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Nam Carthago suam retinet per culmina laudem: Carthago in rege invictrix, Carthago triumphat, Carthago Asdingis genetrix, Carthago coruscat, Carthago excellens Libycas Carthago per oras, Carthago studiis, Carthago ornata magistris, Carthago populis pollet, Carthago refulget, Carthago in domibus, Carthago in moenibus ampla, Carthago et dulcis, Carthago et nectare suavis, Carthago flores, Thrasamundi nomine regnas3.

(b) It becomes difficult, at times, to differentiate repetition employed to accentuate the thought of a passage and that used simply to lay emphasis upon a word or a phrase. There are, however, many clear examples of the former usage, some of which I cite: Catullus 49.4-7.:

gratias tibi maximas Catullus agit, pessimus omnium poeta, tanto pessimus omnium poeta

quanto tu optimus omnium patronus.

Horace, Carm. 1.15.13-18:

Nequiquam Veneris praesidio ferox pectes caesariem, grataque feminis imbelli cithara carmina divides,

nequiquam thalamo gravis hastas et calam spicula Cnosii vitabis

Martial 1.32:

Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum dicere quare: hoc tantum possum dicere: non amo tei".

"Though this paper is directly concerned only with Latin poetry, it seems not amiss to cite, here and elsewhere, some striking examples from Greek poetry, and, from modern poetry, too. So. here, compare Anacreontics 8.5-9 (éμoi μéλei ἐμοὶ μέλει μéλei μot); Aeschylus. Agamemnon 206-207; Sophocles. Oed. Col. 1000, 1003-1004; von Ruckert, Die Liebe ist der Dichtung Stern; de Musset, Rappelle-Toi.

Compare the note on this passage in Peck and Arrowsmith, Roman Life in Latin Prose and Verse, page 192.

This poem reminds one of Corneille, Le Cid 1301-1304. Compare also Vergil, Aeneid 1.553 554, 3.251, Bucolics 5.66, 68; Varro, Eumenides 35.4 6; Tibullus 1.5.61-65 (pauper, praesto); Terence, Phormio 496; Statius, Silvae 1.1.79-81; Seneca, Medea 487-488, Epigrams, De Corsica 1-5 (Poetae Latini Minores IV, pages 5556); Propertius 1.12.20; Plautus, Rudens, Prologue 13, 18, Mostellaria 670-673; Pervigilium Veneris 2-3. 13-15: Ovid, Amores Martial 2.20, 5.58: Juvenal 1.125-126; 1.15.29-30; Horace, Carmina 2.20.5-6, Epist. 1.1.65-66; Prudentius. Hymnus Ante Sompnum 5-8; Catullus 37.17; Ausonius, Mosella 359-361. Note also Shakespeare, Hamlet 5.2.244-250; Theocritus 1.100103 (see the Introduction to Mr. Cholmeley's edition, pages 3945); Anacreontics 16.1-2, 5-6, 9-10; Homer, Iliad 5.30-35 Apes" Apes..."Apna): on this Dr. Leaf says: "Homer nowhere else repeats a word without change twice in one verse". Compare Cicero, Brutus 141.

10Compare Thomas Brown's lines on Dr. John Fell, Dean of

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Terence.

"Compare also Vergil, Aeneid 2.499-502. 3.639; Phormio 286-287; Seneca, Medea 130-141; Propertius 3.15.13-15: Plautus, Most. 7-8, 329; Persius 2.49-50; Ovid, Heroides 10.111115 (crudeles. crudeles. crudelis); Aeschylus, Ag. 1156-1157: Euripides, Iph. in Tauris 198; Poe, Ulalume, first stanza; Milton, Lycidas 8-11.

