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generally sacred. The banks of all the chief rivers in India are scorching plains of Bengal, and recalling personal recollections holy ground. The Ganges of course is the most revered of all. of those who were the workers thirty, forty, and more years ago, Pilgrims sometimes walk the whole length of its course, on the one is deeply impressed with the superior position of their left bank, from the Himalayas to the sea, and then back again on successors of the present day. A convert of respectable standthe right bank,—which takes six years to accomplish.

ing was then rare; a Brahmin convert a unit; the few of Then there are sacred seasons, as the first day of the year,

the

humbler rank were too dependent on their European teachers, day of the "swinging festival” (in February or March), the both for spiritual instruction and ministry, and for employment birthdays of Rama, Krishna, and Ganesa, and (in Bengal) the by which they could gain support for themselves and their Durga-puja in October ; and lucky days, as when a full moon families. The resources and energies of missionaries were taxed falls on a Monday.

to the utmost, and their deepest feelings often painfully exercised But how do the people worship ? Not by public services. as to how they should act when hopeful inquirers presented There is no such thing as congregational praise and prayer. themselves, how bear the burden of a congregation who would "The priests in charge of the idols,” says Professor M. Williams, look to them alone in the alienation from their people which the “ decorate them and bathe them with sacred water on holy days, acceptance of Christianity would inevitably cause. and do them homage (pujah) with lights and rude music morning But now converts of good position are numerous, and Brahmins and evening. Offerings of flowers, fruits, grain, &c., are pre- among them are no longer units. I sit daily beside a gifted lady sented to the most popular gods (practically to the priests), by of that caste preparing herself to become a teacher to her lay worshippers, and mantras or texts are repeated with pros- countrywomen—a lady whose dignified bearing, sweet, attractive trations of the body. Prayer, in our sense, there is none.” countenance, and affectionate disposition, win the love of all who In South India the Hindus are more superstitious than in the

Take this in connection with the remark of Henry north. Not only are their temples grander and the ceremonial Martyn, that the conversion of a Hindu Brahmin would be the more imposing, but among the people generally devil-worship nearest approach to a miracle of anything he could conceive of, is common, and almost all their religion consists in endeavouring and progress great and sure becomes at once apparent. to avert the malice of evil and disembodied spirits. An English- Again, I now see pretty, neat churches, with congregations of man, who was a terror to the district he resided in, died and was from 100 to 200 or 300 worshippers, who are ministered to by buried there. Fearing the anger of his restless soul, which was Native Pastors, and reside in dwellings far superior in comfort supposed to haunt the neighbourhood, the natives constantly and arrangement to those of the heathen around them who are in deposited brandy and cigars on his tomb to propitiate him. as good circumstances, many more wealthy than they are. It is

Of the Mohammedans of India it is unnecessary to speak, after true that the cry is still heard from the lips of missionaries, the article in our June number. Buddhism (see May number) “ The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few," and this is only now found in Burmah, which is hardly India, though a cry is still true; but while they utter it they are raising up from part of the empire; but the Jains, a sect in the neighbourhood among the people themselves, men-yea, and women too—who of Bombay, famous for its care of animal life—even the minutest are better fitted than any foreigners can be for going forth to insects—are a kind of Buddbists. The Sikhs of the Punjab have gather into the fold of Christ “ tire children of God who are been referred to in our March, May, and July numbers.

scattered abroad” over this vast land. As we have said, only one in 150 of the people of India can be And I cannot shut my eyes to another striking mark of procounted as Christians, and of these only one-fifth are Protestants gress. Until twenty or thirty years ago the Bengalis were mostly —the number being between three and four hundred thousand. confined to their own province, and were looked down on by We are far indeed from having won India for Christ ! Yet there is people of the upper country as physically weak (which they are), ground for encouragement. In the ten years from 1861 to 1871 and without independence or originality of character, though the number of Native Protestant Christians rose from 138,000 to possessing great mental power. Such has been the influence of 224,000, or 61 per cent. At that rate, all India would be the thoroughly good and Christian education imparted by the Christian in 150 years. But it may come sooner than that, if | European missionary, that now these very Bengalis are found God will. “ Hinduism is sick unto death,” said a learned and occupying the highest and most influential positions all over venerable Hindu, not many years since. “The ancient fortress North India, even in the Punjab; and I was struck with the of Hinduism,” says Monier Williams, “is tottering to its fall. ... reference to one such the other day—a Christian Brahmin in a What is to become of the people when their ancient faith sinks responsible office, the trusted and effective helper in a missionary from beneath their feet? Only two other homes are before them settlement—" that he was one of the truest and most useful of —a cold theism and a heart-stirring Christianity. Both are men, an ornament and a blessing to their locality.” already established in India. But Christianity is spreading its

