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was one of the most promising girls in our Sattankulam School. Her

father was a palmyra climber, and, during six months of the year, had to E are indebted to Mrs. Hobbs for the sketches from which

climb many trees, from forty to seventy feet high, twice a day, in order the five pictures on these pages have been engraved. Her to take the juice which oozes out of the stalks from which the fruit has husband, Archdeacon Stephen Hobbs, late of Mauritius, been cut off

. This juice is sweet and nutritious, and, together with rice, was a missionary of the C.M.S. in Tinnevelly, from 1839

Jesuadyal and her parents subsisted almost entirely upon it, either in its to 1856; and these sketches were taken in 1844. That

natural state, or made into jaggery-in Tamil karapoo-cutdi (black lump). was before the days of photography; but few photographs could surpass

The women boil down large quantities of the puthaneer (juice) into jaggery

and sugar candy for sale. You see, Jesuad gal's parents worked hard. Í the delicacy of the drawings.

do not think they knew how to 1. In the first picture we

read, but they were Christians, have a most life-like representa

and, unlike their beathen tion of the face of a Tamil

neighbours, who thought that

“learning was not for girls," Christian, an Inspecting Cate

they were very glad when I chist in the Sattankulam dis

told them that Jesuadyal, being trict, named Jacob. Mrs.

nearly six years old, might come Hobbs writes that he was

to our infant school. I think superior and excellent man.

the dear child was very glad

too, for she always had a bright, 2. The small landscape takes

happy face. She was one of us to the southernmost point of

the merriest on the playground, India. Elapjenny is resorted

and always near the top of her to by the missionaries, for its

class in the schoolroom. I berefreshing and health-restoring

lieve there are few little English

children who have a better sea-breezes, during the height

knowledge of Scripture than of the hot season. The bunga

she had, and her memory was lows they occupy, shown in the

well stored with beautiful texts picture, are, writes Mrs. Hobbs,

and hymns. She soon learnt to 'very rough, but very snug,

read, and to write, first on the with mud walls and olei (pal

sand and then on oleis (palmyra

leaves), which were in those myra leaf) roofs; and some

days the general substitute for times a partition of coarse calico

paper. These leaves are about or matting divides the interior

three feet long, fan-shaped, into two rooms." In this view

thick and tough. The Indians

write on them with an iron we see tho tall, straight, stiff,

style called a "yellutäm” palmyra-trees, which fill such

(writing-nail). Oleis are also an important place in Tinne

used for thatching, making velly life. It is the only vege

boxes, mats, and other purposes. tation the sandy plains will

Jesuadyal made such good support. While all around is

progress that she was soon pro

moted to the upper school, and, parched and arid, this tree

at the time the portrait was strikes its root forty feet below

taken, was in the first class, the surface, gathers up the TINNEVELLY SKETCHES : JACOB, AN INSPECTING CATECHIST.

which is shown by her being moisture, and daily gives forth

allowed to learn geograpby. quantities of sap, which, collected in small vessels and manufactured into

She is pointing to her Tinnevelly home. We were very hopeful that this sugar, forms the chief subsistence of the rural population, besides being

dear girl would have grown up to be a useful Christian woman, a true

"servant of Jesus,” but, “ His thoughts are not our thoughts.” Soon largely used by builders to mix with their chunam (mortar). The olei, after we left India, in 1852, it pleased Him to call away His little one or leaf of the palmyra, roofs the houses, or, cut into strips, serves as paper

after a short illness of cholera. . This was sad news for us, but those who for writing on with iron pens; its fibres provide the people with string;

were with her told us that “she died trusting in Jesus," so we can rejoice its trunk with timber for laths and rafters; while its root, scooped out,

to know that she is happy with Him. and with a dried sheep-skin stretched over it, becomes the drum in

5. Mrs. Hobbs also sends an account of the little girl writing on the universal use at festivals, &c. The larger portion of the Native Christians

sand: of Tinnevelly belong to the palmyra-climbing, or Shanar caste.

