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THE CHURCH MISSIONARY GLEANER.
1863, it is related that a young English officer was deserted by I.
his native sepoys, and for some time, single-handed, held his
own in the midst of a crowd of Afghan warriors. When he fell “Go ye therefore and teach all nations."-St. Matt. xxviii. 19. 10 does not mean Şend. "Go" does not mean Pray. testimony to the indomitable pluck of the young Englishman
covered with wounds, the very men who had cut him down bord “Go” means "Go!” simply and literally.
who, rather than run with his men, faced the foe alone, and died. Suppose the disciples had been content to take
They raised one united shout in the Pushto language, “ Bravo! this command as most of us take it. Suppose they bravo! There's a brave young fellow !” had said to the leading apostles, “ You see if you
The Afghans are revengeful and jealous. Almost every chief cannot find a few men to send to Rome, or Libya, or Parthia,
of consequence has his real or imaginary injuries to revenge. and we will see what we can do about collecting funds, and anyhow The “ Avenging of Blood” is a sacred institution of the Moslem subscribing a penny a week or a pound a year ourselves !” How
faith, and one which seems to accord with the natural instincts would the good tidings of great joy and the glorious news of the
of the Afghan character. Murder committed for this purpose is, resurrection have spread at that rate ? But they did not sub
of course, regarded as a religious duty. We remember hearing, scribe : they went ! Happily they had not silver and gold to
some years ago, of the murder of a villager in Boneyr beyond give, so they gave themselves to their Lord and to His work.
our frontier. The murderer was seized and tried by the elders How small is the company of those that publish the Word of of the village, and made over to the next of kin for summary our God in proportion to the numbers that are perishing for lack
vengeance. But the murdered man had no male relatives, and of knowledge! We are so accustomed to hear of the millions
the next of kin was a young maiden. The criminal was brought of India and China, that we get hardened to the appalling figures. forth, and the girl was given a dagger, which she plunged into We do not take it in that one man is standing alone among, the heart of her father's assassin. perhaps, 100,000 dying souls. Even from one of the best pro
The hospitality of the Afghans is proverbial. Each section of vided centres of missionary work in India a friend writes, that
a village has its hujrah, or guest-chamber, and every chief of every Missionary she has seen, whether clerical, lay, or lady
consequence keeps one. These are supplied with beås, quilts, worker, has work enough of his or her own to ti ide immediately and pillows, and the wayfaring traveller can here claim protection among at least six more, if they would only come! Yet our Lord's
for the night, with the usual meals. very last command was, " Go!”
The salutations of the Afghans are very peculiar, and exhibit The company is still smaller in proportion to those who might very strikingly the hospitable and sociable character of the go if they only had the heart to go. Setting aside those who people. As soon as a stranger arrives at a village guest-house, it have not sought or found Christ for themselves, and who do not
is his duty to give the usual Mohammedan salaam—the Afghans care to hear or read about these things, and those to whom the
being a Mussulman people—“The peace of God be with you,” Lord has definitely closed this door by unmistakable circum- which will receive the hearty response of every villager seated stantial guidance, there must be, as a mero matter of figures,
there, repeated several times over, “ May you ever como ! May thousands of young Christians who might go, or put themselves
you ever come !” And when he again proceeds on his journey, in training for going. Yes, thousands, who have "freely received"
he will leave with the usual blessing, “ To the protection of God salvation for themselves, but are not ready to “freely give" we commit you." themselves to the Saviour's own great work; not ready even to take the matter into consideration; not ready even to think of
The C.M.S. Mission to the Afghans. turning aside out of their chosen profession, or comfortable home The Church Missionary Society commenced its Mission at course. Yet the comma
mand, the last that ever fell from His Peshawar in 1855, in response to an offer of £1,000 from an gracious lips before He went up from the scene of His sufferings anonymous friend for its establishment, on a requisition signed for us, still rings on, and it is “Go!” And He said, “ If ye love by the European residents. The first missionaries were Colonel Me, keep My commandments.”
Martin, the Rev. Dr. Pfander, and the Rev. Robert Clark. FRANCES RIDLEY HAVERGAL.
The Mission at its commencement received considerable aid, both in money and in moral support, from the late Sir Herbert
Edwardes, who was at that time Commissioner of the Division. ABOUT THE AFGHANS.
