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trade; so much promotion in the army; so plishment of that which follows. “I will gather much progress in the sciences; and so much you from among the people, and assemble you prosperity in the several professions of many of from the countries where ye have been scatterus, who, according to the world, are more hap- ed.” When is it that so many Christians, who py in the land of their exile, than they were in degenerate as they are, still love religion; when their own country?
is it that they shall repair the insults they have Why has God been pleased to signalize his offered to it? When is it, that so many chilfavours to certain individuals of the nations, and dren who have been torn froin their fathers, have extended to us a protecting arm? Why, shall be restored; or rather, when shall we see when indigence and exiles seemed to enter their them restored to the church, from whose bosom houses together, have we seen affluence, bene- they have been plucked? When is it that we diction, and riches emanate, if we may so speak, shall see in our country what we see at this from the bosom of charity and beneticence? day, Christians emulous to build churches, to
By what miracle have so great a number of consecrate them, there to render God the early our confessors and martyrs been liberated from homage due to his Majesty, and to participate their tortures and their chains:
in the first favours he there accords. "Oh! From what principle proceeds the extraordi- se that make mention of the Lord, keep not nary difference, God has put between those silence; give him no rest till he establish, and of our countrymen, who, without consulting till he make Jerusalení a praise in the earth,” “flesh and blood, have followed Jesus Christ Isa. Ixii. 5, 6. “Give ear, O Shepherd of without the camp, bearing his reproach," and Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock, those who have wished to join the interests of thou that dwellest between the cherubim shine mammon with those of heaven? Gal. i. 16; forth. Before Ephraim and Benjamin, and Heb. xiii. 13.
Manasseh, stir up thy strength, and come and We are masters of whatever property with save us,” Ps. Ixxx. 1, 2. "O'Lord God of which it pleased Providence to invest us on our hosts, how long wilt thou be angry against departure; but our brethren cannot dispose of the prayer of thy people?" ver. 4. " Thou theirs but with vexatious restrictions and im- shalt arise, and have mercy on Zion: for the posts.
time to favour her, yea, the set time is come. We have over our children the rights which For thy servants take pleasure in stones, and nature, society, and religion have given us; we favour the dust thereof. Then the heathen can promise both to ourselves and to them the / shall fear the name of the Lord, and all the protection of the laws, while we shall continue kings of the earth thy glory. When the Lord to respect the laws, which we teach them to shall build up Zion; when he shall regard the do. But our countrymen, on leaving their prayer of the destitute, this shall be written houses for a few hours, know not on their re- for the generation to come; and the people turn, whether they shall find those dear parts which shall be created shall praise the Lord; of themselves, or whether they shall be dragged for he hath looked down from the height of away to confinement in a convent, or thrown his sanctuary,” Ps. cii. 13, &c. May this be into a jail.
the first subject of the prayers we shall this Whenever the sabbaths and festivals of the day offer to God in this holy place. church arrive, we go with our families to render But asking of him favours so precious, let homage to the Supreme; we rise up in a throng us ask with sentiments which ensure success. with a song of triumph in the house of our May the purity of the worship we render to God; we make it resound with hymns; we hear, God in the churches he has preserved, and in the Scriptures; we offer up our prayers; we par- those he has also allowed to build, obtain reticipate of his sacraments; we anticipate the edification of those that have been demolished. eternal felicities. But our countrymen have May our charity to brethren, the companions no part in the joy of our feasts; they are to of our exile, obtain a re-union with the brethren, them days of mourning; it is with difficulty in from whom we have been separated by the caan obscure part of their house, and in the lamities of the times. And while God shall still mortal fear of detection, that they celebrate retard this happy period, may our respect for some hasty act of piety and religion.
our rulers, may our zeal for the public good, We, when conceiving ourselves to be extend- may our punctuality in paying the taxes, may ed on the bed of death, can call our ministers, our gratitude for the many favours we have and open to them our hearts, listen to their received in these provinces, which equalize us gracious words, and drink in the sources of with its natural subjects; and compressing in their comfort. But our countrymen are pur- my exhortations and prayers, not only my sued to the last moments of their life by their countrymen, but all who compose this assembly, enemies, and having lived temporizing, they may the manner in which we shall serve God die temporizing.
