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tions on the Eighth Book of the Aeneid (Oxford, B. H. Blackwell). On this discussion Mr. J. Husband comments in The Classical Review 32.129-130.

Dr. Riess's suggestion is so fascinating that I hope he will be completely successful in making all his points. But I am bound to say that, for the moment, I am troubled by the discrepancy between his labelling of the central picture of the nine, Aeneas et Achivorum Principes, and his description of this scene as a single combat between Aeneas and Achilles or Idomeneus. Picture-label and description do not degree. Vergil's language, in 488, justifies the label; it does not justify the description.

In my note on 493, the closing sentence runs as follows:

Only the first picture could stir any feelings other than those of sorrow in a Trojan heart.

In a marginal note on my copy I find this:

At Carthage, Juno's city, one would expect only Trojan defeats to be pictured, or at least the emphasis to be laid on Trojan defeats rather than on Trojan victories.

Dr. Riess's suggestion makes the central figure in this series at Carthage show "the <Trojan> hero <of Vergil's Roman poem> in his glory".

Dr. Riess connects, as others had done, Aeneid 1.292–296 with Pliny's description of a specific painting. Now, editors have long connected this passage, and the kindred passage, Aeneid 7.607-622, with words cited by Horace, Serm. 1.4.60-61, postquam Discordia taetra belli ferratos postis portasque refregit, as a specimen of true poetry. The words thus cited by Horace have often been ascribed to Ennius; in making this ascription editors follow Porphyrion on Horace, 1. c., and Servius on Aeneid 7.622 (see Vahlen, Ennianae Poesis Reliquiae, Annales 266-267, with notes). Did Ennius also draw on the picture by Apelles? Clearly, Dr. Riess has opened up a wide and important field.

C. K.

Two points in Professor Knapp's remarks seem to call for an answer. He objects to the plural principibus in the label of the central picture, since I speak of a combat between Aeneas and either Achilles or Idomeneus; this, he says, would be a single combat. But I was thinking of vase paintings in which we find so often the principal actors accompanied by secondary actors. Thus, Baumeister, Denkmäler des Klassischen Altertums, 1.724, quotes Brunn for a painting on which the two Ajaxes are fighting Aeneas and Hippokles, while Dolon, too, is depicted (Annoli 1862, Tavola B). That would properly be Aeneas permixtus principibus.

The second point did puzzle me also for a while. Why should Aeneas alone be glorified, when all other pictures show the Trojans as vanquished? But, in the first place, that is not quite true: one of the end pictures shows the Greeks in flight, as Professor Knapp remarks; and from Vergil's words we are under no compulsion to assume that either Memnon or Penthe

silea was represented at the moment of defeat. In fact, this is very unlikely for the Amazon, who furens mediis in milibus ardet audetque viris concurrere virgo. Moreover, as I hinted, considerations of poetic economy urged the poet to assign such an honorable appearance to his hero, whose reception by Dido, even though the queen, by Mercury's magic, had received mentem benignam, is thus motivated. That Dido had often thought and spoken of Aeneas as a real hero appears from her reception of him, as I quoted it. I do not think that the argument that Carthage was Juno's city can be urged against the artistic and aesthetic considerations.

I am glad to know that others, too, have connected 1.292 ff. with the Pliny passage, though I did not find any reference anywhere in the books at my disposal. Brunn, in his Künstlergeschichte, certainly says nothing about it, though he, who wrote on Pliny's use of his sources, ought to have seen the connection. I am disinclined to believe that Ennius drew on the Apelles painting, which is of unknown provenance. Since the picture of War was somehow connected with Alexandri triumphus, it may have originally been in Pella, in Babylon, or in Alexandria, more probably the last. Could Ennius have had knowledge of it, if it was in Pella, through Flamininus?

E. R.

I am tempted to make yet another remark, on Dr. Riess's original paper. It is clear, from the next to the last paragraph of his paper, that Dr. Riess inclines to connect the passage he is discussing with the decorations of the Forum Augusti. This reminds me of a thought I have long cherished in connection with Horace, Carm. 1.12-Horace's muster roll of the heroes of Rome, which makes me think always of Hebrews 11, St. Paul's muster roll of the heroes of faith. I should like to be able to prove that in writing this ode, one of the great series of odes in which Horace takes his place by the side of Vergil, in the Aeneid, as one of the two great poets of the national and religious revivals at Rome, he had in mind Augustus's project of setting up in the Forum Augusti the statues of the heroes of Rome. Compare Suetonius, Aug. 31:

Proximum a dis immortalibus honorem memoriae ducum praestitit qui imperium populi Romani ex minimo maximum reddidissent. Itaque et opera cuiusque manentibus titulis restituit et statuas omnium triumphali effigie in utraque fori sui porticu dedicavit, professus et edicto, commentum id se, ut ad illorum vitam velut ad exemplar et ipse, dum viveret, et insequentium aetatium principes exigerentur a civibus. The statues are mentioned also by Ovid, Fasti 5. 563-564; Dio Cassius 55.10.3; Lampridius, Alexander Severus 28.6.

