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ARCHDEACON ABRAHAM COWLEY.
new station at Cumberland (see GLEANER, Oct., 1875). The
second was made by Mr. Cowley, shortly after his arrival. In OWARDS the close of the year 1840, the C.M.S. the summer of 1842 he began a mission to the Saulteaux or
Committee received a most touching appeal from a Soto Indians, on the banks of Lake Manitoba, some 200 miles
His health had so broken down that he besought the temporal and spiritual benefit of the Indians, but with very leave to retire. “Let pity,” he wrote to the Society, “touch little success. The Saulteaux have always proved a peculiarly your bosom, and relieve one who is reluctantly driven from the hard-hearted and superstitious race, and again and again Mr. field by infirmity."
Cowley's reports were full only (as he himself expressed it) of Help was speedily sent to him, but in the meanwhile his “ lamentation, and mourning, and woe.” In the spring of 1851 strength and spirits had revived; he continued at his post. Bishop Anderson visited the station, and had the privilege of When Rupert's Land was made a diocese he was appointed by baptizing the first convert, Luke Caldwell, who afterwards Bishop Anderson Archdeacon of Assiniboine ; and on Oct. 1st, became a teacher, was ordained in 1871, and died two years 1865, he at length entered into rest, after a finished course of ago. On this occasion the bishop re-christened the station, forty years without once returning home.
calling it Fairford, after Mr. Cowley's native village in GloucesThe missionary who was
tershire. " When we think hurried out to relieve Mr.
of Manitoba," he wrote, Cockran young
we may remember that, it student at the Islington
was the Indian's name for College, Abraham Cowley.
the narrow pass over the Railways and steamers have
lake, which he imagined to brought Rupert's Land very
be haunted by an evil spirit, near to us now, and as we
and called it, therefore, write these lines letters have
Manito-ba. When we name come in dated only three
Fair-ford, may we think of weeks back. But in those
that brighter passage to a days it was no easy task to
better land, made known by get there at all. Mr. and
Him who is the way, the Mrs. Cowley sailed Jan. 5th,
Truth, and the Life! 1841, for Canada, hoping
When Mr. Cowley removed to accompany the Bishop
from Fairford, in 1854, he of Montreal, who was in
left there 120 Native Christending to visit Red River
tians. His next charge was by way of Lake Superior and
the Indian settlement at the uninhabited country be
Red River, which had been yond, a distance altogether
founded by Mr. Cockran of 2,000 miles. But this
twenty-two years before. plan fell through ; no oppor
Here he laboured for thirteen tunity offered for going on;
years (broken only by one and Mr. and Mrs. Cowley
visit to England) among the had actually to return to
large congregation of civiEngland to get a passage
lised and Christianised Inin the annual ship to Hud
dians, Saulteaux and Crees, son's Bay, whence, landing
who had settled down to the at York, a canoe voyage of
quiet pursuits of agricultural 800 miles would take them
life. In 1867 he handed to their destination, which
over the charge of it to a they ultimately reached on
Native pastor, the Rev. Sept. 28th, 1841. During
Henry Cochrane; and FairTHE VEN. ABRAHAM COWLEY, B.D., his short stay in Canada,
ford also, after being worked Archdeacon of Cumberland, Rupe: t's Land. Mr. Cowley was ordained
for some years by an English by the Bishop of Montreal,
missionary, Mr. Stagg, was having left England before his ordination could take place in given to two Native clergymen in succession, the Rev. J. Settee the regular way.