See also Plautus, Most. 59; Horace, Carm. 1.12.53. 57-60. 2.16.33-37; Ennius, Medea Exul 270-272, Cassandra 56-62 (Ennius is cited throughout this paper from Vahlen); Catullus 62.42-44. 53-55; de Musset, Les Deux Routes 14-17; Heine. Das Meer hat seine Perlen; Shakespeare, The Passionate Pilgrim 12. Hadrian's verses (Poetae Latini Minores IV, pages 111-112, section 123. 1-8), quoted below, in the second part of this paper. under Freak Repetition, may also be noted in this connection. Repetition, 5 7.

14See Mr. Page's note on this passage, and his notes on Carm. 1.35.13-16, 4.2.49-50.

15Compare also Catullus 61.120-121, etc., 62.5. 10. 19, etc.. 64.255; Pervigilium Veneris 2-3; Vergil, Aeneid 6.46; Lucretius 5.8; Anacreontics 46.1-6. Xenophon, Anabasis 4.7.24 (0áλATTA, Páλarra) may be noted in this connection.

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Mammas atque tatas habet Afra, sed ipsa tatarum dici et mammarum maxima mamma potest18! Persius 5.132-133:

Mane piger stertis. "Surge!" inquit Avaritia, "heia surge!" Negas; instat: "Surge!" inquit. Non queo. "Surge!"

(d) To express love.

Tibullus 1.1.57–64:

Non ego laudari curo, mea Deiia: tecum dum modo sim, quaeso segnis nersque vocer. Te spectem, suprema mihi cum venerit hora, te teneam moriens, deficiente manu.

Propertius 1.12.19-20:

Mi neque amare aliam neque ab hac desistere fas est: Cynthia prima fuit, Cynthia finis erit.

Ovid, Amores 1.3.15-19:

Non mihi mille placent, non sum desultor amoris: tu mihi, si qua fides, cura perennis eris; tecum quos dederint annos mihi fila sororum vivere contingat, teque dolente mori;

te mihi materiem felicem in carmine praebe1o.

(e) To express quiet, repose, and dignity.
Vergil, Bucolics 10.42-43:

Hic gelidi fontes, hic mollia prata, Lycori,
hic nemus; hic ipso tecum consumerer aevo.

Claudian, In Eutropium II Praef. 59: Emeritum suspende sagum, suspende pharetram.

Pervigilium Veneris 76-77:

Rura fecundat voluptas, rura Venerem sentiunt; ipse Amor puer Dianae rure natus dicitur20.

16Compare Professor Knapp's note on this passage. "Compare also Horace, Carm. 1.15.9-10, 3.3.18-21, 4.4.69-72; Propertius 3.15.13-15; Catullus 63.61, 68.20-23; Vergil, Aeneid 6.878; Seneca, Medea 138-142; Persius 3.15; Aeschylus, Ag. 121; Euripides, Helena 213-214, Alcestis 382, 390 (see Earle's notes ad locc.); Sophocles, Philoctetes 1103. Here may be cited Poe, Annabel Lee (last stanza); Uhland, Lebewohl; Świnburne, A Leave-Taking. Earle's note on Euripides, Alcestis 442, is interesting (see also below, footnote 66).

18Compare also Plautus, Most. 7-8, 329, 489-491, 832-838; Terence, Hauton Tim. 975-977; Horace, Epist. 1.1.93-96; Martial 1.109.19-23, 2.19, 12.39; Aristophanes, Frogs 1353-1355, Archarnians 1097-1098; von Rückert. Der Papagei.

19Compare also Horace, Carm. 1.19.5-8; Ovid, Met. 1.498-501; Catullus 5.7-13, 64.334-336; Vergil, Aeneid 4.305-330. The passion of love and its wild grief at inevitable separation are finely set forth in this latter passage, especially by the network of repeated pronouns, and by the repetition of other words, such as crudeli crudelis (308, 311), Troia (311, 312), per (314, 316), and propter (320, 321).

20Compare also Horace, Carm. 2.16.1-8; Goethe, Uber allen Gipfeln; Stevenson, Requiem; Tennyson, Sweet and Low (on his, see Corson, A Primer of English Verse, 16).

