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THE LATIN GAMES

Game of the Latin Noun, new; may be played by all grades including beginners. Price, 50 cents.

Verb Games, a series of five games, each 29c.; 1 and 2, on principal parts; 3 and 4, on verb forms; No. 5, on verb terminations. Game of Latin Authors. Price, $1.04.

These games always please and profit; are highly recommended by teachers and pupils. Any or all sent postpaid on receipt of price. Stamps accepted.

THE LATIN GAME CO., Appleton, Wis.

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Back Volumes (I-X)

of

The Classical Weekly

may be had from

CHARLES KNAPP

$1.50 per Volume

BARNARD COLLEGE

NEW YORK CITY

THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Mondays from October 1 to May 31 inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or School holiday, at Barnard College, Broadway and 120th St., New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the language, the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY) are two dollars. The territory covered by the Association includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia. Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is two dollars per year. If affidavit to bill for subscription is required, the fee must be paid by the subscriber. Subscribers in Canada or other foreign countries must send 30 cents extra for postage.

Managing Editor

CHARLES KNAPP, Barnard College, Columbia University.

Associate Editors

WALTON B. MCDANIEL, University of Pennsylvania DAVID M. ROBINSON, The Johns Hopkins University B. L. ULLMAN, University of Pittsburgh

H. H. YEAMES, Hobart College

Communications, articles, reviews, books for review, queries, etc., inquiries concerning subscriptions and advertising, back numbers or extra numbers, notices of change of address, etc., should be sent to Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York City.

Single copies, 10 cents. Extra numbers, 10 cents each, $1.00 per dozen. Back Volumes, Volumes 1-10, $1.50 each.

Printed by W. F. Humphrey, 300 Pulteney St., Geneva, N. Y.

GRAPHIC LATIN

A set of four complicated charts which present the entire language at as many glances.

Adopted for general class-room use by teachers in hundreds of Secondary Schools in all States of the Union.

No higher recommendation for any School book has ever been offered than this: thatexclusive of the general adoptions-hundreds of pupils all over the United States have judged it of such practical value that they have purchased copies on their own responsibility to facilitate their work.

Price, per set, bound in heavy, tough, manila cover, postpaid, 40c.

JOHN C. GREEN, Jr.
Blair Academy, Box D
BLAIRSTOWN, N. J.

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II. Analogy and the Scope of its Application in Language, by Benjamin Ide Wheeler, 1887.

III. The Cult of Asklepios, by Alice Walton, 1894.
IV. The Development of the Athenian Constitution, by George Willis Botsford, 1893.

I. The CUM Constructions: their history and functions, by William Gardner Hale. Parti:
Critical, 1887. Part ii: Constructive, 1889.

(Out of Print.)

(Out of Print.)
(Price 80 cts.)

V. Index Antiphonteus: composuit Frank Lovis van Cleef, 1895.
VI. Studies in Latin Moods and Tenses, by Herbert Charles Elmer, 1898.
VII. The Athenian Secretaries, by William Scott Ferguson, 1898.
VIII. The Five Post-Kleisthenean Tribes, by Fred Orlando Bates, 1898.
IX. Critique of some Recent Subjunctive Theories, by Charles Edwin Bennett, 1898.

(Price $1.50.)
(Price $1.00.)
(Price $1.50.)
(Price 50 cts.)
(Price 50 cts.)

(Price 50 cts.)

(Price 75 cts.)

X. The Athenian Archons of the Third and Second Centuries Before Christ, by William
Scott Ferguson, 1899.
XI. Index in Xenophontis Memorabilia, Confecerunt Catherina Maria Gloth, Maria Francisco
Kellogg, 1900.
(Price $1.00.)

XII. A Study of the Greek Paean, with Appendixes containing the Hymns found at Delphi
and the other extant Fragments of Paeans, by Arthur Fairbanks, 1900. (Price $1.00.)
XIII. The Subjunctive Substantive Clauses in Plautus, not including Indirect Questions,
by Charles L. Durham, 1901.
(Price 80 cts.)
XIV. A Study in Case-Rivalry, being an Investigation Regarding the Use of the Genitive and
Accusative in Latin with Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting, by Clinton L. Babcock,
1901.
(Price 60 cts.)
XV. The Case-Construction after the Comparative in Latin, by K. P. R. Neville, 1901.
(Price 60 cts.)

XVI. The Epigraphical Evidence for the Reigns of Vespasian and Titus, by Homer Curtis
Newton, 1901.

(Price 80 cts.)

XVII. Erichthonius and the three Daughters of Cecrops, by Benjamin Powell, 1906.

(Price 60 cts.)
XVIII. Index to the Fragments of the Greek Elegiac and Iambic Poets, as Contained in the
Hiller-Crusius Edition of Bergk's Anthologia Lyrica, by Mary Corwin Lane, 1908.
(Price 80 cts.)
XIX. The Poetic Plural of Greek Tragedy, in the Light of Homeric Usage, by Horace Leonard
Jones, 1910.
(Price 80 cts.)

