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the Church. The religious revival of 1873 took place both ment.

ment. The party has been much discredited by the failure of among the Syrians and the C.M.S. congregations. It promised some shorter predictions, and is now rapidly losing ground; but to have a wide-spread and blessed influence, and undoubtedly it has been a master-stroke of the great adversary. much good has actually resulted from it. But great extravagances The sixty-one thousand Protestants returned in the census ensued; some who professed to be prophets proclaimed the before mentioned include not only the C.M.S. congregations, but Second Advent of our Lord in six years' time; a sect called the also those connected with the London Missionary Society in the Six-years' Party was formed, which was joined by 5,000 Syrians southern part of the kingdom. The population there is not and 300 Protestants; and, to the deep distress of the Church, Malayalam, but Tamil, and some 40,000 have embraced one of the ablest of the C.M.S. clergy, a Brahmin convert of Mr. Christianity. Trevandrum itself, the capital of the kingdom, is Peet's, fell into the snare, and became the leader of the move- | occupied by that Society.

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1866. H. Baker, sen., died at Cottayam, July 22nd, after 48 years' service. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

1867. Revs. J. H. Bishop and F. Bower joined the Mission, Mr. Bishop

Principal of Cottayam College. Of the C.M.S. Travancore and Cochin Mission.

1868. Adherents, 12,732; Communicants, 3,174. Villages containing Chris

tians, 100; Native Clergy, 14; Native Teachers, 175; Scholars, 3,296. 1795. The kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin taken under British protection.

Church Contributions, Rs. 1,987. 1806. Dr. Claudius Buchanan sent by Lord Wellesley to inquire into the 1869. Native Pastorate organisation began.

Twelve Pastorates formed. condition of the Syrian Church,

First Meeting of Church Council, September 22nd. Hopeful prospects 1809. Dr. Buchanan, by sermons and speeches in England, awakened public

of reform in the Syrian Church, under Mar Athanasius. interest in Travancore,

1870. Rev. G. Matthan, senior Native clergyman died, March 4th, after 26 1813. Colonel Munro, British Resident in Travancore, established a College for

years' ministerial labours. the Syrian Church.

1871, Revs. J. Caley and W. J. Richards joined the Mission. 1814, Colonel Munro invited the C.M.S. to Travancore.

1872. Adherents, 15,165; Communicants, 3,417. 1816. Rev. T. Norton, first Missionary to Travancore, arrived at Allepie, Great progress of reforming movement in the Syrian Church. May 8th.

1873, Remarkable religious awakening both in the Syrian and Protestant Rev. B. Bailey, second ditto, arrived November 19th.

congregations, through the preaching of Peet's Brahmin converts. 1817. Bailey established the station at Cottayam.

1875. January. H. Baker baptized 593 catechumens in a few days, in the 1818. Revs. Henry Baker and Joseph Fenn joined the Mission.

Cottayam and Pallam Districts. 1818–1835. The Missionaries worked in connection with the Syrian Church, May. Commencement of the “six years” schism. Joined by 300 promoting its reform and the education of its people, and translating

Protestants, including the Rev. Justas Joseph: (one of Peet's the Bible, Prayer-book, &c.

Brahmin converts), and 4,000 Syrians. During the same period, Missionary work among the heathen carried on

November. Bishop Gell confirmed 970 persons in H. Baker's districts, by the Rev. T. Norton at Allepie, and the Rev. S. Ridsdale at Cochin. 1876. Rev. W. Smith, of Trichur, died. Communicants in 1835, about 150.

1877. Mar Athanasius died, July 16th-& serious blow to the reforming 1824. Bailey set up a printing press, and printed the Scriptures with Malay

movement in the Syrian Church. alam types made by himself. 1825. The arrival of a new Bishop sent from Syria cause: confusion in the

1878. Henry Baker, jun., died at Madras, after 35 years' service. Arrian

Christians, 2,000. Church. The Native Government expelled him from the country; Adherents, 19,931; Communicants, 4,930; Villages containing Chris. but soon after, a new Native Metropolitan, hostile to reform,

tians, 254; Native Clergy, 17; Native Teachers, 225; Scholars, 4,665; succeeded to power, and the Missionaries found great difficulty in

Church Contributions, Rs. 5,067. carrying on their work.