Pakkiam (Pearl) is a favourite name with Tamil Christians, and an 3. The larger view shows us one of the most interesting of the Tinne-appropriate one to the gentle little girl in the portrait. Perhaps you will velly stations. Paneivilei was

be puzzled to know what she is doing. She is learning to read ; yes, and

to write at the same time. for twenty years the scene of

Those queer-looking characters the faithful labours of the late

to which her finger is pointing, Rev. J. T. Tucker, during

are her morning lesson—" Ahwhich time he baptized no less

doo” (sheep),“Mahdoo" (cow), than two thousand

&c.—and then comes her name, men,

“Pakkiam.” Tamil children women, and children, with his

want neither books nor slates, own hands. No English mis

only a little sand, for their first sionary now lives at Paneivilei.

writing lessons. And "where,” The district belongs to the

you may ask, as some of my Native Church, under Bishop

little friends have done, " do

they get the sand, and how can Sargent's general supervision.

they use it for writing ?" I 4. Of the little girl who is so

suppose it was seeing it all plainly pointing out Tinnevelly

around them, that made Tamil on the Map of India, Mrs.

people think of turning it to Hobbs writes :

account in this way. The soil Jesudayal (servant of Jesus)

of Tinnevelly is sandy; there ELANJENNY, NEAR CAPE COMORIN.

are large plains with, here and

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there, hills of sand which rolls along like ripples on the sea, with every gentle breeze. Sometimes clouds of sand, raised by a high wind, will cast a reddish hue over the sky, and the atmosphere will soon become dense as in a London fog. Our children have only to go outside the schoolroom door and bring in their hands full of sand, which they put in beaps, in a row on the mud floor, and, seating themselves cross-legged behind it, spread it out with their hands. Then one child well up with the lesson spells each word, intoning in the Tamil fashion, while she writes it with her forefinger on the sand : the rest imitate her, all the little voices and fingers keeping time and time together until the lesson is learnt.

You will be glad to know that little Pakkiam was not only diligent in her lessons, but was early taught to know and love her Saviour. I have not seen her since she was the tiny child in the portrait a great many years ago, but her kind teacher afterwards told me that “she was one of four little girls who often went by themselves to pray.” If still living, I hope she is in some way useful to her fellow-countrywomen.

In my box of Indian treasures there is a small sampler, on which is marked in red the words, which I now give you as her request on behalf of herself and those she loves, “ Pray for us.Pakkiam.

The Tinnevelly Mission has wonderfully grown since Mrs. Hobbs took these sketches in 1844. There were then ten European missionaries ; there are now only five. Is that progress ? asks some reader. Certainly ; for as the Native Church advances, fewer Englishmen are needed. There was then one Native clergyman; there are now fifty-eight. There were then 338 Native lay teachers; there are now 630, besides a large number of voluntary helpers. There were then about 16,000 Christian adherents, of whom 1,800 were communicants ; they now number over 50,000, and 8,000 are communicants. These figures refer only to the C.M.S. districts. The S.P.G. has nearly as many adherents, and 31 pastors.

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FRANCES RIDLEY HAVERGAL MEMORIAL to houses, and instructed a total of 523 women and 98 children. A few

extracts from her daily journal will throw a little light upon her and CHURCH MISSIONARY FUND.

her work : HE Church Missionary Society had no more true

Jan, 10th, 1879.–Told three Brahmin women about Christ on the Cross

praying for His murderers, and taught them that they also should not return hearted friend than the devoted and accomplished evil for evil, but should follow the example of Jesus by doing good to their lady whose stirring words have this year occupied


" 21st.—Read Luke 21st to four women and spoke to them about the poor the first column in our monthly numbers, and who widow who cast two mites into the treasury. Showed how that Christ was her

has so lately been taken from our midst. The true treasure and only hope. missionary cause lay very near to her heart. Most appropriately, Matthew, about the Ten Virgins, and told them that Christ was the Heavenly

27th.-Eleven women assembled in T.'s house. I read the 25th chapter therefore, are her sorrowing yet rejoicing friends inviting contri- Bridegroom, and spoke of the necessity for us to be ready when the Lord butions to a Fund in her memory, to be employed in missionary should come. Showed them that Christ had revealed the true religion to us. work. The money is to be handed to the Church Missionary xiv. 6, and showed them that Jesus is the way. They listened attentively. Society “to expend in the training and employment of Native "28th.—Read the 15th chapter Luke to seven women and two children, and Bible Women, and in the translation and circulation in India

showed them that as the prodigal reflected on his sins and returned to his (and, should the Fund allow, other Mission fields) of suitable

father and found mercy, so if we feeling our sins seek our Heavenly Father

through Jesus Christ, He will remember our sins no more, but will forgive and selected portions of Miss Havergal's works."

them. They all listened eagerly. Among the chief promoters of this Fund is the Rev. Charles