amid the infirmities and miseries inseparable We find then as the captive Jews, the ac- from this valley of lears, ensure to us, my brecomplishment of the prophecy of my text; and thren, that after having joined our voices to we enjoy, during the years of our dispersion, those choirs which compose the militant church, favours similar to those which soothed the Jews we shall be joined to those that form the church during their captivity.
triumphant, and sing eternally with the angels, Bus can we promise ourselves that ours shall and with the multitude of the redeemed of all come to a similar close? The mercy of God on nations, and languages, the praises of the our behalf has already accomplished the pro- Creator. God grant us the grace. To whom mise in the text, “I will be to them as a little be honour and glory henceforth and for ever. sanctuary in the countries where they are Amen. come." But when shall we see the accom
those lamentations heard in one part of the SERMON XCV.
church for forty years, and which awful melody
has latterly been renewed, if we sung our saON FESTIVALS, AND PARTICULARLY the Creator require of the creature? "O Lord,
cred hymns with a devotion that the praises of ON THE SABBATH-DAY. righteousness belongeth unto thee, but unto us
confusion of faces. The Lord is righteous, Isatau lviii. 13, 14.
though we have rebelled against him," Dan.
ix. 7. 9. Happy those who groan under the If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, strokes for the sins they have committed, pro
from doing thy pleasure on my holy day, and vided the school of adversity make them wise. call the Sabbath a delight; the holy of the Lord, Happy those of you, my brethren, who are honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing simply the spectators of those calamities, prothy own ways, nor finding thy oun pleasure, vided you abstain from the sins which have nor speaking thine own words; then thou shalt occasioned them, and become wise at the exdelight thyself in the Lord, and I will cause pense of others. thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, This is the design of my discourse, in which and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy fa- I am to address you on the respect due to the ther; for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken il. solemn feasts, and to the sabbath-day in par
“When will the new moon be gone, that we ticular, leaving conscience to decide whether may sell corn and the sabbath, that we may it be caprice, or necessity, which prompts us set forth wheat."" This was the language that to choice; whether it be inconsideration, or the prophet Amos put into the mouth of the mere accident; or whether it has been compulprofane men in his own time. It is less ex- sion, through the dreadful enormities into pressive of their presumptive speeches, than of which we are plunged, in regard of the profathe latent wickedness which festered in their nation of religious festivals, and of the sabbathhearts. Religion and politics were closely con- day in particular, that people have for so long nected in the Hebrew nation. The laws in- a time justly branded us with reproach: pro flicted the severest penalties on those that vio- faneness alone, unless we make efforts to reforma lated the exterior of religion. The execrable it, is sufficient to bring down the wrath of men, of whom the prophet speaks, could not God on these provinces. May Heaven deign absent themselves from the solemn festivals to avert those awful presages! May the Alwith impunity; but they worshipped with con- í mighty engrave on our hearts the divine prestraint; they regretted the loss of their time; cept inculcated to-day, that we may happily they reproached God with every moment inherit the favours he has promised! May be wasted in his house; they ardently wished the enable us so "to make the sabbaths our de feasts to be gone, that they might return, not light,” that we may be made partakers of "the only to their avocations, but also to their heritage of Jacob;" I would say, that of "the crimes; they said in their hearts, “When will finisher of our faith. Amen." the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn: "If thou turn away thy foot from the saband the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat” bath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day, Amos viii. 5.
and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Against this disposition of mind, God bas Lord, honourable, and shalt honour him, not denounced by the ministry of this same pro- doing thy ways, nor finding thine own pleaphet, those very awful judgments, which he sure, nor speaking thine words; then thou shalt has painted in the deepest shades. The Lord delight thyself in the Lord, and I will cause hath sworn:-“I will turn your feasts into thee to ride on the high places of the earth, mourning, and all your songs into lamentation. and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy Behold the day cometh, saith the Lord God, father, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken that I will send a famine in the land; not a it.” This is our text, and here is our design. famine of bread, not a thirst of water, but of We shall consider the words, hearing the words of the Lord. And they I. With regard to the Jewish church; shall wander from sea to sea, and from the II. With regard to the Christian church; or north even to the east; they shall run to and to be more explicit, God has made two very fro to hear the word of the Lord, and shall not different worlds, the world of nature, and the find it.”