Vergil, Aeneid 2.668:

Arma, viri, ferte arma; vocat lux ultima victos.

3.639:

Sed fugite, o miseri, fugite, atque ab litore funem
Catullus 63.12-13:

Agite ite ad alta, Gallae, Cybeles nemora simul, simul ite, Dindymenae dominae vaga pecora1.

(g) To express rage and derision.

Catullus 8.15-18:

Scelesta, vae te! quae tibi manet vita! quis nunc te adibit? cui videberis bella? quem nunc amabis? cuius esse diceris? quem basiabis? cui labella mordebis? Seneca, Medea 503-505:

MED.

Tua illa, tua sunt illa: cui prodest scelus, is fecit omnes coniugem infamem arguant, solus tuere, solus insontem voca. Martial 1.9:

Bellus homo et magnus vis idem, Cotta, videri: sed qui bellus homo est, Cotta, pusillus homo est. 3.61:

Esse nihil dicis quidquid petis, improbe Cinna: si nil, Cinna, petis, nil tibi, Cinna, nego.

Horace, Carm. 4.13.9–12:

importunus enim transvolat aridas
quercus et refugit te, quia luridi
dentes, te quia rugae

turpant et capitis nives22.

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21 Compare also Vergil, Bucolics 10.77; Seneca, Medea 450453: Statius, Silvae 1.2.221-222, 226–227; Silius Italicus 1.568, 571 Pervigilium Veneris 28, 31, 32, 34, 35. A very striking example of this use of repetition in English poetry is a poem by Nora Perry, reprinted in The New York Times of March 19, 1911, entitled That Waltz of Von Weber's. Scott's Gathering Song of Donald the Black may also be cited here.

12Compare also Terence, Phormio 286-287; Juvenal 1.22-30 (cum), 51-53, 7.190-194; Catullus 112; Martial 2.7, 2.19, 3.63. 13-14, 7.3. See, too, Sophocles, Oed. Tyr. 547-548. Philoctetes

931-933.

23Compare also Vergil, Aeneid 2.560, 562; Ovid, Met. 8.231233; Seneca, Medea 139-141; Aeschylus, Ag. 1080-1081, 11561157, 1209-1210, 1214; Sophocles, Philoctetes 1041; Euripides, Alcestis 382; Poe, The Raven (last stanza).

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PH. Vendidit25.

(2) Eager appeal.

Horace, Carm. 2.19.5-8:

Euhoe, recenti mens trepidat metu plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum laetatur; euhoe, parce Liber, parce, gravi metuende thyrso!

Ovid, Met. 1.504-506:

Nympha, precor, Penei, mane! non insequor hostis: nympha, mane! Sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, sic aquilam penna fugiunt trepidante columbae?.

(3) Firmness and resolution.
Plautus, Most. 264:

neque cerussam neque melinum neque aliam ullam offuciam27.

(4) "Does not the fact that et

et

carry two ictuses bring out as nothing else
could the duality of Juno?" So Professor
Knapp, in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 3.11,
on Vergil, Aeneid 1.47-48:

et soror et coniunx, una cum gente tot annos
bella gero.

(5) Horace, Carm. 1.13.1-5:

Cum tu, Lydia, Telephi

cervicem roscam, cerca Telephi

laudas bracchia, vae meum

fervens difficili bile tumet iecur!

The lover's jealousy is finely set forth here by the repeated Telephus28.

Examples might be multiplied indefinitely, but those already cited show clearly, I think, the very wide range of effects which repetition, skillfully handled, is capable of producing.

Let us, before proceeding to the consideration of figures of speech, note

(j) Repetition in conversation. One instinctively turns to the drama for examples of this, the most venerable and universal type of repetition29. They are plentiful there; but they are to be found in no small number in the works of other than purely dramatic writers, and especially in satire (which, of course, is very dramatic). Reference may be made to a few passages which are notable for their display of this

24Professor Knapp says (Vergil, Introduction, page 84): "The repetition effectively portrays the astonishment of Aeneas as he sees marvel after marvel".