and the Rev. G. Bruce, the latter of whom is still resident In 1841 there were three missionaries in the whole of the there. Thus what is in a sense the crown of missionary work vast territories, more than 2,000 miles square, now covered by has been achieved at both stations. the Society's North-West America Mission, viz., Mr. Cockran, In 1867 Mr. Cowley was appointed by Bishop Machray Mr. Smithurst, and Mr. Cowley. There are now twenty-four Archdeacon of Cumberland, in succession to the Rev. J. Hunter, clergymen connected with the C.M.S. alone, of whom four are who had returned home. He also became Secretary of the whole Indians, and several others country-born. There were then but C.M.S. Mission, and in that capacity he has travelled much a few hundred Native attendants on public worship; there are during the last few years, visiting station after station, and now probably 10,000. The three missionaries in 1841 were all encouraging the missionaries, pastors, and schoolmasters by at Red River, then a backwoods settlement, now the centre of his wise and fatherly counsels. His head-quarters are at St. the prosperous province of Manitoba. The first attempt at Clement's, Mapleton, one of the now settled parishes on the extending the work had just been made, by sending the Native Red iver ; where he is assisted his son, the Rev. A. E. schoolmaster, Henry Budd, 500 miles into the forests, to start a Cowley, the eldest of that goodly band of brothers and sisters which has never been without a representative in the Mission- “Yes, but it was a great pity we had such scanty details,” said Mrs. aries' Children's Home, at Highbury, since that Home was
Lambert; “our workers were quite discouraged."
“ I don't understand that,” rejoined Miss Thornley, “Mrs. T. is one of opened twenty-four years ago.
those who generally gives most interesting and full accounts of her work Archdeacon Cowley's features will be recognised at once by and her young scholars, &c.” many of our readers who heard his happy speeches at missionary, “Oh, I meant about the sale,” said Mrs. Lambert; "the ladies natumeetings during his short visit to England in 1876; and those rally wished to know what their things sold for, and they could get no
clue at all." who have never seen them will be glad to have the likeness of a
“I begged particularly," interposed Mrs. Elwood, “in the note I sent, face familiar and beloved by white men and red men alike all
that a memorandum might be made of what my things came to." over the plains and forests of Rupert's Land. Missionaries like Rose Harford's amusement at this speech was almost beyond her power William Cockran and Abraham Cowley are the best gift of God of concealment; for she well remembered, as did Mrs. Weston and I, the to His Church on earth. They are the men who, while we at
very unsaleable nature of good Mrs. Elwood's contributions, and felt sure home talk about Missions, do the work of Missions; and they fetched, it would hardly have been a very laudatory or cheering one.
that had it been possible to furnish a memorandum of the price they had are the men, assuredly, whom, in the great day of account and
Mrs. Lambert resumed, “One friend of mine had sent such a parof reward, the King will delight to honour.
ticularly handsome bag; and then Miss Thompson's lovely banner-screens, if one could have known what they fetched !"
“I should rather doubt the screens selling at all, unless some one who
was going back to Europe took a fancy to them,” said Miss Thornley. LEAVES FROM THE HISTORY OF A MISSIONARY
" But I beg your pardon, Mrs. Lambert, I was going to ask you if you AUXILIARY.
ever took part in a sale of work at home?"
“I had a table for the new hospital at C-- last year,” said Mrs. By Miss E. J. WHATELY.
“ Could you have told exactly, at the end of the day, what each article CHAPTER X.
or even set of articles, sold for, and to whom ?”
was smaller than it would have been a year ago; but on easy, but there was no need for it.”
say that in any country it would be as hopeless to follow the history of She was a quiet, unassuming woman, some years past every article as to tell exactly which of the seeds dropped broadcast into the youth, and looking probably older than she was from the effects of a long ground produced the largest ear of corn. Surely it should be enough for sojourn and hard work in a tropical climate; but her expressive, animated the workers to know that the fruit of their labours was generally useful countenance showed that hers had been a happy work, and that she had and successful ; and that, I think, they will always find where the station thrown herself into it, heart and soul. She possessed the gift of relating is well selected and the work good-except in some very peculiar accidensimply, graphically, and clearly what she had seen and heard, and of tal case like the one just mentioned, and I believe you will find that will arranging her material so as not to weary or puzzle her hearers. It had right itself.” been agreed that the meeting was to begin with a little history of her “But it was not only the want of details about work which troubled us,” special work, and a description of the places and objects which it con- resumed Mrs. Lambert. “Our great disappointment-my friends and cerned. Her narrative enchained the attention of all, and when she mine-has been about the orphans." paused--for she had the good sense and tact to know when to stop—there "Indeed! I am surprised to hear that. May I ask how ?" was a general request "for more."