It is generally believed that Carmina 1-3 were published in 23 B. C. The Forum Augusti can hardly have been complete so soon after the Battle of Actium. It is entirely possible, however, that by that time the plan for this Forum had assumed pretty definite shape

and that Augustus's project of setting up in his Forum these statues was very well known, perhaps to everybody of consequence in Rome, at any rate, to the members of Maecenas's circle.

It would certainly be most interesting and highly important if it should be possible to prove that a famous passage of the Aeneid and an equally famous ode of Horace are both to be connected with the splendid plan by which Augustus transformed Rome from a city of brick into a city of marble, as part of the many means by which, through appeals to the imagination of the Romans, Augustus made the new régime palatable to his countrymen. We might compare in this connection, for Horace at least, the fact that Carmina 1.31 was written at the time of the dedication of the famous Temple of Apollo on the Palatine, and we might think also with profit of the relation of Carmina 4.6.31–44, the Carmen Saeculare, and perhaps Carmina 1.21, to the Secular Games held in 17 B. C.

REVIEW

C. K.

The New Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection. Part II: The Washington Manuscript of the Epistles of Paul. By Henry A. Sanders. New York: The Macmillan Company (1918). Pp. ix +249-315. $1.25. With Three Plates. This monograph forms part of Volume IX of University of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series. It gives an account of the last of the four old Biblical manuscripts bought by Mr. Freer in 19061. The fragment here considered, known now, among MSS of the New Testament, by the symbol I, was in a hopelessly decayed condition when found, says Dr. Sanders (251): no value was set it either by the Arab dealer or by Mr. Freer. The upon fragment was then a "blackened, decayed lump of parchment as hard and brittle on the exterior as glue". Its measurements were: length, 61⁄2 inches, width, 42 inches, thickness, 11⁄2 inches. With infinite pains and labor the leaves were separated, and deciphered. Of the history of the manuscript nothing has been discovered, except that it once contained between 208 and 212 leaves. The legible fragments begin at I Corinthians 10.29; portions of all the remaining Pauline Epistles have been deciphered. This manuscript, then, together with the manuscript of the Four Gospels, in the Freer Collection (see Professor B. W. Bacon, in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 6.213-214), made a complete New Testament, except for the book of Revelation.

On pages 253-258 Professor Sanders discusses the Palaeography of the manuscript. Next, on pages 259263, he discusses The Text Problem. There is a notable agreement between this manuscript and those of the Alexandrian group of manuscripts, the Neutral group of Westcott and Hort (259). Finally, on pages 265315 we have a reprint of the Greek text.

C. K.

For notices of other parts of this collection see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 6.213-214; 11.112.

THE NEW YORK CLASSICAL CLUB SCHOLARSHIPS

The scholarships in Latin and in Greek offered by The New York Classical Club have been awarded as follows: The Latin Scholarship to Miss Anna Meade, of Curtis High School, with a percentage of 86.5; the Greek Scholarship to Mr. Walter Ferriss, of Erasmus Hall High School, with a percentage of 87.

The plan of the examination for the scholarships has been changed from the former plan of averaging the answer papers on examinations set by the Regents, chiefly because the dates for the Regents and for The College Entrance Board examinations conflicted. The examination prepared by a committee of The New York Classical Club is now a composite paper in each subject and so somewhat more exacting than papers in the former plan. This will explain why the percentages are not so high as they were.

The names of the contestants offering the best papers are given in the order of their merit: in Latin, Anna Meade, Curtis High School; Minnie Hollander, Hunter College High School; Elise Jacobs, Hunter College High School; Frances Uswald, Hunter College High School; Adele A. Matzke, Morris High School; Edna Romer, Hunter College High School; Henrietta Olidort, Morris High School; Hudyths Levin, Far Rockaway High School; Ethel Silverman, Morris High School; Beatrice Kohn, Hunter College High School; in Greek, Walter Ferriss, Erasmus Hall High School; Angela Cantasano, Eastern District High School; Frances Haskins, Erasmus Hall High School.

EUGENE W. HARTER, Chairman of Committee on Award of Scholarships.

CLASSICAL ARTICLES IN NON-CLASSICAL PERIODICALS

III

Aberdeen University Review-June, Translations from the Greek Anthology [two poems], F. G. M.