Some apprehension of danger was felt by those who distrusted NOTES BY THE REV, T. P. HUGHES, OF PESHAWAR.
and feared the propagation of the Gospel in so bigoted a strong
hold of Mohammedanism. But Herbert Edwardes was too brave [Everything connected with the Afghans is just now of absorbing
a man, too wise a politician, and too bold a Christian, to share interest, and we are glad to begin the new year with some Notes upon
such fears. And God honoured that Christian ruler in that very them, and on the Church Missionary Society's work amongst them. The
place, for he it was who, in the terrible Mutiny of 1857, held Rev. T. P. Hughes, the writer of the Notes, has lived at Peshawar,
the bigoted Mohammedans of the Trans-Indus territory with a which is an Afghan city, though within the British frontier, for fourteen
firm hand, and made loyal soldiers of Afghan levies. years. Further Notes will follow in our next.]
No Mission in India has suffered more than the Peshawar Character of the Afghans.
Mission from the sickness and death of its members. From its HERE is much in the character of the Afghans to commencement, seventeen missionaries and eight missionaries'
excite the special interest of Christian people in wives have been located at Peshawar. Of these, six have died their welfare.
at the station and two in England, and about seven have been Their courage will bear comparison with that of compelled to leave in consequence of failure of health.
any nation, and many are the instances of per- There are now some seventy Christians on the Mission-roll, sonal bravery which have been rewarded by distinguished marks twenty-five of whom are communicants--a day of small things, of approbation by the English Government. Nor are they slow but despise it not! The Afghans in days of yore came down to appreciate this quality in others. In the Umbeyla war of from their mountain fastnesses and conquered India, and if ever,
through God's grace, a large Afghan Church should be gathered, centre of the city every Tuesday and Friday. A few years ago it will make its influences felt over the wide-spread plains of bazaar preaching in Peshawar was attended with some danger, Hindustan. Among our Afghan converts there have been men and on one occasion the life of one of the European missionaries, who have done good service to Government. When Lord Mayo Mr. Tuting, was attempted. The crowds, however, are now more wished to send some trusted native on very confidential and very orderly, and there are frequently attentive congregations. But important service to Central Asia, it was an Afghan convert of it is not the most favourable way of bringing the Gospel before our Mission who was selected. Subadar Dilawar Khan, who had Mohammedans. The Mission hujrah, or guest-house, is the served the English well before the gates of Delhi, was sent on most interesting and encouraging feature of our work, for it is this secret mission to Central Asia, where he died in the snow, a in the conversations there with our numerous Afghan visitors victim to the treachery of the King of Chitral. Some three years and guests that the clouds of ignorance and prejudice which ago, an officer, employed on a special service of inquiry as to the overshadow the mind of the stranger are speedily removed by doings of the Wahhabis, wanted a trustworthy man to send to the warmth of social intercourse. The most bigoted opponents ascertain the number and condition of those fanatics who now of the bazaar preaching then become attentive listeners to the reside at Palossi, on the banks of the Indus. An Afghan con- Gospel plan of salvation. vert was selected for this difficult and dangerous undertaking. In the Umbeyla war of 1863 it was necessary that Government
The Principal Street of Peshawar. should have a few faithful men who could be relied on for infor
(See Illustration on opposite page.) mation. Amongst others selected for this work were two Afghan The engraving represents the entrance to the city of Peshawar Christians, converts of our Mission.
as you enter the city from the cantonments and the Khyber Pass. The Native Christian Church is presided over by the Rev. The city of Peshawar is really one of the chief cities of AfghanImam Shah, a convert from Mohammedanism. (See the portrait istan, for although the Peshawar Valley forms part of British and account of him in the Gleaner of November, 1876.) The India, it is within the limits of Afghanistan. All the people of present Mission chapel is a temporary structure, formed out of the valley are Afghans. The great national poet of the Afghans an oriental part of the school-building. We are anxious to build lies buried within a few miles of Peshawar. The population of a suitable church in a more public place, and have put forth an the city is about 60,000. It is the great commercial mart for the appeal for funds for the erection of a “memorial church " in the whole of Afghanistan and the tribes of Central Asia, and its city of Peshawar. The boys' schools, under the management of streets are crowded with strangers. An extensive Mohammedan the Rev. Worthington Jukes, contain 400 pupils, and in the girls' book trade is carried on, and every year camel-loads of Korans and schools and zenanas nearly 100 pupils are under instruction. other religious books find their way from this city over the steep Bazaar or street preaching is regularly carried on in the
(Continued on page 6.)