“We had adopted several—and they all seem to die, or turn out ill, or Mrs. Weston then proposed that we should ask questions on any point something—and then one never has any interesting accounts of them, which might need clearing up, and especially on the difficulties attending as we naturally expected!” work to be sold in aid of missions abroad. “Miss Thornley,” she said, The entrance of letters interrupted Miss Thornley's answer; and Mrs. “may be able to give us just the information we need on that point.” Weston seeing that one was from Mrs. Jackson, our correspondent of the
The first part of the proposal was agreed to readily, but there was some Indian orphanage, asked if she might open it at once. little demur at the work question being revived, and little "asides” “Oh, pray do," cried several voices, "and tell us all about the orphans." were heard, of—“Oh, you know it is no use to ask about that”-“We The letter began by saying that Mrs. Jackson had availed herself of the have all seen it can't be done,” &c. But Mrs. Weston held her ground, continuance of the contribution of the Southbridge Sunday Scholars' and asked Miss Thornley plainly to tell the ladies her experience as to Union, for the support of another protegèe, for whom she had been the sale of work abroad.
promised help from another quarter, which had never been sent. She Miss Thornley replied most decidedly that she had always found it said she could not be thankful enough for the timely aid from Southanswer well. She did not know, indeed, how it would be possible to keep bridge, as her regular funds were so low she was often embarrassed how up several schools she knew personally, without the regular sales on which to find food for her little flock. “Chunee, the little girl I have chosen," they mainly depended.
she continued, " is a quiet, obedient, well-disposed child, and I hope will “Oh, but we found it such a failure! They say it is no use trying do well. I need not ask our kind friends to remember her in prayer." now—," was heard from several voices.
“Not a word of little Violetta," was Mrs. Lambert's aside, in a tone of “May I ask where the boxes were sent that proved failures ? asked much disappointment. Miss Thornley, in her clear, calm, distinct voice.
“Nor of Jessie,” added Mrs. Elwood. Mrs. Weston named the three Indian stations they had taken, pre- Mrs. Weston continued, as soon as silence had been resumed : “ Please mising that the first had succeeded.
tell the kind ladies who are supporting the little girls, whom they have “I know the one where Mrs. Black lives,” said Miss Thornley, "not named Edith Violetta and Jessie Graham, that both are doing well. personally, but very well by reputation, and all who have been much Neither of them are very quick in learning, but they are steady and wellthere agree in saying work will not sell there. It is not Mrs. Black's conducted ; and Jessie's health, which had been delicate, is improving." fault, but the peculiar circumstances of the place ;” and she proceeded to “And is that all ? ” inquired both ladies, eagerly. give nearly the same reasons I had done before, viz , the scattered European “ All about these two girls. She gives a nice account of the school, population, the difficulty of mutual communication, &c.
which seems to be prospering, and she speaks of the timely help she had * But what of our second station, which had been so warmly recom- from a box of work which arrived when her supplies had nearly failed.” mended," said Mrs. Weston," and yet turned out a failure ?"
“Ah, yes, that is all very well,” rejoined Mrs. Lambert; " but still I “ That is a place I never knew to fail yet," said Miss Thornley ; " but I do think' it hard, that when we take the pains to raise the money, the think I can explain the present difficulty. Mrs. W--, the missionary's missionary lady can't take the trouble of giving a few more details to those wife, who generally superintends the sales, has been absent from ill-health, who take so strong an interest in them, about the child they support. and the lady who undertook the business in her place was unused to the The least she could do would be to write a letter from time to time giving kind of thing and managed it badly. I heard something of the kind from an account of the child.” my friends in India, who know the place. Mrs. W. was to return about “Yes, indeed,” put in another lady; "one letter a year, for instance. this time, and I think you will find that she will be able to dispose of How easy it would be!” whatever has not been spoiled, and that you will soon receive an encour- “It would be all I should ask," added Mrs. Elwood; "but a letter a year aging letter from her. She is a very practical person. I was helping her I feel I ought to have, to tell me how my adopted child goes on.” at one time, and I know that boxes of work have been her chief support. “I think,” said Miss Thornley, in her quiet but emphatic tone, " perYour other box, the one sent to N-, sold well, I understand.”
haps these ladies don't quite estimate the difficulties."
