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casions! But alas! where were you, temporizers, with Christians. This being considered, what Nicodemuses, timorous souls: 'Where have you idea ought we to form of those Christians (if we been it is now a fortnight since you appeared may give that name to men who can entertain before the Lord your God, to renew your cove- such singular notions of Christianity,) who vennant with him. Ah! degenerate men, worthy tured to affirm, that the ideas of conditions, and of the most pointed and mortifying reproof, such reciprocal engagements, are dangerous expresas that which Deborah addressed to Reuben: sions, when applied to the evangelical covenant; Why didst thou stay “among the sheep-folds, that what distinguishes the Jews from Christo hear the bleating of the flocks,” Judges v. 16. tians is, that God then promised and required; You were with your gold, with your silver, sor- whereas now he promises, but requires nothing. did objects, to which you pay in this nation the My brethren, had I devoted my studies to comhomage which God peculiarly requires in cli- pose a history of the eccentricities of the human mates so happy. You were, perhaps, in the mind, I should have deemed it my duty to have temple of superstition; while we were assembled bestowed several years in reading the books, in in the house of the Most High. You were in which those systems are contained, that I might Egypt, preferring the garlic and onions to the have marked to posterity the precise degrees to milk and honey of Canaan; while we were on which men are capable of carrying such odious the borders of the promised land, to which God opinions. But having diverted them to other was about to give us admission.
pursuits, little, it is confessed, have I read of Poor children of those unhappy fathers! this sort of works: and all I know of the subject Where were you, while we devoted our off- may nearly be reduced to this, that there are spring to God who gave themn; while we led persons in these provinces who both read and those for admission to his table, who were ade- believe them. quately instructed; while we prayed for the fu Without attacking by a long course of causes ture admission of those who are yet deprived and consequences, a system so destructive of by reason of their tender age? Ah! you were itself, we will content ourselves with a single victims to the indifference, the cares, and ava test. Let them produce a single passage from rice of those who gave you birth! You are as- the Scriptures, in which God requires the ac sociated by them with those who are enemies quisition of knowledge, and engages to bestow to the reformed name; who, unable to convince it, without the least fatigue of reading, study, the fathers, hope, at least, to convince the chil- and reflection. Let them produce a passage, dren, and to extinguish in their hearts the mi- in which God requires us to possess certain vir. nutest sparks of truth! O God! if thy justice tues, and engages to communicate them, withhave already cut off those unworthy fathers, out enjoining us to subdue our senses, our temspare, at least, according to thy clemency, these perature, our passions, our inclination, in order unoffending creatures, who know not yet their that we may attain them. Let them produce right hand from their left; whom they would one passage from the Scriptures to prove, that detach from thy communion, before they are God requires us to be saved by the merits of acquainted with its purity!
Jesus Christ, and engages to do it, without the Would to God that this was all the cause of slightest sorrow for our past sins,—without the our complaint! Oh! where were you, while we least reparation of our crimes,—without precelebrated the sacrament of the Lord's supper? cautionary measures to avoid them,—without You, inhabitants of these provinces, born of re- the qualifying dispositions to participate the formed families, professors of the reformation! fruits of his passions. What am I saying! Let You, who are married, who are engaged in bu- them produce a text which overturns the hunsiness, who have attained the age of forty or dred, and the hundred more passages which we fifty years, without ever participating of the oppose to this gross supralapsarian system, and holy eucharist! There was a time, my bre- with which we are ever ready to confront its thren, among the Jews, when a man who should advocates. have had the assurance to neglect the rites We have said, my brethren, that this system which constituted the essence of the law, would destroys itself. Hence it was less with a view have been cut off from the people. This law to attack it, that we destined this article, than has varied in regard to circumstances; but in to apprize some among you of having adopted essence it still subsists, and in all its force. Let it, at the very moment you dream that you rehim apply this observation, to whom it pecu-ject and abhor it. We often fall into the error liarly belongs.
