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THE EMPEROR AND EMPRESS OF JAPAN. which he very kindly and graciously returned. I think he could

hardly fail to observe the respect which I showed him, as BY THE REV. JOAN PIPER, Tokio.

compared with that of his own subjects around me, for they HE readers of the Gleaner have had the Ainos of simply stood gazing vacantly at the carriage and soldiers.

Japan brought to their notice twice-once in Thus from the sense of divine honour which was formerly paid October, 1875, and again in May, 1877. As the to him, this people have gone to the other extreme, and scarcely interest and prayers of the friends of Missions notice him when passing through their streets.

have been sought by presenting them with pictures The Emperor, whose name is Mutsuhito, was born in of the lowest subjects in Japan, it has occurred to me that November, 1850, and is consequently twenty-seven years of age. photographs of the Emperor and Empress—the highest personages He is the 123rd Mikado in the line of imperial rulers from in the empire—may not unsuitably find a place in the GLEANER Jimmu Tenno, who lived (so says Japanese history) about 660 gallery representing scenes and persons from every heathen land.

years before Christ. He succeeded his father in 1867, and in I send herewith two photos, which are good and faithful ones. 1868 married the daughter of a noble of the first rank. She is I can testify to the faithfulness of that of the Emperor, as I had seven months older than he is. the honour of being invited to the Imperial Naval College when Let me ask the readers of the GLEANER to pray for the heads his Majesty came to make his annual inspection, January 11th, of this land. I believe that, as a rule, pictures of the Red 1876. I was near him about an hour, and had thus a good Indians of North America, naked savages of Africa, dwarfed opportunity of studying his features; and those who have seen Esquimaux, or the lowest tribes of India, strike the feelings of the Empress say that the photo of her is an equally good one. Christians at home more easily and more deeply than do those It will be observed that he is in military uniform, and she has of the more civilised heathen, who cannot in any sense be called her hair dressed in a somewhat foreign style.

barbarous savages. It is natural, and perhaps right, that man's Some time ago I met the Emperor in his carriage, accom- sympathies should be more readily drawn out towards the panied by some of his horse guards. I stood amongst a few degraded of our race. But there is some danger of forgetting Japanese till his Majesty passed. When he reached where I that both high and low, the more or less polished heathen as well was standing, I took off my hat and gave him a respectful bow, as the savage, equally need our pity and prayers. I often think that the Emperor and Empress of this land are even more to be there, as the girls are generally taken away to be married long pitied than the lowest subjects in their dominions. The latter before that age. One of twelve years old, whom Mrs. Keene can go and hear the Gospel's joyful sound, whilst the heads of inquired for, was, we were told, just about to enter the wedded the empire in many senses are far removed from such a privilege. state, for which reason her mother, the woman who collected The Emperor of Japan, like the Emperor of China, is styled the children, was desirous of having a month's leave, in order Tenshi (son of heaven), but all Christians know that if he is that she might go from house to house to beg or borrow food ignorant of the true God, the title is an empty and false one. and clothes for the occasion. I hope all the readers of the CHURCH MISSIONARY GLEANER, The children looked picturesque in their extraordinary little though they may not possess any grand earthly title, can coloured Punjabi trousers, which are made very full at the joyfully say, Behold, what manner of love the Father hath top, and narrow gradually towards the ankle, where they are bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God.almost tight, although, being cut very long, they are curiously Pray, then, that the Emperor and Empress of Japan may be puckered up above the instep. The remainder of the female able from their hearts trustingly to say the same blessed words, costume consists of a little loose vest or jacket, which is and as an encouragement to make such a petition to Almighty sometimes dispensed with altogether, and the “chaddah," a God, take with you these words from God's own Book, “ The white or coloured cloth of muslin or other material, which king's heart is in the hand of the Lord, as the rivers of water ; covers the head and a considerable portion of the person. It He turneth it whithersoever He will.”

is brought under the chin, and thrown over the left shoulder, [We must explain that after receiving Mr. Piper's photographs, we

so as to form very graceful drapery, if of a proper size. The ascertained that copies had already been engraved in this country, and

children had their ears full of ornaments, as many as twenty these engravings we are enabled to present.--Ed.]

pendants hanging from the rim of each ear, causing it to fail

forward in a very ugly manner; in their noses, too, they had SKETCHES OF THE PUNJAB MISSION.

gold and silver rings, and upon their arms, ankles, and necks.