25Compare also Plautus, Most. 973, 973b, 974; Terence, Heauton Tim. 587.

26 Note also Vergil, Aeneid 3.265; Juvenal 10.188; Seneca, Medea 478-481; Horace, Carm. 4.1.1-2.

27 Repetition, 57. Compare also Horace, Carm. 2.17.9-12, Ars Poetica 268-269.

28Repetition, 23.

Repetition, 5, 8-9, 11, etc.

Wake Forest, North Carolina.

REVIEWS

Collar and Daniell's First Year Latin. Revised by Thornton Jenkins. Boston: Ginn and Company (1918). Pp. xi+347. $1.12.

In the Preface of the new edition of Collar and Daniell, First Year Latin, the reviser expresses his indebtedness to Mr. Collar for suggestions concerning the plan and the scope of the revision, and says that his own aim had been to extend the application of the principles which underlay the book in its original form. The purpose of First Year Latin, as here stated, is to furnish thorough drill in the essentials of the language; to give early and continued opportunity for the reading of easy, connected Latin; to emphasize the dependence of English vocabulary upon Latin words; to achieve these aims, withal, through a presentation which is simple, clear, and interesting.

While these are the ends which are scheduled for most modern Beginners' Latin books, even a cursory examination of First Year Latin reveals the fact that in it no mere tendency to function is found. This is due, in large measure, to the unusual simplicity and clearness of the book. Realizing the unwisdom of attempting to teach to-day "what may be taught more properly to-morrow", the reviser has shown discernment in his selection of essentials, with an insistence that the work be a development. Rare forms and constructions having no bearing on the work of the Second Year have been omitted. Rules have been reduced to the lowest terms, wherein only the more common exceptions are noted. In the rehabilitation of certain time-worn formulas, there is an obvious effort toward greater clearness: e. g. among -į stems, masculines and feminines in -es and is here do not mask a family deficit in the indefinite phrase 'not increasing in the genitive', but openly announce that they "have no more syllables in the nominative than in the genitive", while 'monosyllables in -s or -x following a consonant' drop all camouflage and appear as "monosyllables ending in -s or -x, with a consonant preceding the -s or -x". Other hall-marks of the experienced teacher are seen in the marking of the accent in the first eighteen lessons, in the printing in full of principal parts of verbs, in the careful differentiation of certain usages and meanings, as well as in the exposition of such recondite points of modern grammar as the difference between active and passive verbs. The same perspicuity is shown in the develop30Compare also Terence, Phormio 510-511, cited above, page 142.

ment of seemingly unrelated meanings of Latin words: e. g. "manus: hand, handful, band (of men)".

In his machinery for drill the reviser has displayed technical knowledge and skill. Recognition of repetition as an important factor in successful teaching is apparent in the ten Review Lessons which are interspersed through the book, and in the Review Questions which are printed at the back of the book (pages 227– 244) as definite review assignments on individual lessons. Earlier points of syntax are repeated in succeeding lessons from time to time, and are abundantly illustrated. Helpful also are the numerous summaries of noun and verb uses, and the noting of special noun constructions after their appropriate verbs. Now that the war has sent the stock of Caesar's battlefields upward, it seems more desirable than ever that the vocabulary of First Year books be largely Caesarian. So far as the reviewer has been able to test the vocabulary of the seventy-five Lessons contained in revised First Year Latin, the yield of Caesarian words is about ninety per cent. The atmosphere of the book, however, is not that of a hand-picked Bellum Gallicum. The reading exercises are both varied and original. In accordance with the reviser's statement that the pupil should be brought into the reading of easy, connected Latin "as soon as possible", such passages have been introduced early (Lesson XI), and thereafter form a part of every third lesson at least, the subjects being drawn from Roman legends and Roman history. A new feature of the reading material is the story of Perseus, which runs as a serial through seven lessons. Additional reading matter is found at the back of the book in a simplified narrative of The Campaign against the Helvetians (201-205), The Story of the Aduatuci (206–208), Stories of Hercules (208-213), Stories of Ulysses (213-218), and in several pages from Eutropius (218-226).