on the morrow. The evening meal was now brought round
boiled pulse with some clarified butter mixed in it, and unA Story of our Afghan Frontier.
leavened cakes of wheaten bread. Whether it was the heart or E was a Kūlin Brahmin, which, I understand, is one the stomach of the Hindu suggested it I know not, but he
of the highest sects amongst the Hindu “twice- declined this meal, and inwardly desired milk and rice, without born,” as the Brahmins call themselves. Inter- expressing any wish, with the intent, as he said, of trying the marriage with this sect is eagerly sought after, power of this far-famed saint. The hours passed on, but nothing consequently many of them have various wives,
came; and he had to get through the night without food at all. and much money obtained with them. The subject of my story Twice he thus tested the stories he had heard, and when admitted was married, but only once. He left his home in Oudh, where
into the old man's presence, questioned him as to their truth. he lacked nothing, when yet young, and journeyed to Kashmir, The Akhund denied possessing any such powers, and merely where, in one of the numerous temples of the Maharajah, he asked the net convert to have his lock of hair cut off, and to became guardian, or assistant guardian, and keeper of the images. repeat the Kalimah, or creed, i.e., " There is no god but God, His duty was to dress and undress the idol, arrange its bed at and Mahomet is His prophet," and then the interview was over, night, and share the offerings presented to it. His description of and he was numbered amongst the faithful. the expensive clothing prepared for the image, and the constant This did not satisfy the poor fellow at all; but what could he changes in it, also of the income which he, with others in the
now do save make his way as fast as possible out of a country temple, received, would challenge disbelief without some prior whero no law seemed to reign ? He lost no time therefore in knowledge of such places. It is sufficient to say that by giving reaching Peshawar, and in passing from thenee down the frontier up this position he lost in every way—in money, for he now towns, in most of which he had friends or relatives, hoping that barely earns the necessaries of life ; in honour and respect, for they might not altogether ignore him. But he had greatly misthere he received even the adoration of the people ; in comfort judged their character, as we shall see before the story is finished. and ease, for he has to labour hard and constantly to earn his On hearing what he had done, his Hindu friends, one after
and withal to suffer much from persecution, mostly in another, would have nothing to do with him, so he had to look that form which is the most galling to him—to be counted as the to Mohammedans for help upon the way, which they supplied, very off-scouring of the earth.
though not very liberally. He came at last to Dera Ismail Khan, His story, until I met him, was gathered from his own lips at where a native banker lived, for whom an elder brother of his various times, and the incidents of it, especially in connection acted as agent at another station some hundred miles or more with his conversion, which I now have to relate, are very striking. farther down the frontier. Here, however, he was rebuffed too, Ho firmly believed in all that had been told him about the idol, and so he turned aside to seek the aid and sympathy of one until one day, through some mishap, the image fell forward on whose name for liberality and hospitality towards the people of its face, at which he was greatly grieved, and, perhaps, not a his own religion is well known in these parts—the Nawab of little frightened. He therefore, in the most abject manner, with Tank, a small station about thirty miles from Dera Ismail Khan, hands placed palm to palm, prostrated himself before it, and and quite close to the frontier hills. He was received and begged it to right itself. This he continued to do for some time, treated well; but it so happened that shortly he fell sick, and, but all in vain : it moved not, and at last had to be lifted by main in the providence of God, came to our Mission dispensary there, force and restored to its former position. This incident first led which is under the management of our dear native brother, the him to doubt the power of the idol, for he had truly prayed to it Rev. John Williams,* a physician for the soul and body too. He, for help and it yielded no response. Such a thought had never seeing the stranger, soon learned his story with all his yearnings, crossed his mind before, though evening by evening and morning and told him of God's way of peace, which he, as a soul that had by morning he had helped to lay it on and lift it from its bed.