Feb. 1st.—Read to geven women, Mark v. 1—20, and spoke to them of the

wickedness and malice of Satan. I told them that Satan was always trying to Bullock, through the medium of his admirable periodicals, Home ruin man, and therefore we should give our hearts to Christ, for He alone can Words, Hand and Heart, the Fireside, and the Day of Days, and deliver us from the devil and the power of sin. Showed them that Christ is it is a happy coincidence that publications holding so honourable

more powerful than Satan, and spoke to them of His power and mercy. They

said to one another, 'He had great power, had He not? to heal such a man. a position in what we may term home mission literature, should 27th.-In order to show what good women should be like, I read to five thus be engaged in aiding to provide foreign mission literature. women in V.'s house the account of a wise woman in Prov. xxxi. Showed It will indeed be a happy day when books such as Frances

them that her fear of the Lord was the motive power of all her good works.

And then I passed on to show that our God is the true God. They were very Havergal's, translated into the various languages of India by much pleased, and said, “This is the book to teach us good knowledge.” Natives able to stamp an Oriental style on the translations, are

To provide such agents as these will be a boon to India indeed. read and valued in the zenanas by Indian Christian women.


may here mention, and heartily recommend, a pretty little In the meanwhile we have to make the realers; and to effect

book just issued by Mr. Bullock in memoriam of Miss Havergal, this, there can be no more effective plan, under God, than entitled, Within the Palace Gates. From it we take the followvigorously to ply the other oar of the Fund, so to speak, and

ing: send forth Native Christian Bible-women throughout the length

“ Frances Ridley Havergal from her earliest years took the deepest and breadth of India. Mrs. Elmslie has told us in the GLEANER interest in the God-commanded work of Missions. At one time 'she had how valuable these agents are. Mrs. Weitbrecht writes :

very real thoughts of becoming a missionary herself; but her health forI could tell how after passing through most harrowing ordeals, even

bade it.' So lately as April last, she said on one occasion, 'If I were seas of sorrow, at the time of their own conversion, when all had to be

strong I must and would go, even now, to India. Last July she sent forsaken for Jesus' sake, they were carrying rays of sunshine into da

almost all her jewels to the Church Missionary Society. When reminded dwellings by reading that Word whose entrance gives light, and shedding

of the pleasure of leaving them to others, she replied, “No, my King radiance around them by their own bright lives. At Madras, Calcutta,

wants them, and they must go; delightful to have anything to give Him. Lahore, Bombay, to say nothing of intermediate places, it was my happy

I can't go to India, but I can help to send some one.' privilege to hold converse with them, hear their stories from their own

“ It may be the offering of jewellery' is not the sacrifice required from lips, and listen to their earnest words. One very young woman I can

many for the King; but it is felt that some offering of a grateful heart never forget, for she kept more than a dozen village women entranced as

will be prompted in the case of thousands who will feel it a high privilege she spoke lovingly to them of their deep need of Jesus.”

to be thus far associated in spirit with one of the noblest and truest

hearted and most loyal of His servants.” And Mr. Lash, of Tinnevelly, in a report which has come to hand while we write, gives a deeply interesting account of one Bible-woman, which we must extract at once :

EPITOME OF MISSIONARY NEWS, Bible-women are becoming of increasing importance as an agency for

The early date of printing the GLEANER prevented our giving last influencing the women of this country. The desire for information and month the welcome news that a telegram had been received at Alexandria education has grown to such an extent that in most of the large towns from Colonel Gordon stating that he had received letters from the C.M.S. and villages they would be eagerly welcomed by the inhabitants.

Nile party dated February, from Mruli, seven days' march from Mtesa's M-- is not a widow, but the wife of one of our native clergymen. capital, all well. They had met Wilson and Mackay; and the king was Her husband had to spend some mouths in Palmacottah last year while ready to receive them. preparing for Holy Orders, and M- came to me and asked permission The Rev. A. E. Moule, of Hang-chow, arrived in England last month. to attend the Sarah Tucker Institution as a day scholar and be trained A second edition of his interesting book, The Story of the Che-kiang to be a schoolmistress or Bible-woman. I gladly granted her request,

