an ob
This was what enchanted that highly favour- ject I present to you. I present you your reed nation, which God distinguished from the public, not the republic you see composed of rest of the world, and to which he gave his living magistrates, generals, and heads of familaws, and intrusted his prophecies, yet they lies; this is superficial, the surface of your re“forsook the fountain of living waters, and public: but I would fix your eyes on an interior
subterranean republic. There is a state under * The sense given to this passage by our author is your feet. Go down, go into the cells under agreeable both to the French 'version, and to the origi- the earth. Lift up the lids of the coffins. bal. J'ai oui tous les vivons qui marchent sous le so: What do you see there, what have you found leel apres l'enfant, qui est la seconde personne qui doit there? My God! What inhabitants
: What regis filium et hæredem, quod a rege secundus est, ac citizens! What a republic! post eum regnaturus. Poli. Synops. in loc.
This is not all. Go farther. Carry your | Gen. vi. 3. The sense given by Mr. Saurin is that of many commentators
, and seems preferable to our English eyes beyond these caverns. Exercise that text, which is obscure. Accipiunt de spatio pænitentiæ faith which gives substance to things not seen. isti ætati concesso, &c.
Think of the souls which once animated this
dust, and ashes, and bones. Where are they? | lose in regard to the glittering advantages of Some are in a state of felicity, others in depths the world, we gain in regard to real and subof misery. Some in the bosom of God, others stantial advantages; if we ourselves understand in prison with devils. Some drinking of rivers that religion which we teach others, and if we of pleasures for evermore, others having their feel the spirit of that calling, with which God portion in the lake of fire, the smoke rising has honoured us. May God grant, may the up for ever and ever, Ps. xxxvi. 8, and xvi. God who has honoured us, grant us such 11; and Rev. xix. 3. To say all in one word, knowledge and virtue as are essential to the some for abandoning themselves to the world worthy discharge of our duty! May he bestow are suffering such punishments as the world all that intrepidity, which is always necessary inflicts on its slaves: and others for devoting to resist the enemies of our holy reformation, themselves to God, are receiving such rewards and sometimes those, who under the name of as God bestows on his servants. May this reformed, endeavour to counteract and destroy contrast penetrate, affect, and transform you it! May he support us under the perpetual all! And thou, great God, give weight to our contradictions we meet with in the course of exhortations, in order to give success to our our ministry, and invigorate us with the hopes benedictions!
of those high degrees in glory, which await I gladly embrace the opportunity of assist such as "turn many to righteousness, who ing at this solemnity, of coming to you, my shall shine as the stars for ever and ever!" dear brethren, at this auspicious season, and of Dan. xij. 3. preaching to you, now that it is allowable to Merchants, you are the pillars of this reopen the bottom of a heart always full of most public, and you are the means of our enjoying respectful affection for this city and this church.* prosperity and plenty. May God continue to Receive my good wishes as affectionately as bless your commerce! May he cause winds they are dictated.