“What difficulties can there be ? ” cried the irrepressible Mrs. Lam. as fodder for cattle; then it ears, and produces abundant harvests; bert. “One letter a year-”.
while mangoes, oranges, and pomegranates grow in profusion. “But if a letter is written for each adopted child-and one must do it with all or none in such a case—how many would require to be written
The climate in the plains of the Punjab is very different from by our missionary's wife ? " persisted Miss Thornley.
that of the hills, and were it not that there is a cool dry season “Oh, I don't know; it would not be much, I suppose.”
from October to March, no European constitution could well The lady I was helping for several years at " resumed our friend, endure it. The most unhealthy time of the year is that which “had about five-and-thirty orphans maintained by different friends at immediately follows the rainy season. Vegetables then decay, home or by associations of workers, and many I know have twice that number. Now, suppose there were but two dozen ; even then the lady
and cause much miasma under the heat of the autumn sun, must, on your plan, write two letters a month about the children; and
which still makes itself felt with considerable power. The conthat is no trifle."
sequences are fever, dysentery, and too often cholera. The "Well, I should have said
that even three or four in a month was not powerful and unpleasant influence of the excessive moisture much to complain of," said Mrs. Elwood.
towards the end of the rainy season can scarcely be imagined. “Not to those who are leading quiet, easy home lives; but if you could see one day of mission life abroad, as I have seen and shared it for years,
The heavy, hot, damp, clinging atmosphere depresses one enyou would understand that every fresh letter is a heavy burden."
tirely, and causes besides much damage to all goods and chattels. “I
wish you would give us a sketch of the day of a missionary lady,” On the other hand, the first rains which come to break the said Rose.
trying monotony of the hot season are truly refreshing and “Willingly,” replied Miss Thornley. But her account must begin another chapter.
delightful. Even one violent downpour, which has flooded the
country for a day, or perhaps only for a few hours, changes the (To be continued.)
aspect of everything, and one feels as if inspired with new life. One drives out to inhale (to eat, as the natives say) the freshened
air, and behold! the parched-up plain has been transformed as SKETCHES OF THE PUNJAB MISSION.
if by magic into a verdant meadow-land, enamelled with flowers BY THE AUTHOR OF “MORAVIAN LIFE IN THE BLACK FOREST," &c.
and dotted with bright lakelets interlaced with serpentining
streams. One thinks of the twenty-third Psalm. Flocks of II.—The Field of Labour.
sheep and goats are scattered over the green pastures; beside EFORE proceeding with the history of the Mission, the still waters herds of cattle feed; wild birds hover over the
let us turn aside for a moment to take a glance at pools, and buffaloes wade and wallow in sleepy enjoyment in the Punjab itself.
the ditches. Everywhere there is life, and one seems to see the The Punjab takes its name from a compound vegetation grow. But the early rains cease, and the heat sets ab, “ water” or “ river. These rivers are all branches of the 1. get any fresh air at this season one must go out soon Indus, and their names are the Sutlej, the Beas, the Ravi, the after daybreak, for immediately after sunrise the heat makes it Chenab, and the Jhelum. With one exception they are only par- dangerous for any European to be out of doors. The houses tially navigable. In the winter and spring the water is very are then shut up and darkened with padded curtains until shallow, but in the summer, when the snow begins to melt on the evening, when again a little fresh air is sought, but, alas ! too mountains, it also begins to increase, until at last, in the rainy often a dry, fiery wind is blowing from the hot sandy plains of season, when not only for days, but for whole weeks together, the Indus, and refreshment is sought in vain. the clouds empty themselves in torrents, the rivers swell so In the cold season a variety of useful vegetables thrive, both immensely and so suddenly that people who are wading through native and European ; amongst the latter, turnips, carrots, and the usual low tide of water, and who are only twelve or fourteen potatoes, side by side with orange, citron, and pomegranate feet from the shore, cannot reach it again, as the flood comes trees, and other beautiful exotics. Wheat and barley are sown rushing up, carrying before it whatever may come in its way, and in October and November, and reaped in March and April. raising the water mark from two or three to ten and twelve feet. Pulse and maize are sown immediately after the wheat harvest, Even the most expert swimmer has then no hope of escape. No as they will only thrive in the rainy season. The large fields of rainy season passes in which men do not lose their lives in this broad-leaved, feathery maize, whether in flower or ear, are a manner. Ordinary bridges become entirely useless, and commu- very pleasant sight in the Punjab plains ; so are the vast tracts nication can only be carried on in one of two ways—if in the of crimson buckwheat in the mountains. The rice-grounds in plains, by means of large boats, and if in the mountains, by their bright garb of early green or later gold are ever lovely; so ferrying over on air-tight ox-hides.