1879. July 25th. Rev. J. M. Speechly consecrated first Bishop of Travancore 1833. Rev. Joseph Peet joined the Mission.

and Cochin, 1835. Bishop Wilson, of Calcutta, visited Travancore, and recommended

reforms to the Syrian Metropolitan. 1836. The Synod of the Syrian Church rejected the proposals for reform. 1837. Under the advice of Bishop Corrie of Madras, the Missionaries separated from the Syrian Church, and founded a new College at Cottayam.

SUNDAY SCHOOLS IN TRAVANCORE: 1838. Peet began the Mission at Mavelicara. 1839. The first stone laid of Cottayam Mission Church, November 21st.

As Conducted by the Students of the Cottayam College. 1840. Rev. J. Hawksworth joined the Mission. Rev. J. Chapman Principal of Cottayam College.

BY THE REV. F. W. AINLEY. 1841. Trichur Station established by Rev. H. Harley. Bishop Spencer confirmed about 400 converts at his Primary Visitation,

E are early risers in India, and our first Sunday 1842. Cottayam Church, built by Mr. Bailey, opened July 19th.

school meets soon after seven in the morning. 1813. Rev. Henry Baker, jun., joined the Mission.

Let me describe it to you. 1814, George Matthan ordained by Bishop Spencer, June 2nd, the first Native in Anglican orders.

An oblong room with two windows, both on the 1845. Peet's Church at Mavelicara opened, built chiefly with a legacy from

same side (no glass in them, but shutters to keep Hannah More. Pallam Station established by H. Baker, jun.

out the sun and rain), and two doors, one at each end, white 1847. Jacob Chandy, second Native clergyman, ordained.

walls glazed with chunam (a kind of lime), and for the rest a 1818. II. Baker, jun., began the Mission to the Hill Arrians.

sanded floor and a black-board on tressels. Nothing else, until 1819. Tiruwella Station opened. 1850. Rev. J. G. Beuttler joined the Mission.

a little boy of nine or thereabouts (with very thin legs and arms, Number of baptized converts 3,364.

and very black all over, for he works all day in the hot sun, Movement among the slave population in favour of Christianity. wearing scarcely any clothes and getting little to eat) comes in

B. Bailey retired, after 34 years' service. 1851. Mundakayam Christian Arrian settlement founded.

and sits cross-legged on the floor ; then another, a year older 1852. First Arrian baptisms, January 15th.

or younger, enters and sits by his side, and so on, till a group 1854. Kunnankulam Station established by Rev. J. G. Beuttler. Rev. R. Collins Principal of Cottayam College.

of seven or eight sit in a line, smoothing the sand on the floor Mar Athanasius, a former C.M.S. student at Madras, became Metran of

with the palms of their hands, to make it ready for their lesson the Syrian Church.

in the alphabet. First slave converts baptized by Hawksworth, September 8th. Bitter persecution followed.

At the other end of the room is a different group. There you Adherents, 5,550; Communicants, 1,370.

may see, Sunday after Sunday, an old man, perhaps sixty years 1855. Mundakayam became a regular station.

old, and his son, with three or four others, all of a low casto, Slavery “ virtually abolished” by the Travancore Government. Rer. H. Andrews joined the Mission,

who have got in their hard hands copies of the Gospel of St. 1856. Koshi Koshi, Jacob Tharien, Oomen Mamen, and George Curean Mark in the Malayalam language, and are learning a verse or

ordained. 1859—1861.-F. N. Maltby, Esq., British Resident in Travancore, gave the

two, chanting it in a monotone, until the two teachers who conMission much sympathy and aid.

duct this school arrive. They presently come in, fresh from 1859. Cambridge Nicholson Institution, for training Native clergy and school- their morning bath in the river, nicely dressed in white linen

masters, opened by Hawksworth. First Confirmation of Arrians at Mundakayam by Bishop Dealtry.

coa and trousers, looking ready for work. They are sons of 173 confirmed. At this time 800 Arrian converts.

some of our native clergy, and are being educated during the In this year, 117,300 copies of books, &c., issued from the Cottayam week for some profession, but are glad to work for Christ's sake

Press. 1860. Rev. J. M. Speechly joined the Mission.