and waves, nature, and every element, to unite Magistrates, to whom Providence has com- in your favour! Above all, may God teach mitted the reins of government, you are above you the holy skill of placing your "heart where our benediction. But we are ministers of a your treasure is;” of making yourselves friends Master who governs all mankind, and from that of the “mammon of unrighteousness,” Matt. source of splendour, magnificence, and wealth, vi. 21; Luke xvi. 9; of sanctifying your proswe derive the benedictions, which we diffuse perity by your charity, especially on such a on your august heads. May God inspire you day as this
, in which we should make conwith that elevation of mind, that magnanimity, science of paying a homage of love to a “God and holy ambition, which impel magistrates, who is love," and whose goodness has brought with whom he has intrusted the sword of jus. us to see this day. tice, to found all their deliberations and decrees Fathers and mothers of families, with whom on equity! May God inspire you with such I have the honour and happiness of joining charity, condescension, and affability, as may myself, may God help us to consider our chilblend the parent with the master! May God dren not merely as formed for this world, but inspire you with such humility and self-denial as intelligent and immortal beings made for as incline Christian magistrates to lay their eternity! May God grant, we may be infipower at the feet of the great Supreme, and to nitely 'inore desirous to see them happy in place their glory in rendering to God a faithful heaven than prosperous on earth! May God account of their administration! Great will continue these children, so necessary to the that account be. You are, to a certain degree, pleasure of our lives, to our last moments! responsible both for the temporal and eternal God grant, if we be required to give them up happiness of this people. The eternal happi- to the grave, we may have all the submission ness of a people often depends on the conduct that is necessary to sustain such violent shocks. of their governors, on the care they take to My brethren, this article cuts the thread of restrain licentiousness, to suppress scandalous my discourse. May God answer all the prayers books, to make solemn festivals observed, to I have uttered, and that far greater number procure wise, zealous, and faithful ministers which I have suppressed! Amen. for the church. Magistrates, who enter into these noble designs, have a right to expect from God all the assistance necessary to effect them.
1 PETER ii. 2. work of salvation, successors of the apostles in the work of the ministry" for the edifying of Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and the body of Christ!" Eph. iv. 12, God has set
pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war narrow limits to what the world calls our prefer
against the soul. ment and fortune. The religion we profess
The words you have heard, my brethren, does not allow us to aspire after such high- offer four subjects of meditation to your minds. sounding titles, eminent posts, and splendid First, the nature of the passions secondly, the equipages, as confound the minister of tempo- disorders of them--thirdly, the remedies to be ral kings with the ministers of that Jesus whose applied—and lastly, the motives that engage kingdom is not of this world:” but what we us to subdue them. In the first place we will
give you a general idea of what the apostle • Of Rotterdam.
calls “fleshly lusts,” or in modern style the
passions. We will examine secondly, the war | prejudice a greater interest. Observe well this which they wage
against the soul.” Our last expression, as far as may be without prejuthird part will inform you of the means of ab- dice to a greater interest. The truth of our staining from these fleshly lusts. And in the second reflection depends on this restriction. last place we will endeavour to make you feel 3. A being composed of two substances, one the power of this motive, “as strangers and of which is more excellent than the other; a pilgrims,” and to press home this exhortation being placed between two interests, one of of the apostle, “Dearly beloved, I beseech you which is greater than the other, ought, when as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly these two interests clash, to prefer the more lusts, which war against the soul.”
noble before the less noble, the greater interest I. In order to understand the nature of the before the less. This third principle is a third passions, we will explain the subject by a few clew to what St. Peter calls "lusts,” or paspreliminary remarks.
sions. Man has two substances, and two in1. An intelligent being ought to love every terests. As far as he can without prejudicing thing that can elevate, perpetuate, and make his eternal interest he ought to endeavour to him happy; and to avoid whatever can degrade, promote his temporal interest: but when the confirie, and render him miserable. This, far two clash he ought to sacrifice the less to the from being a human depravity, is a perfection greater. “Fleshly lusts” is put for what is irof nature. Man has it in common with celes- regular and depraved in our desires, and what tial intelligences, and with God himself. This makes us prefer the body before the soul, a reflection removes a false sense, which the temporal before an eternal interest. That this language of St. Peter may seem at first to con- is the meaning of the apostle is clear from his vey, as if the apostle meant by eradicating calling these passions or“Justs fleshly.” What