of the ancient Israelites; frequently forming as IÍ. Moses required the Israelites, in renew erroneous notions of the covenant which God ing their covenant with God, to consider what has contracted with us, as they did of that he constituted its essence: which, according to the had contracted with them. This people had views of the Lawgiver, was the reciprocal en violated the stipulations in a manner the most gagement. Be attentive to this term reciprocal; notorious in the world. God did not fulfil his it is the soul of my definition. What consti- engagements with them, because they refused tutes the essence of a covenant, is the reciprocal to fulfil their engagements to him. He reengagements of the contracting parties. This sumed the blessings he had so abundantly is obvious from the words of my text; that thou 'poured upon them; and, instead of ascribing the shouldst (stipulate or) enter. Here we distinctly cause to themselves, they had the assurance to find mutual conditions; here we distinctly find ascribe it to him. They said, “The temple of that God engaged with the Israelites to be their i the Lord, the temple of the Lord, the temple God; and they engaged to be his people. We of the Lord,” Jer. vii. 4. We are the chilelren proved, at the commencement of this discourse, of Abraham; forget not thy covenant.-And that the covenant of God with the Israelites, how often have not similar sentiments been was in substance the same as that contracted cherished in our hearts. How often has not the
same language been heard proceeding from our | illustration of the original terms which our lips? How often, at the moment we violate versions render “gall and wormwood.” They our baptismal vows; at the moment we are so include a metaphor taken from a man, who, far depraved as to falsify the oath of fidelity finding in his field weeds pernicious to his we have taken in the holy sacrament; how grain, should crop the strongest, but neglectoften, in short, does it not happen, that at the ing to eradicate the plant, incurs the inconmoment we break our covenant with God, we venience he wished to avoid. require him to be faithful by alleging—the The metaphor is pertinent. In every crime cross the satisfaction-the blood of Jesus we consider both the plant and the root proChrist. Ah! wretched man! fulfil thou the ductive of gall and wormwood; or, if you please, conditions to which thou hast subscribed; and the crime itself, and the principle which proGod will fulfil those he has imposed on him- duced it. It is not enough to crop, we must self. Be thou mindful of thy engagements, eradicate. It is not enough to be exempt from and God will not be forgetful of his. Hence, crimes, we must exterminate the principle. what constitutes the essence of a covenant is, For example, in theft, there is both the root, the mutual stipulations of the contracting par- and the plant productive of wormwood and ties. This is what we engaged to prove. gall. There is theft gross and refined; the act
IV. Moses required the Israelites to consider, of theft, and the principle of theft. To steal in renewing their covenant with God, the ex- the goods of a neighbour is the act, the gross tent of the engagement: “That thou shouldest act of theft; but, to indulge an exorbitant enter into covenant with the Lord thy God, wish for the acquisition of wealth;—to make and into his oath; that he may establish thee enormous charges;—to resist the solicitations to-day for a people unto himself; and that he of a creditor for payment;—to be indelicate as may be unto thee a God.” This engagement to the means of gaining money;—to reject the of God with the Jews implies, that he would mortifying claims of restitution, is refined fraud; be their God; or to comprehend the whole in or, if you please, the principle of fraud produca single word, that he would procure them tive of wormwood and gall.— It is the same a happiness correspondent to the eminence of with regard to impurity; there is the act and his perfections. Cases occur, in which the at the principle. The direct violation of the tributes of God are at variance with the hap- command," thou shalt not commit adultery," piness of men. It implies, for instance, an in- is the gross act. But to form intimate conconsistency with the divine perfections, not nexions with persons habituated to the vice, to only that the wicked should be happy, but also read licentious novels, to sing immodest songs, that the righteous should have perfect feli- to indulge wanton airs, is that refined impurity, city, while their purity is incomplete. There that principle of the gross act, that root which are miseries inseparable from our imperfections speedily produces wormwood and gall. in holiness; and, imperfections being coeval V. Moses lastly required the Israelites to with life, our happiness will be incomplete till consider the oath and execration with which after death. On the removal of this obstruc- their acceptance of the covenant was attendtion, by virtue of the covenant, God having ed: “that thou shouldest enter into covenant," engaged to be our God, we shall attain supreme and into this oath. What is meant by their felicity. Hence our Saviour proved by this entering into the oath of execration? That argument, that Abraham should rise from the they pledged themselves by oath, to fulfil dead, the Lord having said to Moses, “I am every clause of the covenant; and in case of the God of Abraham; God is not the God of violation, to subject themselves to all the curses the dead, but of the living,” Matt. xxii. 32. God had denounced against those who should This assertion, “I am the God of Abraham," be guilty of so perfidious a crime. proceeding from the mouth of the Supreme And, if you would have an adequate idea of Being, was equivalent to a promise of making those curses, read the awful chapter preceding Abraham perfectly happy. Now he could not that from which we have taken our text, “If be perfectly happy, so long as the body to thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the Lord which nature had united him, was the victim thy God, to observe and do all his commandof corruption. Therefore, Abraham must rise ments, and his statutes, which I command thee from the dead.