never been satisfied, greedily accepted, and as boldly acknowThe thought thus admitted never left him, but grew in intensity ledged before all. This drew down upon him, as might have the more he dwelt upon it. The simple honesty of his nature been expected, the wrath and persecution of all the Mohammesoon led him to tell his difficulties to others, and he came across dans. The Nawab sought to turn him from his purpose by a Mohammedan soldier in the Maharajah's service who was just promises and taunts, but all in vain, for he held fast his profesabout to start upon a pilgrimage to a well-known place and sion, and continued to reside in their midst, where the very fact person-the country of Swat and its Akhund. Swat is a of his being a Christian, much more of being a pervert from the mountain district only a day's journey from the frontier of British Mohammedan faith, caused him to carry his life always in his India at Peshawar ; and the Akhund, its ruler, who died last hand. year, was a great Mohammedan saint, and the Pope of the After a prolonged probation, arising more from his exceeding Mussulmans of the Punjab and Afghanistan.* The soldier was dulness in learning anything than from doubt concerning his so full of zeal, and so loud in his praises of the power and sincerity, he accompanied me to Lahore, and was there baptized special gifts of this holy man, that the Brahmin soon agreed to by immersion on the premises of the Divinity College, in the accompany him on this journey. On the way the poor man's presence of a goodly gathering, amongst whom was his father in hopes were raised to the highest pitch by the stories of the the faith, who acted as one of his sponsors. John was not then Akhund's miraculous powers, and he looked forward with plea- ordained, or I should not have baptized his convert.
On our sure to the prospect of having all his doubts removed and his journey there an incident occurred which is worth mentioning as heart set at rest. He was told the old man could read his illustrating the lengths to which the blindness of bigotry can lead heart and know his thoughts, and instances were given to ensure We were passing through Dera Ghazi Khan, where this his faith.
man's brother lived, of whom mention has been made before. After some days travelling through a country where dwelt men The convert stated his intention of going to see him, and I of fierce countenance, whose appearance made the heart of this decided to go with him and see the interview. I was received “mild” Hindu “ become as water,” they reached the abode of most politely, but the poor convert was completely ignored. the famous Akhund. He was not to be seen that evening, but After some talk I plainly asked the man was he not his brother? the travellers were lodged, and had the promise of an interview He simply replied it could not be so, for his younger brother had
* A full account of this remarkable man, by the Rev. T. P. Hughes, appeared * See an account of the Rev. John Williams, by Bishop French, with a por. in the C.M. Intelligencer of June, 1877.
trait, in the GLEANER of January, 1877.
died some time before. It appears when the poor fellow abjured work and to form plans for its extension. He sailed in September, 1877, and Hinduism, his family counted him as dead, and his wife poisoned having spent the last fifteen months in going in and out among the people, herself. I heard subsequently that maternal instincts, to their he will shortly be returning again to England. His simple and graphic credit be it said, had prevailed sufficiently to cause a message to
letters will interest all our readers. be sent to him to come that they might look upon his face again ;
Those who wish to know more about the Santâls are referred to the but, so far as I know, up to this time this desire has not been GLEANER of January, 1875; April, 1877; and October, 1878. gratified.
I.-Back again at Taljhari.
TALJHARI, Oct. 26th, 1877.
At last I have reached the end of my long journey. We arrived WHAT ARE THEY AMONG SO MANY ?"
just below Calcutta in the river Hoogly on Sunday evening, the 14th, but Gleanings from a Missionary Sermon.
were not able to land until Monday morning. We had not a single rough
or stormy day during the whole of the voyage, and though of course there HAT are those feeble ones among so many ?
were some troubles, I have never had, on the whole, a voyage with so The work so great, the labourers so few!
little to make it disagreeable. Throughout the passage it was most cheerCan those poor weak and weary ones accomplish
ing to think of the prayers which I knew were following me. The mighty Mission that they have in view ?
On Friday, the 19th, we took the train for 200 miles, and came up here. “What are they 'mid so many"_but the fragments
Taljhari is six miles from the nearest station, but the train passes only The Master's loving hand may break and bless ?
about a quarter of a mile from the Mission, so we got the train stopped Teaching us thus the all-important lesson
just in front of the bungalow. As the train came up I saw a great number Of His great might-and our sad feebleness.
of the natives waiting, and two or three English people. The natives gave
me a most hearty salutation, and I answered them as well as I could in “What are they 'mid so many”—but the leaven
Sintali; though I have much to learn over again of the language, and That erst shall leaven every land and clime ?
can only hope that I shall soon find my tongue again in it. It seemed “What are they”—but the “still small voice” that echoes
strange to enter, as the guest of another missionary, the house where I Down through the ages to the end of time ?
had lived so many years, and where two of my children had been born. I “ What are they”—but the tokens that the Master found many things much changed. Many of those whom I had left as Himself will take the mighty work in hand,
boys and girls were married men and women. The babies of that time And multiply the seed thus sown in weakness
are the school children now. And some of the middle-aged men and Until it reaches earth's remotest land ?
women are beginning to show the signs of declining age. It was very “What are they 'mid so many ?"_faithless question !