fleshly lusts” to destroy the true interests of is the meaning of this word The Scripture man. The most ancient enemies of the Christian generally uses the word in two senses. Somereligion loaded it with this reproach, because times it is literally and properly put for flesh, they did not understand it; and some super- and sometimes it signifies sin. St. Peter calls ficial people, who know no more of religion the passions “fleshly” in both these senses; in than the surface, pretend to render it odious the first, because some come from the body, as by the same means. Under pretence that the voluptuousness, anger, drunkenness; and in the Christian religion forbids ambition, they say it second, because they spring from our depravity. degrades man, and under pretence that it for- Hence the apostle Paul puts among the bids misguided self-love, they say it makes man works of the flesh both those which have miserable. A gross error! A false idea of their seat in the body, and those which have Christianity! If the gospel humbles, it is to in a manner no connexion with it. “ Now the elevate us; if it forbids a self-love ill-directed, works of the flesh are these, adultery, lasciviit is in order to conduct us to substantial happi- ousness, idolatry, heresies, envyings.” Acness. By “fleshly lusts,” St. Peter does not cording to this the “works of the flesh” are not mean such desires of the heart as put us on only such as are seated in the flesh (for envy aspiring after real happiness and true glory. and heresy cannot be of this sort,) but all de
2. An intelligent being united to a body, and praved dispositions. lodged, if I may speak so, in a portion of matter This is a general idea of the passions: but under this law, that according to the divers as it is vague and obscure, we will endeavour motions of this matter he shall receive sensa to explain it more distinctly, and with this tions of pleasure or pain, must naturally love view we will show—first what the passions do to excite within himself sensations of pleasure, in the mind-next what they do in the senses and to avoid painful feelings. This is agreea- | -thirdly, what they are in the inaginationble to the institution of the Creator. He in- and lastly, what they are in the heart. Four tends, for reasons of adorable wisdom, to pre-portraits of the passions, four explications of serve a society of mankind for several ages on the condition of man. In order to connect the earth. To accomplish this design, he has so matter more closely, as we show you what ordered it, that what contributes to the support "fleshly lusts” are in these four views, we will of the body shall give the soul pleasure, and endeavour to convince you that in these four that which would dissolve it would give pain, respects they “war against the soul.” The 80 that by these means we may preserve our second part of our discourse therefore, which selves. Aliments are agreeable; the dissolution was to treat of the disorders of the passions, of the parts of our bodies is painful; love, hatred, will be included in the first, which explains and anger, properly understood, and exercised their nature. to a certain degree, are natural and fit. The 1. The passions produce in the mind a strong stoics, who annihilated the passions, did not attention to whatever can justify and gratify know man, and the schoolmen, who to comfort them. The most odious objects may be so people under the gout or the stone, told them placed as to appear agreeable, and the most that a rational man ought not to pay any re- lovely objects so as to appear odious. There gard to what passed in his body, never made is no absurdity so palpable but it may be made many disciples among wise men. This observa- to appear likely; and there is no truth so clear tion affords us a second clew to the meaning but it may be made to appear doubtful. A of the apostle: at least it gives us a second pre- passionate man fixes all the attention of his caution to avoid an error. By “fleshly lusts” mind on sueh sides of objects as favour his pas'he does not mean a natural inclination to pre- sion, and this is the source of innumerable false serve the body and the ease of life; he allows judgings, of which we are every day witnesses love, hatred, and anger, to a certain degree, and authors. and as far as the exercise of them does not If you observe all the passions, you will find
they have all this character. What is vengeance mind is limited, his soul is in chains, his “fleshly in the mind of a vindictive man? It is a fixed passions war against his soul.” attention to all the favourable lights in which Having examined the passions in the mind, vengeance may be considered; it is a continual let us consider them in the senses. To comstudy to avoid every odious light in which the prehend this, recollect what we just now said, subject may be placed. On the one side there ihat the passions owe their origin to the Creais a certain deity in the world, who has made tor, who instituted them for the purpose of revenge a law. This deity is worldly honour, preserving us. When an object would injure and at the bar of this judge to forget injuries is health or life, it is necessary to our safety, ibat mean, and
pardon them cowardice. On the there should be an emotion in our senses to other side vengeance disturbs society, usurps affect a quick escape from the danger; fear the office of a magistrate, and violates the pre- does this. A man struck with the idea of sudcepts of religion. A dispassionate man, ex- den danger has a rapidity which he could not amining without prejudice this question, Ought have in a tranquil state, or during a cool trial I to revenge the injury I have received? would of his power. It is necessary, when an enemy weigh all these motives, consider each apart, approaches to destroy us, that our senses should and all together, and would determine to act so move as to animate us with a power of reaccording as the most just and weighty rea-sistance. Anger does this, for it is a collection sons should determine him: but a revengeful of spirits . . . . but allow me to borrow here inan considers none but the first, he pays no the words of a modern philosopher, who has attention to the last; he always exclaims my admirably expressed the motions excited by the honour, my honour; he never says my religion passions in our bodies. “ Before the sight of and my salvation.