on Sunday. K. Kiruwella ordained,

Then the school begins. They can't sing. Most of them 1861. Adherents, 7,900 ; Communicants, 1,720. Remarkable conversion of a Brahmin family of ten persons at

can't read, but are able to understand a simple prayer, and to Mavelicara.

join in the Lord's prayer very heartily. One of the teachers 1862. November. Bishop Gell confirmed 1,010 persons.

then takes a piece of chalk and writes on the black-board a 1863. January. Hawksworth died. Mr. Peet, reviewing thirty years' work, reported in the Mavelicara

letter of the alphabet in the Malayalam character, and the District eleven congregations, seven stone churches, 2,323 baptized

scholars try to trace the letter with the finger in the sand on the Christians, 100 Catechumens. Rev. R. H. Maddox joined the Mission.

floor, repeating the letter aloud until it is learnt, and so at one 1864. Mr. Speechly Principal of the Cambridge Nicholson Institution.

time learning to read and write. Meanwhile, the rest, who have 1865. Peet died at Mavelicara, August 11th, after 32 years' service.

already gone through all this, and are now able to read, are

core.

standing round their teacher and reading verse by versé a

THE CHURCH AND THE PRESS. chapter of the Gospel. These are afterwards baptized and prepared for confirmation, and several have become regular com

OME good people have been much troubled of late municants. This school goes on for about an hour, after which

years because “ the Church ”—meaning the Church the children are given a good meal and dismissed.

of England—is not sufficiently appreciated by the This is our lowest school, but we go up higher. The country

Press"--meaning the newspapers; and the matter hereabouts is agricultural, with much jungle and wood, and

has been solemnly discussed at certain great meetscattered up and down for miles round are the huts of those ings. With this the GLEANER has nothing to do; and the who till their own bit of ground (growing plantains and cocoa

" Church” and “ Press” we now wish to introduce to our nuts, and sweet potatoes), or are employed on the rice fields of readers have never been suspected of mutual antagonism, but their richer neighbours. There has risen up in late years, eren have dwelt together in unity for nearly forty years. The Church amongst the poorest, a desire for education, and strolling school is Benjamin Bailey's church, and the Press is Benjamin Bailey's masters wander from place to place seeking employment. If press. they can gather together some twenty or thirty children in one Benjamin Bailey was one of our first missionaries in Travanplace, they put up a rough shed for a hool, and continuo to IIe went out in 1816, and laboured most faithfully for teach there on the week-days as long as the children will come. thirty-four years. He founded the station at Cottayam, which All their teaching is secular, and nothing is done by them on has over since been the centre of the Society's work. He began Sunday. We take advantage of this, and paying the native by clearing the jungle, building a house, planting a garden, and, schoolmaster a small sum monthly to get his scholars together, as soon as he had mastered the language, translating the Bible. go out on Sunday to these schools and teach them the Word of Then he wanted to begin printing his translations ; but there God.

was no press; and after waiting two or three years, he set to I well remember paying a visit to one of these schools in the work and constructed a wooden one himself, which is still prejungle. Starting about half-past three in the afternoon, when the served, and is seen in the picture. But where was the type to power of the sun was beginning to fail

, we walked the first part print from ? None of the Malayalam character existed, and when of our way along the side of rice fields, the green blades spring the Government foundry at Madras cast some for him, the letters ing up out of the water, giving promise of plenty in due time. were so badly formed as to be almost useless ; so he determined Presently we came to a small canal, not very deep, but broad, to provide this want also with his own hands. He had never and, there being no bridge or boat, were carried over on the seen a type-foundry or its apparatus; but he obtained an old shoulders of a native man-servant who was with us. This hap cyclopædia and a small book on printing, and, with the help of pened twice, and, after some scrambling throngh bushes and a common Native carpenter and two Native silversmiths, he set winding ways in the wood, we reached our school in a small to work again; and so complete was his success, that the print clearing in the jungle. Here was the heathen teacher, with his was pronounced by the British Resident at the Maharajah's court head all shaven save one long lock of black hair growing from to be “ extremely beautiful and correct.”' the top of his head, which was coiled (after the fashion of the From that press and those types were produced, within a few country) into a large knob on his forehead; here, too, were his years, complete editions of the Bible, the Prayer-book, and two pupils—the boys belonging to the caste of smiths standing by Dictionaries, translated and compiled from beginning to end by themselves; those to the caste of woodmen by themselves; and Mr. Bailey alone, and printed under his superintendence. One the little girls, with brilliant black hair and eyes and very many

of the most interesting conversions in the history of the Mission rings (sometimes eight or ten) in their ears, forming another resulted from the reading of one of these Prayer-books by a Nair group. Perhaps a few of the fathers or mothers would come to