this day, then all these curses shall come upon When God engaged with the Israelites, the thee. Cursed shalt thou be in the city, and Israelites engaged with God. Their covenant cursed shalt thou be in the field; in the fruit imples, that they should be his people; that is, of thy body, in the fruit of thy land, in the inthat they should obey his precepts so far as crease of thy cattle. Cursed shalt thou be human frailty would admit. By virtue of this when thou comest in, and cursed shalt thou be clause, they engaged not only to abstain from when thou goest out. The Lord shall send gross idolatry, but also to eradicate the princi- upon thee cursing and vexation, in all thou ple. Keep this distinction in view: it is clearly settest thine hand for to do, until thou be expressed in my text. “ Ye have seen their destroyed; because of the wickedness of thy abominations, and their idols, wood and stone, doings, whereby thou hast forsaken me. And silver and gold.” Take heed, “lest there thy heaven, that is over thy head, shall be should be among you man or woman, or family, brass; and the earth that is under thee shall or tribe, whose heart turneth away from the be iron. The Lord shall cause thee to be smitLord, to go and serve the gods of these na ten before thine enemies, thou shalt go out tions.” Here is the gross act of idolatry. one way against them, and flee seven ways “Lest there should be among you a root that before them; and thou shalt be removed into beareth gall and wormwood." Here is the all the kingdoms of the earth. And thou shalt principle. I would not enter into a critical grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in dark
ness. Thy sons and thy daughters shall be | sage. “I will give the men that have transgiven unto another people. Thine eyes shall gressed my covenant, which have not performsee it; because thou servedst not the Lord thy ed the words of the covenant, that they made God with joyfulness, and gladness of heart, before me, when they cut the calf in twain, for the abundance of all things. Therefore and passed between the parts, the princes of thou shalt serve thine enemies which the Lord Judalı,-) will even give them into the hands shall send against thee, in hunger, nakedness, of their enemies.” If we do not find the whole and want. The Lord shall bring against thee of these ceremonies observed, when God cona nation swift as the eagle; a nation of fierce tracted the covenant on Sinai, we should mark countenance. He shall besiege thee in all thy what occurs in the twenty-fourth chapter of gates, until thy high and fenced walls come Exodus; “Moses sent the young men of the down, wherein thou trustedst. And thou shalt children of Israel, which offered burnt-offereat the fruit of thy own body, the flesh of thy ings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen sons and thy daughters, in the siege, and in unto the Lord. And Moses took half of the the straitness. So that the man that is tender blood, and put it in basins: and half of the among you, and very delicate, his eye shall be blood he sprinkled on the altar; and the other evil towards his brother, and towards the wife half he sprinkled on the people, and said, Beof his bosom; so that he will not give to any of hold the blood of the covenant which the Lord them of the flesh of his children whom he shall hath made with you. And he took the book eat,” Deut. xxviii. 15, &c.
of the covenant, and read in the audience of These are but part of the execrations which the people: and they said, all that the Lord the infractors of the covenant were to draw hath said, will we do, and be obedient. What upon themselves. And to convince them that is the import of this ceremony, if it is not the they must determine, either not to contract the same which is expressed in my text, that the covenant, or subject themselves to all its exe- Israelites, in contracting the covenant with crations, God caused it to be ratified by the God, enter into the execration oath; subjecting awful ceremony, which is recorded in the themselves, if ever they should presume de chapter immediately preceding the quotations liberately to violate the stipulations, to be I have made. He commanded one part of the treated as the victims immolated on Sinai, Levites to ascend Mount Ebal, and pronounce and as those which Moses probably offered, the curses, and all the people to say, Amen. when it was renewed, on the confines of PaBy virtue of this command, the Levites said, lestine. “Cursed be he that setteth light by his father Perhaps one of my hearers may say to himor bis mother; and all the people said, Arnen. self, that the terrific circumstances of this cereCursed be he that perverteth the judgment of mony regarded the Israelites alone, whom God the stranger, the fatherless, and widow; and addressed in lightnings and thunders from the all the people said, Amen. Cursed be he top of Sinai. What! was there then no victim that smiteth bis neighbour secretly; and all the immolated, when God contracted his covenant people said, Amen. Cursed be he that con- with us? Does not St. Paul expressly say, firmeth not all the words of this law to do that " without the shedding of blood, there is them; and all the people said, Amen;" Deut. no remission of sins?” Heb. ix. 22. And what xxvii. 17–26.