delightful to be recognised and welcomed by so many; but many I could For Jesus knows Himself what He will do.
not recognise, or, though I recognised their faces, could not remember
their names. He who could multiply the loaves and fishes
On Saturday I had many visitors from among my old From that one act a wondrous lesson drew.
friends, and very cheering it was to see their faces and talk over old times
with them. On Sunday I preached in the morning, feeling greatly my Tbink you that He who made the earth so lovely,
inability to speak in what had after so many years become a strange tongue Framed all the starry-hosts, and named them all
to me. But the Lord he ped me, beyond my own expectations, at any Clothes every lily with its matchless glory,
rate ; though I dare say others thought I made a very stumbling, rambling And taketh count of een the sparrow's fall-
affair of my sermon. Afterwards I administered the Holy Communion to Think you that His strong arm is ever shortened ?
about a hundred people, and felt deeply God's goodness and love to me in His power less than what it used to be ?
permitting me once more to put into the hands of this people the signs of No! but He loves to use the weakest vessels,
His immeasurable love.
The church, which was not quite completed when I left, is now a noble
building, rather smaller than Horton church, and like it with an unfinished May not an acorn grow into a forest ?
tower. It stands out nobly above the Mission on a hill among the trees. One tiny spark explode a mighty mine?
[See the picture in the GLEANER of April, 1877.] Its great fault is that A feeble taper kindle many a lantern,
the sound is echoed from the large vaulted roof (there is no wood in the That presently with twice its light will shine ?
building except that of the windows and doors), and when the church is God loves to use the weakest for His purpose
not well filled it is difficult to hear the preacher. I am glad to say that on The power to be of God and not of men;
Sunday morning the congregation was so good that I had little difficulty The weak He uses to confound the mighty
in making myself heard. Working on ways unknown to human ken.
In Camp, about forty miles South of Taljhari, Dec. 4th. A. T.
I am sitting in my tent-not a sound to be heard-all so quiet that I can actually hear the ticking of my watch in my pocket. All round me
on the table are Santali books—a very rickety table it is. There is my LETTERS TO MY PARISH FROM SANTALIA. bed in one corner of the tent, a rough bed of unplaned wood, such an BY TIIE REV. W. T. STORRS.
uncouth and poor-looking thing as few of you have ever seen; not far
from my bed is a small portmanteau of clothes; a little box of medicines NOTE.
and another of books ; and close to them a very handsome canteen, which
seems to wonder how it has fallen into such low company and found its E are kindly permitted to print in the GLEANER some way into the society of such inferior sort. I need not tell you where the
interesting letters written by the Rev. W. T. Storrs to his canteen came from. My own pen as it scratches the paper geems quite to parishioners at Great Horton, in Yorkshire. But first let
make a noise. Half an hour ago I had three young men with me into us explain where they were written from, and how they had a short prayer ; but I have no doubt that they are now fast asleep in
prayers, and we sang a hymn, and read a little of St. Mark's Gospel, and came to be written.
a little tent only a few yards from mine. The Santals are a people of India, but they are not Hindus. They are I cannot report to you any very great doings here. Work has changed one of the old tribes that possessed the land beforg the Hindus came in very much since I was here before. The heathen Santals seem very much three thousand years ago. They live in Bengal, 200 miles N.E. of
more hardened against the truth, and in many places evince a hostility to Calcutta, in the valleys skirting the Rajmahal Hills. The C.M.S. Mission
it, which was never shown then. The Native Church seems to me to be
much colder: yet, notwithstanding this, I feel hopeful, and trust that God to the Santals was begun twenty years ago; but it was between 1863 and has sent me out to be a blessing to those, so many of whom were in some 1870, during Mr. Storrs' residence among them, that the large ingathering measure my own children in the faith, and who, if they themselves are of souls took place, which has made this Mission so bright a spot in North stronger and more zealous, will influence their heathen neighbours far India. Two or three years ago, Sir William Muir visited the place, and
more than we missionaries can do. was so struck by the importance of the work, that he offered the Society
In some places the dislike to Christianity seems only to have arisen
from the inconsistent conduct of professed Christians. I know that I have £100 for every new station opened in the country; and the Rev. H. W.
your prayers, but I would ask especially for them in this, that I may be Shackell made a similar offer. Accordingly the Committee begged Mr. able to stir up the Christians to greater holiness and zeal, and so influence Storrs to leave his Yorkshire parish for a while, and go out to foster the the whole work in the district.