To demonstrate to the pupil the dependence of his own vernacular upon Latin words, English derivatives are quoted in the special vocabularies, and other derived English words are listed in the general LatinEnglish Vocabulary. Frequently, these are indirect rather than direct derivatives, thus supplying a special stimulus to the pupil's imagination: e. g. desiccate (siccus), vicinity (vicus), ventilate (ventus), mansion (maneo), anguish (angustus). The list of Latin words masquerading as good English forms is also well calculated to strengthen the appeal to the imagination: e g. caret, animus, bonus, nostrum, rebus, preterit, quidnunc, credit. Other machinery for developing the pupil's understanding of English words is found in the list of prefixes and suffixes, including meanings and examples, and in the separation of compound verbs into their component parts.

The press-work and proof-reading have been done so admirably that the number of errors in the book is negligible. At the risk of seeming hypercritical, the reviewer ventures to make the following suggestions.

75', 173.5: "Virtute et studio socios superaverunt". Is not the ablative here better described as specification than as "means", especially since the sentence "They surpassed the enemy in speed" (187, 486.10) is given to illustrate the ablative of specification?

113, 283: In the list of verbs used with the ablative of separation (always a troublesome construction for beginners, because of its elastic quality), ought it not to be noted that a preposition is never used with careo?

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119, 299.4: "Germani de senatu Romano pacem petiverunt". Is not ab the usual preposition after peto? 128, 327, a: "Observe that the superlative <of the adverb>, with one exception, is formed from the superlative of the adjective by changing final -us to ē". In view of primum, primo, postremum, postremo, and meritissimo, is not this misleading?

129, 328: If only one meaning is given for diu, would it not better be 'for a long time', rather than "long"?

P. 178: Might not the note (182, 472, a), that uses of the gerund with a direct object are restricted, be appropriately stated in this lesson on the Gerund, rather than in the discussion of the Gerundive, two lessons later? Likewise, since the pupil frequently remembers the one thing that the teacher has not struggled to teach him, to the exclusion of more vital matters, is it not as well to omit all sentence work on these rare uses of the gerund, e.g. "They came near for the sake of seeking peace" (179, 465.6)?

While details of arrangement of material are generally debatable, the reviewer is inclined to believe that constructions so common as the ablative absolute (Lesson LXVII) and cum-clauses (Lesson LXXII) are introduced more effectively at an earlier stage in the lessons. A feature of the vocabulary which might be profitably amplified is the citation of characteristic cases with certain verbs. The fourteen pages (1-14) devoted to Essentials of Grammar are undoubtedly justified at a time when drill in English grammar has been superseded in English classes by training in 'self-expression and literary appreciation', but it seems likely that most teachers will use these pages for purposes of coordination rather than as review matter.

A noteworthy feature of the book is the excellence of its illustrations, which are unique even in this day of finely-illustrated text-books. In particular, unstinted praise should be given for the painstaking detail with which four scenes from the experience of a Roman youth are reproduced with delightful color effects. Unquestionably, the reaction of such pictures upon the pupil is invaluable for developing a sense of familiarity with the every day life of the ancient world. A detailed index which gave the sources of these illustrations would be useful.

'The first number gives the page, the second the paragraph, the third the sentence within the paragraph.

Any review of the revised First Year Latin must be incomplete without some mention of the accompanying Teachers' Manual, for few teachers of beginning Latin (whatever the text-book used) could fail to be stimulated by its suggestions. Attention is called to the various points of contact between the pupil's study and his daily environment. Much illustrative material and numerous exercises for sight reading are supplied, also suggestions for the study of word-formation. A few questions on each lesson are included for teachers who believe in a modicum of oral work. Mr. Jenkins is to be congratulated on having so efficiently anticipated the needs of the teacher both in the Manual and in the text-book.