were the lightnings, what were the thunders The words which we render, “that thou of Sinai? What were all the execrations, and shouldest enter into covenant,” have a peculiar all the curses of the law. They were the just energy in the original, and signify, “ that thou punishments every sinner shall suffer, who ne shouldest pass into covenant." The interpre- glects an entrance into favour with God. Now, ters of whom I speak, think they refer to a these lightnings, these thunders, these execraceremony formerly practised, in contracting tions, these curses, did they not all unite against covenants, of which we have spoken on other the slaughtered victim, when God contracted occasions.
his covenant with us;—I would say, against On immolating the victims, they divided the the head of Jesus Christ: O my God! what flesh into two parts, placing the one opposite revolting sentiments did not such complicated to the other. The contracting parties passed calamities excite in the soul of the Saviour! in the open space between the two, thereby The idea alone, when presented to his mind, testifying their consent to be slaughtered as a little before his death, constrained him to those victims, if they did not religiously con- say, “Now is my soul troubled," John xii. 17. firm the covenant contracted in so mysterious And on approaching the hour; “My soul is
exceedingly sorrowful, even unto death. O The sacred writings afford examples of this my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass custom. In the fifteenth chapter of Genesis, from me,” Matt. xxvi. 38, 39. And on the Abraham, by the divine command, took a cross; “ My God, my God, why hast thou forheifer of three years old, and a ram of the same saken me!" Matt. xxvii. 46.-Sinner! here is age, and dividing them in the midst, he placed the victim immolated on contracting thy covethe parts opposite to each other: “and behold, a nant with God! Here are the sufferings thou smoking furnace, and a burning lamp passed didst subject thyself to endure, if ever thou between those pieces.” This was a symbol shouldest perfidiously violate it! Thou hast that the Lord entered into an engagement with entered, thou hast passed into covenant, and the patriarch, according to the existing custom: into the oath of execration which God has rehence it is said, that "the Lord made a cove- quired. nant with Abraham." In the thirty-fourth chapter of the prophe
APPLICATION. cies of Jeremiah, we find a correspondent pas My brethren, no man should presume to dis
guise the nature of his engagements, and the thing awfully solown. The oath, the oath of high characters of the gospel. Because, on execration which God tenders, is, I farther althe solemn festival-day, when we appear in the low, very intimidating. But what constitutes presence of the Lord our God;—when we en- the fear, constitutes also the delight and consoter into covenant with him; and after the en- lation. For what end does God require these gagement, when we come to ratify it in the engagements For what end does he require holy sacrament;—we not only enter, but we this oath? Because it is his good pleasure, that also pass into covenant, according to the idea we should unite ourselves to him in the same attached to the term: we pass between the close, constant, and indissoluble manner as he parts of the victim divided in sacrifice; we unites himself to us. pass between the body and blood of Christ, di Let us be sincere, and he will give us power vided from each other to represent the Sa- to be faithful. Let us ask his aid, and he wil viour's death. We then say, “Lord! I consent, not withhold the grace destined to lead us to if I should violate the stipulations of thy cove- this noble end. Let us say to him, “Lord, I nant, and if after the violation, I do not re- do enter into this oath of execration; but I do cover by repentance, I consent, that thou it with trembling. Establish my wavering soul; shouldst treat me as thou hast treated thy own confirm my feeble knees; give me the victory; Son, in the garden of Gethsemane, and on make me more than conqueror in all the conCalvary. Lord! I consent that thou shouldst flicts, by which the enemy of my salvation shoot at me all the thunderbolts and arrows comes to separate me from thee. Pardon all which were shot against him. I agree, that the faults into which I may be drawn by huthou shouldst unite against me all the calami. man frailty. Grant, if they should suspend ties which were united against him. And, as the sentiments of fidelity I vow to thee, that it implies a contradiction, that so weak a mor- they may never be able to eradicate them.” tal as I should sustain so tremendous a punish- These are the prayers which God loves, these ment, I agree, that the duration of my pun- are the prayers which he hears. May he grant ishment should compensate for the defects of us to experience them! Amen. its degree; that I should suffer eternally in the abyss of hell, the punishments I could not have borne in the limited duration of time."