The readers of the GLEANER will neither be surprised nor disboundaries more widely, and striking its foundations more deeply appointed when I proceed to trace a good proportion of the It appeals directly to the heart. It is exactly suited to the needs progress apparent to the advance that has been made in access of the masses. In Christianity alone is their true home.” to the women of India. We have had but from twenty to thirty

years' trial in this special branch of missionary work, yet it has

told in an astonishing degree, and is telling every day. INDIA REVISITED.

I have just visited a Brahmin homestead and seen the dark

and desolate rooms in which the female inmates were formerly By MRS. WEITBRECHT.

immured. Happily they are not immured now, though living a ETURNING to India after many years of absence, I retired life still. The death of the father and family misfortune

can emphatically endorse the remark of Sir Bartle has made it needful for the widows to let the best part of their Frere quoted on page 7 in the January number of house, and they have let it to our lady missionaries for a girls' the GLEANER, that although, as there observed, the school, their own daughters being some of the most promising

progress of the work seems slow to us, “ the teach- pupils. These widows showed me with much satisfaction the ing of Christianity in India is effecting changes—moral, social, various apartments of their ancestral mansion, giving such expolitical-which for extent and rapidity are more extraordinary planations as opened the eyes to some of their family customs. than anything that has been witnessed in modern Europe." One sees at a glance that the pupils in this school are of superior

While deeply sympathising with the weary labourer on the caste, their complexion being fairer, their features handsomer,

and their general bearing more dignified than that of the common A very great need in connection with our work in North India people. And who is the teacher ? A truly earnest-minded is the presence of a lady of experience, who should reside in Christian woman--a Eurasian [i.', of mixed European and Calcutta, and be general superintendent of the whole workIndian descent], born and brought up in India, and prepared a mother in Israel, one to whom all might go for advice and for her work by a suitable training. The love which beams encouragement, and whose time would be profitably occupied in out of her eyes to her little scholars shows the deep interest visiting Native Christian ladies, and other sections of the comshe feels in them, and her hope and daily prayer is that she munity, who should be noticed and helped in various ways. may be made the means of leading some of these little ones to One other point presses, which, though mentioned last, is all rest in the bosom of her own dear Saviour. This is not her only important: the need of more earnest, constant, and persevering school. She is engaged daily from eleven till five in a circle of prayer, both among the labourers in India and those who send such, and she also visits zenanas, and gives instruction to their them forth.

them forth. On the voyage out I read the Memoir of Ragland, secluded inmates, several of whom in her and other houses and was deeply impressed by this point, so striking in his become secret believers in Jesus Christ, though not at liberty to missionary career. When a brother spoke to him on any confess Him.

subject, he at once knelt with him to pray about it, and all his This teacher is one of a large circle of trained Eurasians own · missionary plans were conceived and carried out in this stationed in different localities, and I have been much interested spirit of continuous prayer. A blessing such as was desired and in going occasionally with them, and in seeing the hopeful pros- hoped for followed, and answers to his prayers are still being pects opening out on all sides. These Eurasian teachers are traced, long after his death. I was reminded of a similar feature supplemented when needful by Native Christian women, who in the late Mr. Pennefather's character, and the effect is similar have also been trained and prepared for the office, and are always in all one sees at Mildmay, that spot so rich in spiritual fairly efficient-in some cases very clever and superior women blessing. May our missionary committees and our missionary going to independent work of their own. Both classes of supporters, and may we ourselves, be penetrated by the spirit teachers, who may be designated as hands and feet to the one or of prayer, such as marked Ragland and Pennefather, and a two European lady missionaries who superintend them, could be blessing will fall as abundantly on us, and our wilderness will multiplied indefinitely if more local means were at our command, become a fruitful field, the Spirit being poured upon us from on and many more are needed. Especially valuable should we find high! natives-educated widows of rather mature age—who could be CALCUTTA, March 1st, 1878. placed in a central village, carry on a girls' school, and instruct the women of the locality.