American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures-January, Ecclesiastes and Theognis, H. Ranston.-April, The Greek Genesis, A. T. Olmstead.

American Oxonian-July, Nixon's Plautus, R. K. Hack [a review
of P. Nixon, Plautus, With an English Translation].
American Political Science Review-May, C. P. Sherman, Roman
Law in the Modern World (J. H. Drake).
Bookman-May, The Evolution of the Bookstore (illustrated),
H. H. Manchester.-July, The Living Pan (poem), Nancy B.
Mavity.
Contemporary Review-March, An Experiment in Greek Metres
(from Sophocles, Antigone 333: a quantitative English
equivalent), C. W. Brodribb.-July, (Ferrero and Barbagallo,
A Short History of Rome).

English Review-May, The Centaur's First Love [poem], Muriel
Stuart.
Journal des Débats-July 19, La culture grecque et latine: discours
de M. Lafferre, ministre de l'instruction publique.
Literary Guide (London)-A Word for the Classics = (Gilbert
Murray, Religio Grammatici: The Religion of a Man of
Letters).

Literary World-Aug. 1, The Cult of Apollo = (T. Dempsey, The
Delphic Oracle).

Nineteenth Century-April, A Defense of the Modern Humanities,
C. Brereton.-May, The Shoes of Empedocles, Rev. Father
Sharpe; Half an Hour with Sophocles, W. S. Thilly.
Open Court-May, (P. E. More, Plato and Platonism).
Poet Lore-Spring Number, Ovid as a Short-story Writer in the
Light of Modern Technique, A. Kadison.
Revue Critique d'Histoire et de Littérature-May 26, (N. Terzaghi,
Filologia e letteratura classica: il mito di Prometeo); (H. B.
Walters, A Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiqui-
ties, Biography, Geography and Mythology); (L. Parmen-
tier, Recherches sur le traité d'Isis et d'Osiris de Plutarque);
(K. Meiser, Ueber den Charidemos des Dion von Prusa);
(H. Alline, Histoire du texte de Platon).

Revue de l'Histoire des Religions-Nov.-Dec., 1917. P. Roussel,
Les cultes égyptiens à Délos (A. de Ridder).
Rivista d'Italia-Jan., 1918, Concetto Marchesi, Le corone di
Prudenzio (E. Donadoni).-May, Le nuove idee della critica
e le primavere antiche, A. Conti.

Sewanee Review-July-September, Shrines of the Mighty: From
Athens to Corinth, Virginia G. Bullock; Two Views of Educa-

=

tion, Lane Cooper; A New Drive for Greek, W. R. Agard; P. E. More, Plato and Platonism (T. P. B.). Spectator Feb. 2. 1918, New Volumes in the Loeb Classical Library (Plutarch, Dio, Plautus, The Greek Anthology).Feb. 23. J. E. B. Mayor, Q. Septimi Florentis Tertulliani Apologeticus.--April 13. The Case for the Classics in America (A. West, The Value of the Classics).-May 18, (Percy Gardner, A History of Ancient Coinage).-June 15. (Louise E. Matthaei, Studies in Greek Tragedy).-June 22, (Ferrero and Barbagallo, A Short History of Rome).-July 6, The Poetry of Lucretius, C. H. Herford.-Aug. 10, (T. Dempsey, The Delphic Oracle). W. S. M.

PRESIDENT NEILSON AND THE CLASSICS

In The Christian Science Monitor, for January 10, there was an article covering one column and a half, called forth by the suggestion made by President William A. Neilson, of Smith College, Northampton, Mass., in his Inaugural Address last June, to the effect that the Latin and Greek Classics be taught to College students in translation, the barrier of language being removed. The author of this (unsigned) article saw in this suggestion just another manifestation of the tendency toward making education easy. Into this phase of the paper it is not necessary to enter here. There is space to quote only the following paragraphs:

The contrast between general and professional education, in particular between the college and the professional school, throws an interesting light on the situation. The professional school is not a Sunday school or a civic training school, nor are its pupils there to be amused. Their mental pabulum is not prepared as a baby food for infant minds. They have come that their minds may be trained by severe, unrelenting tasks to compete with other minds in doing a definite part of the work of the world'. None of the easy education here.

The question now is raised whether the humanities, more specifically the study of literary classics in other languages than English, should not be turned over en bloc to the easy education. Even the most old-fashioned critic will not object to the study of the classics in translation in those popular correspondence courses which shake into the laps of the people the fruits of the tree of knowledge; he will not object to such study in translation in the young ladies' "finishing school" or in any modern approximation to it; he will have no valid objection to such study by any and every student who is frightened away from the real study of the classics in other languages by the barrier of language. By all means let every fence be removed which keeps anyone from an acquaintance, however imperfect, with the humanities. But equally let us beware of expecting too much from such predigested humanities, or indeed from other branches of the easy education.