world of grace. Both these are the heritage of My brethren, are you not persuaded, that the faithful, but in a very different way. The the impious men, of whom the prophet speaks, Jews contemplating the world of grace as a dishave had imitators in succeeding times whence tant object, had their imagination principally is it then that some among us have been struck impressed with the kingdom of nature. Hence, precisely with the same strokes, if they have in their form of thanksgiving, they said, “Blessnot been partakers of the same crimes whence ed be God who hath created the wheat; blessed comes this famine of God's word, my dear be God who hath created the fruit of the vine.” countrymen, with which we have been afflicted? Christians, on the contrary, accounting themWhence comes the necessity imposed upon us selves but strangers in this world, place all their to wander from sea to sea, to recover this di- glory in seeing the marvels of the world of grace. vine pasture, if we have not slighted it in places Hence it is the common theme of their thankswhere it existed in so much abundance and givings to say, “Blessed be the God and Father unction? Whence comes those awful catas- of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to his trophes that have changed our solemn feasts abundant inercy, hath begotten us again unto into mourning, if we celebrated them, when it a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ was in our power, with joy? Whence comes from the dead," 1 Pet. i. 3, 4. Thus it was in
a point of order that the difference of dispensa- 1 moon, to whom they gave the name of Tsis.” tions was apparent in the two churches. The God, to preserve his people from these errors, Jew in his sabbath, celebrated the marvels of instituted a festival which sa pped the whole nature; but the Christian, exalted to sublimer system, and which avowedly contemplated views, celebrated the marvels of grace: and this every creature of the universe, as the producmemorable day of the Saviour's resurrection, tion of the Supreme Being. And this may be the day in which he saw the work of redemp- the reason why Moses remarked to the Jews on tion finished, and the hopes of the church leaving Egypt, that God renewed the institution crowned; two objects to which we shall call of the sabbath. The passage I have in view is your attention.
in the fifth chapter of Deuteronomy. “ReI. We shall consider the words of the text member that thou wast a servant in the land of with regard to the Jews. With that view we Egypt, and the Lord thy God brought thee out, shall state, 1. The reasons of the institution of therefore he commandeth thee to keep his sabthe Sabbath; 2. The manner in which the pro- bath." phet required it to be celebrated; 3. The pro We must consequently regard the sabbathinises made to those who worthily hallow the day as a high avowal of the Jews of their desabbath-day.
testation of idolatry, and of their ascribing to Four considerations gave occasion for the in. God alone the origin of the universe. An exstitution of the sabbath-day. God was wishful pression of Ezekiel is to the same effect: he calls to perpetuate two original truths on which the the sabbath a sign between God and his people: whole evidence of religion devolves; the first is, “I gave them my sabbaths, to be a sign between that the world had a beginning; the second is, me and them, that they might know that I am that God is its author. You feel the force of the Lord that sanctify them,” Ezek. xx. 12. It both these points, without the aid of illustra- is for this very reason, that the prophets exclaim tion, because, if the world be eternal, there is so strongly against the violation of the sabbath: some being coeval with the godhead; and if it is for the same reason that God commanded there be any being coeval with the godhead, it to be observed with so high a sanction: it is there is a being which is independent of it, and for the same reason that the sabbath-breakers which is not indebted to God for its existence: were so rigorously punished; even that one for and if there be any being which is not depend- gathering a bundle of sticks, was stoned by the ant on God, I no longer see in him all the per- people. The law expressly enjoins that those fection which constitutes his essence: our devo- who profane the festival should be awfully anation is irregular; it ought to be divided between thematized. The passage is very remarkable. all the beings which participate of his perfec- “ Ye shall therefore keep the sabbath; for it is tions.
holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall 2. But if the world have not God for its au- surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any thor, it is requisite to establish the one or the work therein, that soul shall be cut off from other of these suppositions, either that the world amongst his people,” Exod. xxxi. 14. This exitself has a superintending intelligence, or that pression is appropriate to the great anathema, it was formed by chance. If you suppose the which was always followed by death. Whence world to have been governed by an intelligence should proceed so many cautions, so many ripeculiar to itself, you fall into the difficulty you gours, so many threatenings, so many promises? wish to avoid. You associate with God a be- / You cannot account for thein, if the sabbath be ing, that, participating of his perfections, must placed among the ceremonial institutions of the participate also of his worship. On the con- | Hebrew code.* trary, if you suppose it was made by chance, 3. God was wishful to promote humanity. you not only renounce all the light of reason, With that view he prescribed repose to the serbut you sap the whole foundation of faith: for, vants and handmaids; that is, to domestics and if chance have derived us from nothing, it may slaves. Look on the situation of slaves: it is as reduce us to nothing again; and if our existence oppressive as that of the beasts. They saw no depend on the caprice of fortune, the immor- termination of their servitude but after the extality of the soul is destitute of proof, infidelity piration of seven years: and it might happen, obtains a triumph, religion becomes a pun, and that their masters seeing the servitude about to the hopes of a life to come are a chimera.-It expire, would become more rigorous, with a was therefore requisite, that there should re- view to indemnify themselves beforehand for main in the church this inonument of the cre- the services they were about to lose. It was ation of the universe.
requisite to remind them, that God interests The second reason was to prevent idolatry. himself for men whose condition was so abject This remark clains peculiar attention, many of and oppressive. This reminds me of a fine pasthe Mosaic precepts being founded on the situ- sage in Plato, who says, “that the gods, ation in which the Jews were placed. Let this moved by the unhappy situation of slaves, have general remark be applied to the subject in instituted the sacred festivals to procure them hand. The people, on leaving Egypt, were relaxation from labour.”And Cicero says, separated from a nation that worshipped the “ that the festivals are destined to suspend the sun, the moon, and the stars. I might prove it disputes between freemen, and the labours of by various documents of antiquity. A passage slaves."| For the motives of humanity, it is of Diodorus of Sicily, shall suffice: "The an- subjoined in the precept, “Thou shali do no cient Egyptians (he says,) struck with the beauty of the universe, thought it owed its ori * It is to be regretted that several writers in our own gin to two eternal divinities, that presided over country have latterly attempted to class the sabbath amoug all the others: the one was the sun, to whom the ceremonial institutions, which is a perversion of its
design. they gave the name of Osiris; the other was the + De legibus lib. 2
manner of work, neither thou, nor thine ox, of Egypt. “The seventh day is the sabbath of nor thine ass."
the Lord thy God,—that thy man-servant, and I may here put the same question that St. thy maid-servant may rest as well as thou. And Paul once put to the Corinthians, “Doth God remember that thou wast a servant in the land take care for oxen?" No; but there is a consti- of Egypt, and that the Lord thy God brought tutional sympathy, without which the heart is thee thence, through a mighty hand and outdestitute of compassion. So is the import of a stretched arm: therefore the Lord thy God comtext in St. John, No man hath seen God at mandeth thee to keep the sabbath-day,” Deut. any time: if we love one another, God dwelleth v. 14, 15. in us, and liis love is perfect in us.--If any man 4. In a word, the design of God in the instisay, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a tution of the sabbath, was to recall to the minds liar. For he that loveth not his brother whom of men the recollection of their original equality: he hath seen, how can he love God whom he he requires masters and servants alike to abstain hath not seen?" There is here an apparent de- from labour, 80 as in some sort to confound the fect in the argumentation, because the faults diversity of their conditions, and to abate that we may see in our brother, may obstruct our pride, of which superior rank is so common a attachment, which cannot be the case with re- source. gard to God. But the apostle's meaning was, There was among the heathens one festival that if an object striking the senses, as our bro- very singular, which they call the Saturnalia. ther, does not excite affection, we cannot love It was one of the most ancient festivals of paan object that is abstract, as the Divine Nature. ganism. Macrobius