Such villages abound in this populous land. I visited one the SOME TESTIMONIES TO MISSION WORK IN INDIA. other day, which is a missionary centre for the entire neighbourhood. The presiding genius is a comely native between thirty

The following testimonies to success of the missionary work in India

are selected from a much larger number :and forty, a really superior woman, of considerable power of

Lord Lawrence, late Viceroy—“I believe, notwithstanding all that character and of earnest piety. She has seventy girls in daily the English people have done to benefit that country (India), the attendance, whose reading, writing, ciphering, &c., but especially missionaries have done more than all other agencies combined.” their knowledge of Scripture, showed her to be a teacher of no

Sir Bartle Frere, late Governor of Bombay—“I assure you that, whatcommon order. She was evidently the trusted friend and

ever you may be told to the contrary, the teaching of Christianity among

160 millions of civilised, industrious Hindus and Mohammedans in adviser of the village women, some dozen or more of whom

India is affecting changes, moral, social, and political, which for extent : clustered round her-after the girls had retired—and listened and rapidity of effect are far more extraordinary than anything you or

to the old, old story from her lips. “ What do you do on your fathers have witnessed in modern Europe." Sundays?" I inquired. “We read our Bibles, sing our hymns,

Sir Donald MLeod, late Lieut.-Governor of the Punjab—“In many and talk to those who are sure to pay us visits, and then we

places an impression prevails that our Missions have not produced results

adequate to the efforts which have been made, but those who hold such pray for God's blessing on it all.” I was pleased to notice that

opinions know but little of the reality." she opened her school, and closed it too, with prayer.

Report of the Secretary of State and Council of India upon This is a sample of the sapping and mining which is going on

Moral and Material Progress and Condition of India," printed for the in some Hindu villages, and if by the sympathy and help of our

House of Commons in 1873—“ The Government of India cannot but sisters at home we can increase this some into many we shall

acknowledge the great obligation under which it is laid by the benevolent

exertions made by these 600 missionaries, whose blameless example and rejoice. Who among the readers of the GLEANER would like to self-denying labours are infusing new vigour into the stereotyped life of become responsible for one such village mission ? The average the great populations placed under English rule, and are preparing them cost would be about £40 a year for salaries, house rent, &c., &c. to be in every way better men and better citizens of the great Empire in As I notice the great risk to health and its frequent failure

which they dwell.” in the zealous, earnest-hearted European lady, and as the eye

Report of the Government Census of the Presidency of Madras, taken

in 1874–"The Protestant Missions , have made rapid strides of opens more widely to the vast needs of this land, one longs recent years in the conversion of the inhabitants to Christianity . intensely for the multiplication of both the kinds of native An immense amount of good work has been done by the zealous and agency alluded to, and, to prepare this, a separate training-school

earnest agents of these Missionary Societies in the education of the for superior native women is much needed. I hope that need

people.”

The Calcutta correspondent of the "Pall Mall Gazette"_“No one will be realised by those who can supply it, and that very soon who has studied the effects of a Missionary Station in any District of it may be no longer a thing to be desired, but a thing in India can help feeling that it yields a good return for the money possession.

spent upon it." European lady missionaries are indispensable, not only as

Lord Northbrook, late Viceroy, on his return to England, wrote to

the Secretaries of the Church Missionary Society to put down bis name instructors of high-born native ladies, but as heads and directors

as a subscriber of £100 a year. In a speech delivered at the Society's of the work, and to give it a position among the natives. We anniversary in May, 1877, he said—“The work of the Society in India have between thirty and forty ladies connected with our circle of is entirely worthy of your hearty support; and the workers, those who missions, i.e., those of the Indian Female Instruction Society ; are carrying on the preaching of the Gospel in India, are worthy of all but these are scattered all over India, and many a desirable place having taken every opportunity which naturally came in my way to visit

support, encouragement, and admiration. I have known many of them, of course remains untouched either by our or any other agency, their institutions. I know of no single exception to the general esteem and must so remain till labourers come forth in increased numbers. in which the Church Missionary Society's missionaries are held in India.”

" The

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