Some women came in with their little naked infants perched BY THE AUTHOR OF “MORAVIAN LIFE IN THE BLACK FOREST," &c. astride on their shoulders or sides, curious to see and hear the VI.-Amritsar.–The Native Town.-A Visit to the Lady

Mem Sahibs. The bright-eyed little scholars darted gleefully Lawrence School,

hither and thither, looking very pretty and happy. ND now will you accompany us on an early drive

Year by year female education has gained ground in the to the Native town of Amritsar ? We do not live Punjab; the scholars, formerly counted by units, have increased within its walls, but about a mile away. The

to hundreds, and that one little school has sent out branches buggy awaits us; we are going with Mrs Keene to

all over the city. Normal classes have been added, from which visit the Lady Lawrence School in the city.

well-trained teachers have gone forth, and in which Susan, now “ Bisi” feels that a light hand holds the reins, and frisks us

an able and experienced Bible-woman, gives a weekly Scripturealong the Batala Road at full speed. The syce girds himself lesson to a group of eager and earnest listeners. In 1875 up and runs before till we are fairly on our way, when he takes

these schools numbered twenty-two. They contain," wrote an early opportunity of jumping up behind, till we reach the city Miss Tucker, who had then just joined the Mission, " Hindus, gates; then down he comes, and, gesticulating and shouting, Mohammedans, and Sikhs, those who would, without this makes way for us through the crowded, narrow ways of the teaching, probably know nothing of religion but the fallacies bazaar. As we drive on, we see a great many things of which of Islamism, or the more revolting mummeries of idol-worship. we should like to stop and ask the names and uses. Merchants The power of teaching the Bible in twenty-two Native schools sit cross-legged or on their heels amid their wares, their fruits

seems to me a wonderful power for good.” and native sweetmeats, their cowries and their cloth, their

In 1877, 750 scholars were under the influence of this baskets of parched corn, piles of hot chupatties, and earthen teaching. There are now Mission girls' schools, not only in bowls of “ cowa," or coagulated milk. A little way on we see a

Amritsar, but in the out-stations of Batala, Taran-Taran, knot of people collected in a listening attitude, and soon we can

Jandiala, and Fatehgahr. Let us give our readers a hasty peep discern a voice reading. It is that of Edward the catechist.

into one of each of the different schools—a Mussulmani, a Hindu, He is reading from the Punjabi Testament. To attract the and a Mehtrani, or

and a Mehtrani, or “Sweeper's" school, showing them as they passers-by he has chosen the text, “Ho, every one that

now are, in the words of the present lady superintendent :thirsteth, come, buy wine and milk, without money and without In the first the girls are arranged in four classes, each sitting before a price.” One of the missionaries is with him. He is about to low bench, and moving their fingers over the books arranged on it. The preach to those who have assembled.

first class are reading Line upon Line, and for secular reading they have A bye-way leads us from the crowded bazaar thoroughfares,

the Takmil-ul-Talim, containing descriptions of animals and other useful with their dense and motley assemblage of vendors and buyers,

teaching. The second and third classes read elementary books; and the

babies, and some who look rather more than babies, are placed before the smokers, loungers, chatterers, and bargainers, to the quiet blackboard, while the monitor is teaching them the letters. All we want quarter in which the girls' school lies. It is a day-school for is to give them the power of reading any tolerably easy Urdu book heathen girls, founded as a memorial to the late Lady Henry without difficulty: The four simple rules of arithmetic and a general Lawrence, who in her lifetime took a deep interest in the

acquaintance with the maps of India and the Punjab is all we can expect

from girls who are considered “finished” at eleven or twelve years of age, question of Native female education.

and whose school-life is interrupted with perpetual holidays. Still, in There were few children present on the day in question. spite of the difficulties, something is learnt. The Ten Coinmandments, The woman employed to go round and collect the scholars and a catechisın in rhyme, besides several hymns and texts, are repeated. every morning had brought word to Susan, the catechist's

Two or three little songs with movements, such as “Do you know how wife, who acted the part of mistress, that one was stopping

doth the peasant ?” “We all stand up together,” are gone through with at home “ to wash her head,” and that the rest of the absentees

great merriment, and then we leave the school amidst a chorus of salaams.

We go on to the next. Here are Hindu and Sikh children, as we soon were gone to a “mela,” or Native fair.

see by the very bright faces, the Rasida-worked chaddahs, and the Those who had come read to us, and showed their writing,

Gurmukhi books lying before them. They can answer many questions and very fair it was. The three youngest children were bright,

on the miracles and teaching of Christ; and the elder girls, and many of merry little creatures of eight or nine years old; a fourth was a

the little ones too, can read fluently. They are always anxious to get

something new, and A.L.O.E.'s charming little books are hailed with great girl of fourteen or fifteen, whom we much wondered to see great delight. They willingly give their price for the coveted possession.