Mission, is now ready. though as she would be obliged to bring her little son with her, and walk Interesting letters have been received from Mpwapwa. Mr. Last sends nearly a mile daily from her house to the Institution, I feared her a detailed account of the various tribes between that place and the attendance would not be very regular. In this respect, however, I was Zanzibar coast, and Dr. Baxter, a journal of a recent tour in Ugogo. agreeably disappointed. Day alter day I found her punctual in her They are everywhere kindly received, and regard the whole country as a attendance at class, with her bright baby boy, as good as gold, sitting by

field white unto the harvest. The Rev. J. C. Price and Mr. H. Cole her side, playing at her feet, or falling asleep on her knees. When the sailed July 31st, vid the Cape, to join them. latter happened, she would carry him gently out and lay him to rest in The Rev. A. Menzies, who arrived at Frere Town on June 1st, writes :one of the adjacent dormitories. I was much pleased with her strict "On the 6th I met the communicants' class. It was like meeting old attention to all the lessons, and the quick intelligence shown in many of friends on the West Coast. I felt as though I had been suddenly dropped her answers to questions. She made rapid progress, and when it came to

down in the midst of my old class at Christ Church, Sierra Leone. We her turn to practise as a teacher, we all observed that she had a natural had a delightful time together, and again on Sunday, when I administered talent for teaching. She was always present at my Bible-classes, and the Lord's Supper to thirty-three persons. I was greatly pleased with filled her journal with notes of lessons, In December last, after the the day-school. It presents very much that is full of promise. There is ordination of her husband, she appeared for the Government Certificate a prospect of a good harvest of rice and other fruits, for which Mr. Examination, and passed in the first class.

Streeter is very thankful. The air is delightfully cool and pleasant." She has now been working as a Bible-woman in Ambasamudram, where In April last the Rev. II. Maundrell, of Nagasaki, Japan, visited her husband is stationed, for the last three months, and is in such request Kagoshima, an important city 150 miles off, where Stephen Koba, one of that she finds it impossible to visit all the houses to which she is invited. his native Christians, had been preaching the Gospel. He found a little

I find that in the three first months of the year M- paid 160 visits company of converts already gathered in, and baptized twenty persous.

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OCTOBER, 1879.

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All the pictures in this number of the GLEANER, and the tians comprise 299,770 Syrians, 109,820 Romanists, and 61,284 greater part of the letterpress, are illustrative of the new Protestants. In Cochin the proportion is still larger, the numMissionary Diocese of Travancore and Cochin, for which ber of “ Christians" being returned as 140,262. These are not our missionary brother the Rev. J. M. Speechly was con

subdivided, but it is believed that 40,000 are Syrians, 1,000 secrated the first Bishop on July 25th.

Protestants, and the rest Romanists. Both in Travancore and
Cochin at least one-half of the Romanists are probably descend-

ants of the Syrian Church. TRAVANCORE: THE LAND, THE PEOPLE, AND In another respect Travancore has a pre-eminence in India.

Nowhere else is the caste system so elaborate. In a Hindu THE MISSION.

population less than that of the West Riding of Yorkshire the HE kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin, at the census enumerates 420 distinct castes. And although it is

southern end of the Malabar or western coast of stated that the differences between some of these are minute, a India, are separated from Tinnevelly by the Western list is given of seventy-five, “which,” says the compiler of the Ghauts. No two contiguous regions present greater Census Report, "can be broadly distinguished from each other, contrasts than may be seen from those mountains in

and which serve to show the different strata in the formation of the two opposite directions. While Tinnevelly is a flat and un- Hindu society.” And nowhere else is the tyrannical power of interesting plain, with a sandy soil and dry climate, Travancore caste more manifest. It is, indeed, now gradually yielding to boasts of some of the most beautiful and diversified scenery in the the potent influences at work against it, but it has still immense world, and is emphatically “ a good land, a land of brooks of water, power. of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills,

The Nairs, a branch of the Sudras, form the most important that drinketh water of the rain of heaven." The line of coast section of the population. They comprise the landed gentry is generally flat, and fringed with multitudes of cocoa-nut trees, and almost the whole class of Government officials, civil and which