affirms, that it was celeNow, those who are habitually cruel to animals, brated in Greece long before the foundation of are generally less tender, and they insensibly Rome. The masters gave the servants a treat; lose that constitutional sympathy which pro- they placed them at their own table, and duces the affections of the heart and the mind. clothed them in their own raiment. The heaThis constitutional sympathy excites in us a thens say, that this festival was instituted by painful impression, that on seeing a wounded king Janus, to commemorate the age of Saturn, man, we are spontaneously moved to succour when men were equal, and unacquainted with the afflicted. This sympathy is excited not the distinctions of rank and fortune. The inonly by the sight of a man, but also by the sight stitution was highly proper, being founded on of a beast, when treated with cruelty. Hence, fact, and it may serve as an illustration of our on habituating ourselves to be cruel lo animals, text. we do violence to our feelings, harden the heart, God in recalling to men the original equality and extinguish the sympathy of nature. Ah! of their condition, apprised them in what conhow suspicious should we be of virtues merely sisted the true excellence of man. It is not in rational, and unconnected with the heart. They the difference of rank, or what is called forare more noble indeed, but they are not so sure. tune. It consists in being men: it consists in We may also remark, that those employed in the image of God, after which we were made: slaughtering animals, are often wanting in ten- and consequently, the humblest of men made derness and affection. And this very notion in his image, are entitled to respect. illustrates several of the Mosaic laws, which This important reflection, I would inculcate appear at first destitute of propriety, but which on imperious masters, who treat their domes are founded on what we have just said. Such tics as the brutes destitute of knowledge. We is the law which prohibits eating of things stran- nust not, I grant, disturb the order of society: gled; such is the law on finding a bird's nest, the Scriptures themselves suppose the diversity which forbids our taking the dam with the of conditions. Hence they prescribe the duties young: such also is that where God forbids our of masters to their servants, and the duties of * seething a kid in his mother's milk," Gen. ix. servants to their masters. But rank cannot 4; Deut. xxii. 6, 7; Exod. xxiii. 19. In the last, sanction that haughty and disdainful carriage. some have thought that God was wishful to Do you know what you do in mauling those fortify the Jews against a superstitious custom whom certain advantages have placed in your of the heathens, who after having gathered the power? You degrade yourselves; you renounce fruits of the vine, seethed a kid in his mother's your proper dignity; and in assuming an extramilk, and then sprinkled the milk to Bacchus, neous glory, you seem but lightly to esteem that he might cruelly kill this animal which pre- that which is natural. I have said, that the sumes to browse on the vine consecrated to the glory of man does not consist in riches, nor in god. But I doubt, whether from all the ancient royalty, but in the excellence of his nature, in authors they can adduce a passage demonstra- the image of God, after which he was made, tive that this species of superstition was known and in the immortality to which he aspires. If to subsist in the time of Moses. This difficulty you despise your servants, you do not derive is obviated by the explication I propose: besides, your dignity from these sources, but from your it excites humanity by enjoining compassion to exterior condition; for, if you derive it from the animals, a duty inculcated by the heathens. sources I have noticed, you would respect the The Phrygians were prohibited from killing an persons committed to your care. This may ox that trod out the corn. The judges of the suttice for the reasons of the institution of the Areopagus exiled a boy, who had plucked out j sabbath, let us say a word on the manner in the eyes of a living owl; and they severely pu- which it must be celebrated. nished a man who had roasted a bull alive. The 2. On this subject, the less enlightened rabu duty of humanity is consequently a third motive bins have indulged their superstition more than of the institution of the sabbath. Hereby God on any other. Having distorted the idea of recalled to the recollection of the Jews the situ- the day, they would ascribe to the sabbath the ation in which they had been placed in the land power of conferring dignity on inanimate crea
tures: they even assign this reason, that God tions and licentious customs have originated prohibited their offering him any victim not a from an imaginary superstition, and not from week old; and circumcising their children till the word of God. that time; they assign, I say, this reason that Instead of the whimsical notions they had no creature could be worthy to be offered to imbibed, God required a conduct consonant to him, till he had first been consecrated by a sab- the injunctions of his law. The import of the bath!