SERMON LXXXVI. Do not take this proposition for a hyberbole, or a rhetorical figure. To enter into covenant with God, is to accept the gospel precisely as
THE SEAL OF THE COVENANT. it was delivered by Jesus Christ, and to submit
(For the day of Pentecost.) to all its stipulations. This gospel expressly declares, that “fornicators, that liars, that
2 Cor. i. 21, 22. drunkards, and the covetous, shall not inherit the kingdom of God.” On accepting the gos- He which establisheth us with you in Christ, and pel, we accept this clause. Therefore, on ac
hath anointed us, is God; who hath also sealed cepting the gospel, we submit to be excluded us, and given us the earnest of the Spirit in the kingdom of God, if we are either drunk
our hearts. ards, or liars, or covetous, or fornicators; and How distinguished soever this sabbath may if after the commission of any of these crimes, be, it affords a humiliating consideration to us. we do not recover by repentance. And what How glorious soever the event might be to the is submission to this clause, if it is not to enter church, whose anniversary we now celebrate, into the execration oath, which God requires it cannot be recollected, without deploring the of us, on the ratification of this covenant difference between what God once achieved
Ah! my brethren, wo unto us should we for his saints, and what he is doing at the prepronounce against ourselves so dreadful an sent period. In the first Pentecost, the heavens oath, without taking the precautions suggest visibly opened to the brethren; but we, we alas! ed by the gospel to avert these awful conse are unable to pierce the vaults of this church. quences. Ah! my brethren, if we are not sin- | The Holy Spirit then miraculously descended cerely resolved to be faithful to God, let us with inspiration on those holy men, who were make a solemn vow before we leave this tem- designated to carry the light of the gospel ple, never to communicate, never to approach throughout the world; but now, it is solely by the Lord's table.
the efforts of meditation and study, that your What! never approach his table! never com- preachers communicate knowledge and exhormunicate! Disdain not to enter into the cove- tation. The earth shook; the most abstruse nant which God does not disdain to make with mysteries were explained; languages the least sinners! What a decision! Great God, what intelligible became instantaneously familiar; an awful decision! And should this be the ef- the sick were healed; the dead were raised to fect of my discourse! Alas! my brethren, with life; Ananias and Sapphira expired at the out this covenant, without this table, without apostles' feet; and such a multitude of prodithis oath, we are utterly lost! It is true, we gies were then achieved, in order to give weight shall not be punished as violators of vows we to the ministry of the first preachers of the gosnever made: but we shall be punished as mad- pel, that no one among us can be unacquainted men; who, being actually in the abyss of per- with those extraordinary events. But good dition, reject the Redeemer, whose hand is ex- wishes, prayers, entreaties, are all we can now tended to draw us thence. Let us seek that exert to insinuate into your hearts, and conhand, let us enter into this covenant with God. ciliate your attention.
The engagements, without which the cove What then! is the Holy Spirit, who once denant cannot be confirmed, have, I grant, some- Iscended with so much lustre on the primitive
Christians, refused to us? What then! shall we dowments for the adequate discharge of their have no participation in the glory of that day? duty. Under this idea, St. John represents the shall we talk of the prodigies seen by the in- gift of the Holy Spirit, granted to the whole fant church, solely to excite regret at the dark-church: "Ye have an unction from the Holy ness of the dispensation, in which it has pleas-One, and ye know all things,” 1 John, ii. 20. ed God to give us birth? Away with the By the seal, of which the apostle here says, thought! The change is only in the exterior “God hath sealed us," the sacraments may be aspect, not in the basis and substance of Chris- | understood. The metaphor is derived from tianity; whatever essential endowments the the usages of society in affixing seals to cove holy spirit once communicated to the primitive nants and treaties. Under this design are the Christians, he now communicates to us. Hear sacraments represented in the Scriptures. The the words we have read, “He which stablish- term is found applied to those exterior institueth you with us, in Christ, and hath anointed tions in the fourth chapter of St. Paul's episus, is God; who hath also sealed us, and given tle to the Romans. It is there said that us the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.” On “ Abraham received the sign of circumcision, these operations of the Holy Spirit in the as a seal of the righteousness of faith. By the heart, we now purpose to treat, and on which institution of this sign, to Abraham and his we shall make three kinds of observations. posterity, God distinguished the Jews from
I. It is designed to develope the manner in every nation of the earth; marked them as his which this operation is expressed in the words own, and blessed them with the fruits of evanof my text.