LONGMANS, GREEN & CO.,

443 Fourth Ave., New York

SIGHT READING IN LATIN

By HIRAM H. BICE

A book intended for second-year Latin pupils. By means of a series of interesting stories from standard Latin authors the book develops in the pupil a grasp of grammatical constructions, vocabulary, and the ability to read Latin without constant reference to notes.

Each exercise is complete and is provided with adequate helps, intended in part for previous preparation. The plan of the book, however, is so flexible that the teacher may use as many or as few of these helps as desired.

The selection of stories and the progressiveness of the exercises make sight reading an interesting study.

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"ECONOMICAL AND CONVENIENT"

Teachers and pupils find it a great advantage to use a book
that contains everything needed in second year Latin work.

EVERYTHING NEEDED IS FOUND IN

RIESS AND JANES'S CAESAR

WITH SIGHT READING

Edited by ERNST RIESS, Head of Department of Classics, and ARTHUR L. JANES, Instructor in Latin, Boys' High School, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Ι

In this one volume is included all the material for intensive study of Books I and 2 of the Gallic War; all the necessary sight reading; all the grammar needed in second year work; all the prose composition required in second year work; all necessary pedagogical helps.

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 NEW YORK, JANUARY 21, 1918

VOL. XI

NOTES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF
EARLY ROMAN RELIGION

For teachers of the Classics who wish to know as much as possible about the daily life and thought of the ancient Greeks and Romans, for those who are not content to be mere hack teachers of certain portions of Caesar, Cicero, and Vergil, but insist upon their right to enter to the fullest extent into those ancient civilizations in order better to appreciate the extant literature of those peoples, there are few fields of study more attractive or more broadening than the investigation of Roman folklore and religion. It may be argued that such studies belong primarily to the anthropologist, or more particularly to the sophiologist; still, it must be admitted that the classical student is in closer touch with this material than is the sophiologist, and may at times furnish valuable suggestions to the latter.

Now, nearly everybody who writes upon anthropological subjects these days takes his text from Professor J. G. Frazer's wonderfully stimulating work, The Golden Bough, and then proceeds to strengthen or to pull down the theories advanced in that work. I, too, shall take my text from Frazer, and see what can be made of it.

In The Golden Bough 1.1.233 ff. the author maintains that in the development of a given people magic always precedes religion, and suggests that an intermediate step in the change from magic to religion may be represented by the very widely attested fact that the early gods of a people are often themselves adepts in magic (1.1.240 ff.). Strangely enough, Professor Frazer, who usually quotes quite freely from the Classics, does not at this point seem to realize what valuable corroborative evidence for his contention might be drawn from those sources. It is the purpose of my paper to point out some instances of the Roman gods as workers of magic, and so representing the stage of transition from magic to religion among the Romans; and then to discuss another transitional phase in this development, namely the deification of disease.

Before proceeding farther it might be well to define what I understand by the terms 'magic' and 'religion'. For the former I may quote a well known encyclopedia to the effect that "Magic is the art, or pretended art, of controlling occult forces, and of producing effects contrary to the known order of nature". Religion, on the other hand, may be defined as "the effective desire to be in right relation to the Power manifesting itself in

No. 13

the universe". According to Frazer's view, then, the development of any people from a general belief in magic to a general belief in religion is a development from the belief in personal, direct, human control of nature by preternatural means to the belief in the indirect control of those same forces through prayer and the placation of deities, with whom man seeks to get into proper relations. It is, on the side of oral expression, a development from spell or incantation to prayer and supplication. Considered from the mental attitude of the practitioner, it is a development from the spirit of command to the spirit of supplication. That early Roman tradition shows a midway phase of this development from magic to religion, from spell to prayer, will not, I believe, be difficult to prove.

In Ovid, Metamorphoses 9.297-315, Alcmena tells how Juno for a time prevented the birth of Hercules (the reader will pardon, I trust, a maiden effort to render the original hexameters):

'And when she heard my groans, she sat down straight on the altar

Which is in front of the door, and crossing the right o'er the left knee,

Locking her fingers the while as the teeth of a comb are arranged,

Hindered the birth of the child. And then with word

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One of the servants most helpful was drawn from the midst of the people,

Who from her light-gold hair rejoiced in the name of Galanthis;

Eager was she to do the bidding of master or mistress, Chosen for this very reason. She felt in her heart there was something

Wicked that Juno was doing: and so, as she came out and went back

Into the door of the dwelling, the goddess she saw on the altar

Sitting, over her knees her interlocked fingers tight holding,

And, "Whoever thou art", she said, "rejoice with my mistress.

Now, relieved of her pain, Alcmena, daughter of Argos Thanks to the gods returns for the precious gift they have sent her".

Hearing this, down from her seat she leaped, and in her vexation

Loosed her entwinèd fingers, the powerful goddess of childbirth.

Then were the bonds unloosed, and released was I from her magic'.

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