Granted that little be expected from the study of classics in translation, the thesis of President Neilson and the practice of Professor Cooper of Cornell University may be cordially accepted. Discussion really

'Compare the remarks of Professor R. M. Wenley, professor of philosophy in the University of Michigan, in his paper first printed in The School Review 13.441-457, and republished in Kelsey, Latin and Greek in American Education, 59-81.

C. K.

begins, not on the point of letting down the barriers of language, but on any claim that the study of foreign languages is unrewarding for the general college student of literature. Further, it is not a question as to the value of foreign language study as such, nor whether such study is rightfully conducted to lead to the appreciation of literature in these languages. The question is simply whether the easy education in classic literatures in other languages than English accomplishes the results desired. If it does, surely let some one else do the work, and let my boy reap the harvest. The idea is wrong in theory; grapes are not gathered from a bramble bush, nor does the modern student reap where he has not sown.

In practice the matter comes down to the personal judgment of the man who reads both the translation and the original. For me, even the meager acquaintance with Hebrew gained at the theological seminary unfolded a new world in the appreciation of Old Testament literature. And would President Neilson give up his ability to read Homer and Plato in Greek? Or would he claim that he had been cheated of his birthright if the study of Greek had not been included in his early education?

The easy education including predigested humanities is suited to men too busy for a real education, and for minds too dull to profit by it. But the tendency to make all education easy resembles the practice of certain trades unions which would reduce the skilled and quick workman to the level of the slow and less skilled; it is part and parcel of that sham democracy which would make men equal by depriving some of these opportunities which many cannot utilize.

A LATIN SONNET

The following literary curiosity, in the shape of a Latin sonnet, I find attributed to Giovanni Cotta (1479-1510):

Aura en Favoni mitiorque Caurus
nubes geluque triste dispulerunt;
Ponti minaces impetus quierunt,
mutatque merces Indus atque Maurus.

Iam laeta pinguis frangit arva taurus,
et picta densum prata floruerunt;
omneis canorae alites replerunt
frondes, nec hortos ornat una laurus.

Ver spirat, en ver omnibus redivit;
unum sed in me saeviunt procellae,
nec sol mihi est, mens unde fessa vivit.
Lusus diesque, iam abite, verni;
dum luce carae non fruor puellae,
sunt dura dici cuncta, dura cerni.

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THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Mondays from October 1 to May 31 inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or School holiday, at Barnard College, Broadway and 120th St., New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the language, the literature, the life, and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY) are two dollars. The territory covered by the Association includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia. Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is two dollars per year. If affidavit to bill for subscription is required, the fee must be paid by the subscriber. Subscribers in Canada or other foreign countries must send 30 cents extra for postage.

Managing Editor

CHARLES KNAPP, Barnard College, Columbia University.

Associate Editors

WALTON B. MCDANIEL, University of Pennsylvania
DAVID M. ROBINSON, The Johns Hopkins University
B. L. ULLMAN, University of Pittsburgh
H. H. YEAMES, Hobart College

Communications, articles, reviews, books for review, queries, etc., inquiries concerning subscriptions and advertising, back numbers or extra numbers, notices of change of address, etc., should be sent to Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York City.

Single copies, 10 cents. Extra numbers, 10 cents each, $1.00 per dozen. Back Volumes, Volumes 1-11, $1.50 each.

Printed by W. F. Humphrey, 300 Pulteney St., Geneva, N. Y.

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SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS

By The Classical Association of the Atlantic States

(1) THE PRACTICAL VALUE OF LATIN (AND GREEK)

A pamphlet of 40 pages, giving expressions of lawyers, physicians, journalists, engineers, scientists, educators and business men favorable to the Classics, as subjects having a direct meaning and use for those who plan to engage in various forms of practical life. Speaking from personal experience the men and women quoted in this pamphlet insist, unhesitatingly, that the study of the Classics is a rational way of fitting one's self for practical life. Copies may be obtained at the following rates:

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(2) THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AND THE STUDY OF THE CLASSICS

A reprint, in the form of a 16 page pamphlet, from THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.178-182, of a paper by Professor Lane Cooper, Professor of English, Cornell University.

This paper contains a striking statement of the value, in a vital field, of a classical training. Every teacher of Latin and Greek, especially Greek, should read what Professor Cooper has to say, and should set it before his pupils. Copies may be had at the following rates:

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