may be regarded as the characteristic tree of Travancore, military. None of them engage in trade. The Chogans are the like the palmyra of Tinnevelly. A remarkable series of back- most numerous of the castes. Most of them are “ toddywaters or lagoons extends for nearly 200 miles parallel to the climbers,” climbing the cocoa-nut tree as the Shanar of Tinnesea, separated from it only by a strip of land varying from a velly does the palmyra. They are an industrious people, and few yards to some miles in width; and almost the whole traffic some of them are influential. While low in the social scale as of the country is carried on by means of boats on this convenient compared with Brahmins and Nairs, they in their turn are water-way. Bordering on these lagoons stretch vast påddy reckoned far above the out-caste slave population. These disfields, which are overflowed in the rainy season. Behind these tinctions are enforced by a rigorous system of distances to be rise the lower spurs and slopes of the hills, intersected by observed by lower castes in approaching higher. Thus, a Nair picturesque valleys filled with tropical vegetation ; and beyond may approach but not touch a Brahmin ; a Chogan must keep them come the mountains themselves, clothed with magnificent thirty-six steps from a Brahmin, and twelve from a Nair ; a forests, and rising here and there to a height of 7,000 feet. The Pulayan, one of the slave communities, must keep ninety-six average breadth of the country is but forty miles from the sea steps from a Brahmin or Nair, and must not even approach a to the watershed, nearly half consisting of broken mountain Chogan. Even a Palayan is defiled if he is touched by a country.

Pariah. And besides all these there are the wild jungle and

hill square miles, with a population of 2,308,891. The smaller that which led to the establishment of the Travancore Mission, kingdom of Cochin, immediately to the north, embraces an area is the SYRIAN CHURCH OF MALABAR, or, as its members call of 1,130 square miles, with a population of 601,114.

themselves, Christians of St. Thomas. The origin of this Travancore and Cochin are two of the semi-independent pro

Church is not certainly known. It claims to have sprung from tected states of India. The Rajahs of both kingdoms took the the preaching of the Apostle Thomas himself; and some of the side of the English in the wars with Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sahib best authorities are of opinion that this tradition may be at the close of last century, and were accordingly confirmed in accepted, though others doubt it. Colonel Yule, the translator their thrones. Indeed, the war of 1790 originated in an attack of Marco Polo, thinks it is “so old that it probably is in its by Tippoo upon Travancore. The present Maharajah of Travan- simple form true.” Certainly the Church is very ancient. core and his family have shown an enlightened spirit in many

Pantænus of Alexandria undertook a journey to visit it in the ways, and a desire to improve the condition of the people and second century. At the Council of Nice, A.D. 925, a bishop promote Western refinement. A census of the kingdom taken named John signed the decrees as Metropolitan of Persia and three or four years ago was he first ever made by an Indian “Great India.” Alfred the Great sent an embassy to the shrine Native Government; and a report of the results-à volume of of St. Thomas in India. A Syriac MS. of the Bible, brought 330 pages-which has been published in English, gives much from Cochin, and now in the University Library at Cambridge, valuable information respecting the country and people.

which Canon Westcott says is the only complete ancient MS. of This census has brought to light a fact which makes Travan- the Syriac Bible in Europe (except one at Milan), probably dates core unlike every other part of India, viz., that the “Native from the eight century. It has been generally believed that the Christians” (i.e., as statistically reckoned) are one-fifth of the Malabar Church in the Middle Ages was Nestorian; but some whole population. This is mainly owing to the existence on this now think it was always, as it has been for the last 200 years, coast of the ancient “Syrian Church of Malabar," as it is com

connected with the Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch. monly called. The exact figures are-Hindus, 1,700,317; Mo- When Vasco de Gama, the great Portuguese navigator, reached hammedans, 139,905; Jews, 151 ; Native Christians, 466,874; India by sea round the Cape in 1498, he was received with open European and Eurasian Christians, 1,644. The Native Chris- arms by the Christians of Malabar; but the connection with

northward from Cape Comorin, and comprises an area of 6,730 The most interesting section of the population, however, and

Portugal brought sad trouble upon them. Just a century later on prosperously, and there seemed good hope of a gradual the Church, which had successfully resisted the persuasions of reform. But after the death of the second in 1830, his successor the Jesuits, became subject to the jurisdiction of the Pope ; the headed a reactionary movement; in 1835, notwithstanding the work of subjugation being effected, partly by force and partly friendly efforts of Bishop Wilson, it had become clear that the by fraud, by Alexius Menezes, Archbishop of Goa. All the effort to resuscitate the decayed Church, and raise her up as a married priests were deposed; the doctrine of transubstantiation witness for Christ on the Malabar coast, had failed; and in 1837, and the worship of the Virgin were enforced; the Inquisition when not a single Syrian catanar (priest) had abandoned superwas established, and in 1654 a Metropolitan sent from Antioch stitious practices, although half of them had passed through the was burnt alive at Goa as a heretic. In 1661, however, the College, the Society determined to change its policy, and to sever ports of Quilon and Cochin were captured by the Dutch, who its connection with the Syrian Church. expelled all the Romish priests, and thus made way for another From that time the Mission has prospered. The separation, Syrian Metropolitan, who arrived from Antioch in 1665, and was so far from causing ill-feeling, resulted ultimately in moro friendly welcomed as a liberator by the majority of the Christians. The intercourse. Some thousands of Syrians have joined the C.M.S. Malabar Church has from that time been free from Papal domi- Protestant congregations, without forfeiting the regard of their nation, but has acknowledged the supremacy of the Jacobito fellows. Eighteen Syrians have received Anglican orders, but Patriarch. Many, however, remained in connection with the are still frequently invited to preach in the Syrian churches, Church of Rome, and became the progenitors of the numerous as also are the English missionaries. In the Society's Cottayam body of Romanists now in the