With revised First Year Latin before him, the pupil may be confidently expected to acquire the necessary knowledge of Latin forms and syntax and to gain in understanding and appreciation of his own tongue, with a minimizing of difficulties and a keen whetting of interest.

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The contents of this work, by a professor of psychclogy, in the University of California, are as follows: I Theophrastus as Psychologist of Sense Perception, and as Reporter and Critic of Other Psychologists (15-64); II The Text and Translation of the Fragment On the Senses (65-151); III Notes Upon the Translation and Text of Theophrastus De Sensibus (153-221); Index, English (223-226); Index, Greek (227).

In Part I Professor Stratton begins by declaring (15) that Theophrastus's treatise On the Senses, or On Sense Perception and the Sensory Objects, is the most important source of our knowledge of the earlier Greek physiological psychology. In this treatise Theophrastus is at once reporter and judge (16); he does not merely report what his predecessors observed and thought, but

After a passionless and undistorted account of another's theories, there comes in almost every case a criticism, with a severity of logic that permits one to know the kind of scrutiny to which these early psychological doctrines were subjected in the later Athenian universities. "Absurd" or "childish", Theophrastus does not hesitate to declare them, with marshalled evidence for his condemnation. Yet he keeps admirably clear the distinction between reporter and judge, and the reader is usually at no loss to know when the one and when the other is speaking.

Professor Stratton then discusses Theophrastus's Own Doctrine Upon the Main Topics of the De Sensibus (18-50), under the following headings: Sense Perception in General (18–26); Vision (27–32); Hearing (33-35): Smell (36-42); Taste (43-45); Touch (46– 47); Pleasure and Pain (48-50).

Next he considers Theophrastus's General Method of Exposition and of Criticism in the De Sensibus (51-64).

Professor Stratton's translation of Theophrastus's booklet On the Senses is the first complete English Translation of the treatise. In his Preface (6-7) he states that the translation was carefully scrutinized by Professors Clapp and Linforth, of the University of California, and Professor A. E. Taylor, of the University of St. Andrews. Professor Taylor made a "running comment and criticism on the whole" work, and allowed Professor Stratton to quote from his manuscript. These quotations are indicated by the initials A. E. T. Those interested will find a review of the book by Professor W. A. Heidel, of Wesleyan University, in The Classical Journal 14.75-77. He thinks Professor Stratton is too generous in his praise of Theophrastus. The translation he regards as in general accurate. Some of the notes, he continues, are of real importance; the statement applies both to comments by Professor Stratton and to remarks by Professor Taylor.

C. K.

THE CLASSICAL LEAGUE OF PHILADELPHIA

The winter meeting of The Classical League of Philadelphia was held on Thursday, February 13, at Le Coin d'Or. The program consisted of a dinner at 6:30 p. m., followed by various intellectual treats. The meeting was held wholly under the auspices of the ladies of the League, who arranged all the details, gave the dinner, and acted as hostesses. Miss Edith F. Rice, of the Germantown High School, President of the League, presided. The invitations to the dinner were in Latin, and most of the replies likewise. An enjoyable feature of the evening was the reading by Miss Rice of selected examples of these replies, some of which were in verse-even in the Alcaic meter!

Among the speakers were Professor Walton Brooks McDaniel, of the University of Pennsylvania, Miss Eleanor Rambo, formerly of Bryn Mawr College, now Curator of the Mediterranean Section of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, and Miss Jessie E. Allen, recently President of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, who read an original poem. Miss Jessie M. Glenn, of the Girls' High School, Philadelphia, sang an ode of Horace, beautifully set to music.

The intellectual climax of a memorable evening was a brilliant paper by Professor Ethel H. Brewster, of Swarthmore College, on Modern Antiquities. Dr. Brewster's hearers agreed that her paper was one of the most notable contributions of the year to classical scholarship. The Muses on Helicon's Happy Hil never arranged a more joyous occasion.

ARTHUR W. HOWES, Secretary

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