Now for a Mehtrani school. This is open later in the day, as the girls tion, Sir T. Powell Buxton, when he summed up the needs of Africa in have to be out in the morning at their work. Dirty as they are, nowhere these two words—the Gospel and the Plough. do we see such eager, intelligent, happy faces as in this school

. Running Samuel Crowther was then still a young schoolmaster, thirty years of about all day in the fresh air makes them far more lively and energetic age. We have gone back from our last chapter sixteen years, in order to than the poor children who are more pent-up. Yes, and there is more tell the story of his connection with the great river from the beginning. than head-work going on here. The fact of their having no caste, and The three steamers composing the expedition, the Albert, the Soudan, feeling themselves despised, makes these girls more ready to hear of One and the Wilberforce, sailed from Sierra Leone, on July 2nd, 1841, under who embraces all within the arms of His love. Our Native pastor, the the command of Captain (afterwards Admiral) H. D. Trotter. The ascent Rev. Mian Sadiq, kindly took the Scripture examination for us this year, of the Niger was begun August 20th. Through the slimy mangrove and these sweeper girls outdid all the others in the readiness with which swamps, with their fever-breeding miasma, for the first twenty milesthey gave their answers. We have three Christian teachers amongst our then through a region of dense tropical forest, palms, bamboos, and number, all converts from the schools. We still keep up the singing- | gigantic cotton-trees-then past the first plantations of plantains and class. We shall greatly miss the help of Bibi Hannah,* whose sweet, sugar-cane, with here and there a mud hut-the three vessels slowly clear voice and knowledge of Native tunes, was a great help to us. steamed up the principal channel of the river; the natives in terror I have no space to speak of the village schools, though they running away from the wonderful floating towns. At Ibo, 100 miles up,

the expedition was warmly received by Obi, the king. Simon Jonas, the are, if anything, more interesting than the city ones. Four

years Christian Ibo from Sierra Leone whom we mentioned in the last chapter, ago, one girls' school was opened in Batala, now there are seven, and who acted as interpreter, read to him some verses of Scripture, which and thirty-three zenanas visited. There is a dense jungle of astonished him greatly. That the white man should read was natural ignorance to be cleared away, but every stroke is doing some

enough; but that one of his own people should be able to do the same

was more than he could believe. He seized Simon's hand, and exclaimed, thing; and when ready to faint, we are cheered on by the

“You must stop with me and teach me and my people.” Both with him thought that we are at least gathering out some of the stones, and with the King of Idda, another 100 miles further up, treaties were and in some degree helping to fulfil the command, “Prepare ye concluded for the suppression of the slave-trade and of human sacrifices, in this desert a highway for our God.”

and for the promotion of lawful commerce. At the highest point reached by the expedition, Egan (pronounced Egga), it fell to Crowther to communicate its objects to the king :

After a hearty salutation, by shaking of hands in the name of the king of BISHOP CROWTHER: HIS LIFE AND WORK, the ship, and telling him the reasons why the ship could not then come near,

I commenced my message: That the Queen of the country called Great VII.-ON THE NIGER.

Britain has sent the king of the ship to all the chiefs of Africa, to make OST great rivers bave been discovered at their mouths, and

treaties with them to give up war and the slave-trade, to encourage all their

people to the cultivation of the soil, and to mind all that the white people their course traced up stream. It was not so with the say to them, as they wish to teach them many things, and particularly the Niger. That there was such a river somewhere in Western Book which God gives, which will make all men happy. I added, likewise, Central Africa was known in the last century; but in the that there are many Nufi

, Haussa, and Yoruba people in the white-men's edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica published in 1797, country, who have been liberated from the Portuguese and Spanish slave-ships ; it was confounded with the Senegal, which flows westward

that they are now living like white men; that they pray to God, and learn into the Atlantic Ocean. On July 21st of that very year, however,

His Book; and consequently are living á happier life than when they were Mungo Park struck its upper waters near Segou, the capital of Bambarra.

in their own country, and much better off than their country-people are at

present. To this many of them said that they could judge of their happy I beheld,” he says, "the long sought-for majestic Niger, glittering in

state merely by my appearance. I added, moreover, that our country-people the morning sun, as broad as the Thames at Westminster, and flowing in white-men's country had written a letter to the Queen, who lives in Great slowly to the eastward.But thirty-three years more passed before its Britain, expressing their wish to return to their country, if she would send whole course was determined. Park was killed in the attempt to com- white men along with them ; but the Queen, who loves us all as her children, plete the explorations; Clapperton died in making a similar attempt; and told them to stop till she had first sent her ships to the chiefs of Africa, to it was not till 1830 that the brothers Lander, having travelled overland

persuade them to give up war and the slave-trade; and if they consented through the Yoruba country to Boussa, where Park met his death,

to her proposals, she would readily grant the request of our country people. descended the river from that point to its mouth in the Gulf of Guinea.