College, founded after the separacountry.

tion, Syrian youths study for the When Travancore and Cochin

Madras University. In the Mission came under British protection in

Schools the children of Syrians, 1795, the Syrian Church began to

boys and girls, are educated in large attract attention, and in 1806 Dr.

numbers. Meanwhile, an important Claudius Buchanan was sent by

reforming movement sprang up a few Lord Wellesley to visit it. It was

years ago in the Syrian Church ithe who discovered the MS. already

self. In a few churches a revised mentioned. His speeches and ser

Liturgy, translated into Malayalam, mons in England-particularly his

is now issued; the Lord's Day is speech at the C.M.S. anniversary in

better observed in many places; 1809-and his published Christian

Sunday-schools, Bible-classes, and Researches, awakened


prayer-meetings bave been introtian people a strong desire to enter

duced, C.M.S. catechists being into friendly relations with an

sometimes asked to conduct them; ancient Church which seemed to

and there is a large and increasing offer a promising base for the exten

sale of Bibles and Testaments. The sion of Christianity in India ; and a

reform party, however, are but a few years afterwards, an invitation

minority; and they lost a good friend from the British Resident in Travan

by the death of the Metran, Mar core, Colonel Munro, who took a

Athanasius, in 1877. There are now great interest in the Syrians, and

several rival Metrans, and discord had befriended them in many ways,

prevails in the Syrian Church. led to the establishment of the

But the efforts of the Society in C.M.S. Travancore Mission in

Travancore have by no means been 1816.

confined to the Syrians. Of the The object of the Mission was

20,000 Christians now composing expressly to benefit the Syrian

its congregations, two-thirds are Church—not to interfere with its

converts from heathenism. Tbe liberty to -“ ordain rites and cere


greater number have been drawn monies," but to encourage and

First Bishop of Trarancore and Cochin.

from the Chogans and the Pulayan aid it to reform itself —" not to

slaves; but Brahmins and Nairs have pull down the ancient Church and build another, but to remove furnished their quota, and some 2,000 belong to the Arrians, a the rubbish and repair the decaying places.” For though free Kolarian hill-tribe found in the recesses of the Ghauts. Few from some of the grosser errors of Rome, it was overlaid with episodes in missionary history are more interesting than those of most of the corruptions of doctrine and practice common to the Mr. H. Baker junior's work among the Arrians (see GLEANER Oriental Churches; and its lack of spiritual life was evidenced of Juno last] and Mr. Hawksworth’s among the slaves. Nor by the total absence of any effort to evangelise the surrounding must we omit to mention the name of Joseph Peet, who was heathen. It was proposed to undertake the training of youths for many years a very prominent figure in the Travancore for holy orders in a college which Colonel Munro had induced Mission, and to whom in particular it pleased God to give some the Native Government to endow; to translate the Bible—which remarkable Brahmin converts. the Church only possessed in Syriac-into Malayalam, the ver- Considerable advance has been made in Native Church ornacular of the country; and generally to influence clergy and ganisation, the District Councils and the Provincial Council people in favour of purer doetrine and simpler worship. The being in full operation. In progress by accessions from withmissionaries entrusted with this noble task were Benjamin out, Travancore for some time held the first place in all the Bailey, Joseph Fenn, and Henry Baker.

Society's Missions, though it was distanced last year by Tin. At first all went well. The missionaries were cordially re- nevelly. The adult baptisms in the three years 1875, 1876, 1877, ceived by the Syrians, and during the life-time of two successive were 702, 429, 641. They would probably have been con.. Metrans (bishops), their educational and translational work went siderably more but for the unhappy schism which has troubled



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