are the cotton plantations, with their rich-hued, cup-shaped blosIn the mountains the eye is delighted everywhere with lovely soms, and seed-pods bursting with the wealth of snowy down. flowers, growing wherever the earth is deep enough for their In many parts sugar-cane is grown, also indigo and flax, whilst roots. Many of them are familiar home friends, as, for instance, hemp is found wild in the mountains. primroses, violets, forget-me-nots, and many other of our field To the botanist and geologist the mountains of the Punjab flowers, intermixed with others less known to the European. afford a wide field for investigation. Further south, in the district of Multan, between the Sutlej and The Himalayas are rich, too, in all sorts of lovely birds, with the Chenab, where rain hardly ever falls, the valley is converted beautiful plumage, but very little song. Peacocks are found in by means of canals into a succession of beautiful gardens, shaded large numbers, and the eagle, vulture, and falcon live there unby date-palms. There is a burning sun above, and canals flowing molested. Although the forests of the Punjab are in the present below. During the winter the water of the rivers is not sufi - day so comparatively few as to cause a great scarcity of wood, ciently high to enter the canals, some of which are artificially they are yet sufficient, at least in the mountains, and harbour excavated, while others are merely channels abandoned by the many wild animals, especially wild boars and wolves, the streams; but as the rivers rise in the spring, from the melting brown and black bear, and the leopard. The latter prowls in of Himalayan snows, the water gradually enters the channels, the neighbourhood of flocks and herds, but a couple of the large which obtain their maximum volume in summer; so that when bear-like sheep dogs are a match for him. The leopard is also water is most needed, from April to October, when the sky is found in the plains of the Punjab, as well as the hyena, in conbrass and the earth iron, the inundation canals produce luxuriant siderable umbers. It is calculated that at least a hundred crops. The corn, before yielding its grain, is twice mown down native children fall a sacrifice to this terrible beast in the course
Dras $ Stations of the Church Missionary Society
Norserah Vevodulerabad & Bastorate Stations
ang plano Rrapiiga Esa Hd
Rambo. Pomer Goodsposte
Justa Modi Sillanpoor
Filowr Rahun, Nalagarh
poromir Sabathio Shoreldre
Stanfords Geographical. Estas MAP OF THE PUNJAB.
of each year.
In the heat of May or June the poor Hindu mother sleeps outside her hut for the sake of coolness, or on the low flat roof, with her little child in her arms. When she is wrapped in a deep sleep the cunning hyena slinks by, snatches the babe from her arms, and disappears in a moment before any one is aware of what has happened. The shrill unearthly cry of the jackal may often be heard around the house, and the traveller is haunted by it as he journeys through the night.
Several poisonous snakes are found in the mountains of the Punjab, amongst them the dangerous cobra di capella, the bite of which will kill in a quarter of an hour, unless suitable antidotes can be immediately used. Europeans are not often bitten, but natives, who are less cautious, and who often go about barefoot, are continually the victims of snakebites.
The towns of the Punjab are by no means inconsiderable. The principal of them are Lahore,
Amritsar, Peshawur, Multan, and
Lahore is the political capital. It is situated on the Ravi, and is fortified. Here is to be seen the splendid marble monument under which repose the ashes of Runjeet Singh, the most celebrated of the rulers of the Sikhs. (See the picture in our last number.)
Amritsar is the chief commercial town, and also the centre of the Sikh religion. The merchant from Calcutta brings hither cotton goods from Manchester; the Affghan brings woollen stuffs and horses, dried fruit, and grapes, packed singly in cotton wool. From Thibet come borax and pushm, the fine downy hair from the coat of the pushm goat. The coarser part is made into a sort of felt, whilst the down is woven into Cashmere shawls. The largest firms of Paris and London have their agents in Amritsar. But here, too, of far more importance, is the great temple of the Sikhs, a splendid building of marble surmounted by many