gelical justification. This is the true import, II. To explain its nature, and prove its provided the interior grace be associated with reality.
the exterior sign; I would say, sanctification, III. To trace the disposition of the man or the image of God; purity being inculcated who retards, and the man who farthers the ope- on us in the Scriptures by the symbol of a seal. rations. of the Holy Spirit.
This, in our opinion, is the import of that fine This comprises the outlines of our discourse. passage, so distorted by the schoolmen; “The I. We shall easily comprehend the manner foundation of God standeth sure, having this in which St. Paul expresses the operation of seal, the Lord knoweth them that are his: let the Holy Spirit, if we follow the subsequent every one that nameth,” (or invoketh)" the rules.
name of Christ depart from iniquity,” 2 Tim. 1. Let us reduce the metaphor to its genu- ii. 19. What is God's seal? How does God ine import. St. Paul wishes to prove the truth know his own." Is it by the exterior badges and certainty of the promises, God had given of sacraments? Is it by “the circumcision the church by his ministry; “All the promises which is in the flesh?" No, it is by this more of God in him are yea, and in him amen,” 2 hallowed test, “Let every one that nameth Cor. i. 20. These are Hebrew modes of speech. the name of Christ depart from iniquity.” The Jews, in order to designate deceitful In fine, by the EARNESTS of the Spirit, we speeches, say, that there are men with whom understand those foretastes of heaven which yea is nay, and nay is yea; on the contrary, the God communicates to some of those he has yea of a good man is yea, and nay, is nay. designated to celestial happiness. An earnest Hence the maxim of a celebrated Rabbi, “Let (or earnests as in the Greek,) is a deposit of the disciples of the wise, give and receive part of the purchase money for a bargain. St. in fidelity and truth, saying, yea, yea; nay, Paul says, and in the sense attached to the nay.” And it was in allusion to this mode of term, "We that are in this tabernacle do speech, that our Saviour said to his disciples, groan, being burthened: not that we would be "Let your yea be yea, and your nay be nay; unclothed, but clothed, that mortality might whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil,” be swallowed up of life. Now he that hath Matt. v. 37.
wrought us for the self-same thing is God; who St. Paul, to prove that the promises God also hath given unto us the earnest of the has given us in his word, are yea and amen; Spirit,” 2 Cor. v. 4, 5. that is, sure and certain, says, he has estab Whether, therefore, each of these terms, lished them in a threefold manner: by the unction, seal, earnest, express the same thing; anointing, the seal, and the earnests. These as I think could be proved, by several texts several terms express the same idea, and mark of Scripture, in which they are promiscuously the diversified operations of the Holy Spirit, used; —
;-or whether they convey three distinct for the confirmation of the Evangelical pro- ideas;—they all indicate that God confirms to mises. However, if another will assert, that us the evangelical promises in the way we have we are to understand different operations by described. these three terms, I will not controvert his This is the idea, my brethren, one should opinion. By the unction, we may here under attach to the metaphors in our text. In order stand, the miraculous endowments afforded to to comprehend the Scriptures, you should althe apostles, and to a vast number of the pri- ways recollect that they abound with these mitive Christians, and the inferences enlight-forms of speech. The sacred writers lived in a ened men would consequently draw in favour warm climate; whose inhabitants had a natural of Christianity It is a metaphor taken from vivacity of imagination, very different from us the oil poured by the special command of God, who reside in a colder region, and under a on the head of persons selected for grand cloudy sky; who have consequently a peculiar achievements, and particularly on the head of gravity, and dulness of temperature. Seldom, kings and priests. It implied that God had therefore, did the men of whom we have been designated those men for distinguished offices, speaking, employ the simple style. They borand communicated to them the necessary en- I rowed bold figures; they magnified objects;