-one of the most influential castes in Travancore. hear what was to be said, and to those who conld read tracts or The Cottayam Press is now an important institution. It leaflets would be given. We have many schools of this kind : employs forty persons, and is quite self-supporting,

It prints one held in the verandah of a large shop in the market, another

and binds for the Bible Society, the Maharajah's Government, in an unoccupied house in the village, and others in the heart of the Travancore Public Works Department, &c. the wood.

After the separation of the Mission from the Syrinn Church, Besides all these, we have our ordinary Sunday School in the Mr. Bailey threw himself into another work, tho building of a C.M.S. College, conducted much after the fashion of schools at church for the Protestant congregation. The first stone was laid home. All the masters are native Christians, and the scholars November 21st, 1839, and “ Christ Church," the building of are natives too, their ages reaching from six to twenty-six. One

which we give a picture, was dedicated to the service of God on of our most useful and clever mission agents, Mr. "T. Matthai, July 19th, 1812. Soon afterwards Bishop Daniel Wilson, of teaches the largest class, taking one of the parables or historical Calcutta, visited Travancore, and spoke of this church as "the events of the Bible, and, with the help of a picture, making its glory of Southern India"; but it has since been excelled by meaning understood by all.

others in Tinnevelly. Within its walls most, if not all, of the In this school our highest class deserves notice. They meet

Travancore ordinations have taken place, and several confirmain the College library, and all the teaching here is in English. tions. On the last occasion, in November, 1875, the Bishop of Their teacher is at present taking a course of lessons in the

Madras confirmed 551 candidates, and on the following Sunday Articles, and the boys show great interest in the work. I have ordained three Native presbyters and a deacon. often taken this class. Sitting at a table with my open Bible,

The Rev. W. J. Richards, who has sent us the photographs, with twenty intelligent-looking boys gathered round, all hoping thus writes :-in future time to make a mark in the world, we should read in the It is now forty years since the church was begun, as its founder states, English Bible some chapter bearing on the particular subject of "in reliance on the prontises of God.” It still remains a witness to the the afternoon, e.g., "of the sufliciency of the Holy Scriptures valuable

gifts. First, the priceless Word of God in the mother tongue

Ho sleeps with his fathers, after bequeathing to Malayala many for salvation.” They would then give proofs from the Bible itself, showing that they had been carefully taught.

then the venerable and now heartily cherished liturgy of the Church of

England; two dictionaries hitherto invaluable to the missionary; a book After the lesson is over all the different classes meet together depôt, a printing press, foundry for type, ko,, &c., complete, and still in to hear an address, after which a native lyric or hymn is sung,

full work; and last, not least, this fine church. and they are dismissed with prayer.

The church needs repair after forty years' brave defiance of Travancore monsoons. The chief engineer to the Travancore Government gives it as

his opinion that a teak-wood roof is an essential to stand the heavy rains of the

south-west coast. This will cost not less than Rs. 6,000. To raise this sum much help will be needed from the Church Missionary Society and from friends in England. The col. lections available in Cottayam from the church funds and offertories will reach to over Rs. 1,000. The Maharajah of Travancore, G.C.S.I., has graciously given Rs. 500 towards the repairs, and the British Resident at his court Rs. 50. [A rupee is about is. 7d.] Besides helping

to continue the pure worship of God according to the service of the Reformed Church of England, contributors to the fund for the repairs may rejoice that they are assisting to perpetuate the memory of what should never be forgotten—the valuable work of the late Rev. Benjamin Bailey, the first in the famous missionary trio of Cottayam-Bailey,Fenn, and Baker.

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In giving a picture (a French engraving) of King Mtesa and his chiefs in the May GLEANER, we said that we did not know its original source.

In Mr. Stanley's work, The Dark Continent, there is a picture, from a photograph taken by him in Uganda, from which evidently the French engraring was adopted. We had not noticed this before. Some of our friends have doubted the authenticity of our picture, but it turns out to be quite correct.

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