phrase, “ doing thy own pleasure on my holy They have distorted also the obligation im- day," is, that thou follow not thy own caprice posed upon them of ceasing from labour. The in the notions thou hast formed of religion, but Rabbins have reduced to thirty-nine heads what I myself have prescribed. whatever they presume to be forbidden on that Instead of the imaginary excellence they atday. Each of those heads includes the minutiæ, tributed to the sabbath, God requires them to and not only the minutiæ, and things directly reverence it because it was a sign of commuopposed to the happiness of society, but also to nion with him; because in approaching him on the spirit of the precept. Some have even this day, they became more holy; because they scrupled to defend their own lives on that day then renewed their vows, and became more against their enemies. Ptolemy Lagus, and and more detached from idolatry, and in fine, Pompey after him, at the siege of Jerusalem, because on this day they became devoted to his availed themselves of this superstition. Antio- worship in a peculiar manner. This is the imchus Epiphanes perpetrated an action still more port of the expression, “it is holy to the Lord;" cruel and vile. He pursued the Jews to the I would say, it is distinguished, it is separated, caves, whither they had fled to hide from his from the other days of the week, for the duties vengeance. There, on the sabbath-day, they of religion. suffered themselves to be slaughtered as beasts, Instead of this rigorous sabbath, God requirwithout daring either to defend themselves or ed a cessation from all kinds of labour, which even to secure the entrance of their retreat. would tend to interrupt their meditations on
Some others, the Dositheans, a branch of all the marvels he had wrought for their counthe Samaritans, imposed a law of abiding the try. He especially required that they should whole day in whatever place they were found abstain froin travelling long journeys; so is the by the sabbath. We recollect the story of the gloss which some have given to the words, “ If Jew, who having fallen into an unclean place, thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath,” refused to be taken out on the sabbath-day; as though, perhaps, withdrawing the foot from also the decision of the Bishop of Saxony on the sabbath is a metaphorical expression for that point, who, after knowing his scruple, ceasing to profane it.” But withal, they condemned him to remain there the whole of were allowed to do works of mercy, whether the Sunday also, it being just that a Christian divine, or for the preservation of life. Hence sabbath should be observed with the same sanc- the maxim of their wiser men, that “the dantity as the Jewish.
gers of life superseded the sabbath.” And the They have likewise cast a gloom on the joy celebrated Maimonides has decided the lawfulwhich the faithful should cherish on this holy ness of the Jews besieging and defending cities day. It is a fact, that some of them fasted to on the sabbath-day. We see likewise in the the close of the day: to this custom the em- history of the Maccabees, that Matthias and peror Augustine alludes, when having remain- his sons defended themselves with resolution ed a whole day without meat, he wrote to Ti- on that day. Besides, they were always allowberias, that a Jew did not better observe the ed to walk what is called “a sabbath-day's fast of the sabbath, than he had observed it journey;" that is, two hundred cubits, the disthat day. But the greater number espoused tance between the camp and the tabernacle, the opposite side, and under a presumption that while they were in the desert: every Jew being the prophet promised the divine approbation to obliged to attend the divine service, it was rethose that “make the sabbath their delight,” quisite that this walk should be allowed. * they took the greater precaution to avoid what. This was the divine worship, which above all ever might make them sad. They imposed a objects must engross their heart, and especially, law to make three meals that day. They re- the reading of God's word. This, perhaps, is garded fasting the day which preceded, and the import of the phrase, which excites a very followed the sabbath, as a crime, lest it should different idea in our version, “nor speaking disturb the joy. They allowed more time for thine own words,” which may be read, that sleep than on the other days of the week; they thou mayest attach thyself to the word. had fine dresses for the sabbath; they reserved 3. It remains to consider the promise conthe best food, and the most delicious wines to nected with the observation of the sabbath. honour the festival: this is what they called “ Then thou shalt delight thyself in the Lord, “making the sabbath a delight!” this induced and I will cause thee to ride upon the high Plutarch to believe that they celebrated this places of the earth; and feed thee with the festival in honour of Bacchus, and that the heritage of Jacob thy father.” This promise word sabbath was derived from the Greek seba- is susceptible of a double import, the one litezein, a word appropriate to the licentious prac- ral, the other spiritual. tices indulged in the festivals of this false god. The literal refers to temporal prosperity; it They affirm, on not attaining the sublime of couched in figures consonant to the oriental devotion, that the cause is a deficiency of rejoicing. They even presume, that this joy * From the centre, the place of the Tabernacle, to the reaches to hell, and that the souls of Jews con- extremities of a camp of nearly three millions of people
could not be less than four miles. Hence the prohibition demned to its torments, have a respite on the of journeys of pleasure, and unholy diversions, seems to sabbath-day. Evident it is, that all those no- l hare been the object or ihe precept.