an object of passion,” says he, “the spirits What is hatred? It is a close attention to a were diffused through all the body to preserve man's imperfections. Is any man free? Js every part alike, but on the appearance of this any man so imperfect as to have nothing good new object the whole system is shaken; the in him? Is there nothing to compensate his greater part of the animal spirits rush into all defects. This man is not handsorne, but he is the exterior parts of the body, in order to put wise: his genius is not lively, but his heart is it into a condition proper to produce such mosincere: he cannot assist you with money, but tions as aro necessary to acquire the good, or he can give you much good advice, supported to avoid the evil now present. If it happen by an excellent example: he is not either prince, that the power of man is unequal to his wants, king, or emperor, but he is a man, a Christian, these same spirits distribute themselves so as a believer, and in all these respects he deserves to make him utter mechanically certain words
The passionate man turns away his and cries, and so as to spread over his counteeyes from all these advantageous sides, and at nance and over the rest of his body an air tends only to the rest. Is it astonishing that capabie of agitating others with the same pashe hates a person, in whom he sees nothing sion with which he himself is moved. For as but imperfection? Thus a counsellor opens men and other animals are united together by and sets forth his cause with such artifice that eyes and ears, when any one is agitated he law seeins to be clearly on bis side; he forgets necessarily shakes all others that see and hear one fact, suppresses one circumstance, omits to him, and naturally produces painful feelings in draw one inference, which being brought for their imaginations, which interest them in his ward to view entirely change the nature of the relief. The rest of the spirits rush violently subject, and his client loses his cause. In the into the heart, the lungs, the liver, and the same manner, a defender of a false religion other vitals, in order to lay all these parts under always revolves in his mind the arguments that contribution, and hastily to derive from them seem to establish it, and never recollects those as quick as possible the spirits necessary for the which subvert it. He will curtail a sentence, preservation of the body in these extraordinary cut off what goes before, leave out what follows, efforts."* Such are the movements excited by and retain only such detached expressions as the passions in the senses, and all these to a seem to countenance his error, but which in certain degree are necessary for the preservaconnexion with the rest would strip it of all tion of our bodies, and are the institutions of probability. What is still more singular is, our Creator: but three things are necessary to that love to true religion, that love, which, preserve order in these emotions. First, they under the direction of reason, opens a wide field must never be excited in the body without the of argument and evidence, engages us in this direction of the will and the reason. Secondly, sort of false judging, when we give ourselves they must always be proportional, I mean, the up to it through passion or prejudice.
emotion of fear, for example, must never be, This is what the passions do in the mind, except in sight of objects capable of hurting and it is easy to comprehend the reason St. us; the emotion of anger must never be, except Peter had to say in this view, “fleshly lusts in sight of an enemy, who actually has both war against the soul.” Certainly one of the the will and the power of injuring our wellnoblest advantages of a man is to reason, to being. And thirdly, they must always stop examine proofs and weigh motives, to consider when and where we will they should. When an object on every side, to combine the various the passions subvert this order, they violate arguments that are alleged either for or against three wise institutes of our Creator. a proposition, in order on these grounds to The emotions excited by the passions in our regulate our ideas and opinions, our hatred and senses are not free. An angry man is carried our love. The passionate man renounces this advantage, he never reasons in a passion, his * Malebranche, Recherche de la verite l. 6. c. 2.