The ships are now come; the King of Ibo, and the Attah, King of Igalla, had

consented to all that the Queen of Great Britain sent the king of the ship to Lander's discovery was received in England with enthusiasm ; and a

say to them; and that if all the other chiefs would consent to do the same, mercantile enterprise was set on foot by Mr. Macgregor Laird, with the they would soon see their people, whom they had lost for many years, and view of introducing profitable commerce into Central Africa by the new supposed to have been dead, come up in this river with their property, and highway. Two steamers with that object ascended the river in 1832; some even in their own ships, to carry on legitimate trade with them, as they but the attempt was not successful.

do in the white-men's country. In 1841 the British Government fitted out the celebrated Niger But the expedition closed in sorrow and disappointment. A deadly Expedition, the main purpose of which was to aim a fresh and effectual fever struck the crews, and 42 white men out of 150 died in two months. blow at the slave-trade. “It is proposed," wrote Lord John Russell, | Egan was only reached by one of the steamers, the Albert, the other two then Colonial Secretary, under whose auspices it was undertaken, “to having been sent back to the sea full of invalids; and at the very time establish new commercial relations with those African chiefs and powers, when Crowther was delivering his message, only three of the Albert's within whose dominions the internal slave-trade of Africa is carried on, crew had strength enough to work the ship. The sentence seemed to and the external slave-trade supplied with its victims. To this end, the have gone forth, “ Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further”; and the Queen has directed her ministers to negotiate conventions or agreements Albert, following the track of her disabled companions, drifted down. with those chiefs and powers; the basis of which conventions would be: stream, and crossed the bar on October 16th. 1st, the abandonment and absolute prohibition of the slave-trade; and Simon Jonas had been left with King Obi while the expedition went 2ndly, the admission, for consumption in this country, on favourable up the river, and was treated by him with every kindness; and another terms, of goods, the produce or manufacture of the territories subject to Native interpreter, Thomas King (afterwards an ordained missionary at them.” In this project, Prince Albert, then a young man, took a lively Abeokuta), was left in charge of a model farm, which was started near the interest; and one of the three steamers of H.M. Navy fitted out for the confluence of the two branches of the Niger; but both were soon afterexpedition was named after him.

wards withdrawn. The Niger Expedition became a byword as a conThe Church Missionary Society saw in this scheme an opportunity for spicuous and hopeless failure. Yet it taught some valuable lessons, and inquiring into the openings for the spread of the Gospel which the great so paved the way for the more successful enterprises of later years. It river might present. Many of the Christian liberated slaves at Sierra showed that the people were ready to welcome teachers; and that the Leone were natives of the territories through which the Niger flowed. liberated Africans of Sierra Leone could be employed to teach them. Could they not be utilised to tell throughout those territories the wonderful No one doubts this now; but many laughed at it then. In another works of God, "every man in his own tongue wherein he was born”? respect the fruits have been reaped since. Mr. Schön was enabled to Permission was obtained for two agents of the Society to accompany the collect materials for the closer study of the Haussa language, into which expedition; and the men selected for this service were the Rev.J. F. Schön, he has since translated portions of the Scriptures, besides compiling a an experienced Sierra Leone missionary, and Samuel Crowther.

dictionary, grammar, &c. Thus Christianity and industry were to go hand in hand; and the But for more than twelve years public opinion allowed no further motto of all Crowther's work on the Niger from that time to this has exploration of the Niger. In the meanwhile Samuel Crowther was been the pregnant phrase of one of the leading promoters of the expedi-ordained, and became a missionary to his Yoruba fellow-countrymen, as

related in previous chapters; and at Abeokuta he gained the ministerial The second wife of the Rev. Mian Sadiq, who died at Amritsar, January experience which was in after years to be put to so noble a use on the 19th, 1878, leaving one little boy behind her,

great water-way of Western Africa.

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In forwarding the late Mr. T. O'Neill's Sketches, the Rev. C. T. Wilson testifies to their accuracy, and in particular he observes that the portrait of Lukongeh is an excellent likeness. Other sketches in Ukerewe, and on the route, have been reproduced as coloured lithographs in the publication

just issued by the Society, SKETCHES OF AFRICAN SCENERY, price 1s. 6d.

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