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(32) Milton, Paradise Lost, Books 1 and 2 (ed. Cook). This being the last meeting of the class, the students are advised to read further in Milton during the summer.

I dare not take space to defend particular choices in respect to the masterpieces read, or the books used, or the order of assignments. The selection of the parts and the order of the whole have been slightly modified in the lapse of years, and may be said to represent the best I can devise in view of the means accessible and the kind of student to be dealt with. I have a firm belief in the efficacy of the course. I have here given a somewhat detailed account of it because frequent inquiries are made concerning it from without, because there would be no great difficulty in adapting it to conditions in other institutions, and because in my opinion too much, relatively, is said and printed on the ways in which teaching ought to be done, and too little on the actual working out of courses in which theory and practice are combined, and which have lived long enough to justify their existence. CORNELL UNIVERSITY.

LANE COOFER.

EPITHETS OF THE TIBER IN THE ROMAN POETS

No student of the Roman poets can have failed to observe the frequency of their allusions to the Tiber, the Roman Rhine. Tiberis was to the citizen of the Roman world a household word: it symbolized Rome and all that was Roman. It was most natural, then, for the poet to recognize and adopt this name as an effective symbol of Roman power and pride. Tiberis, he saw, visualized to the imagination the city on the river; it not only named the city, but also suggested its environment, just as 'the city on the Thames' is more visualizing and picturesque than London. To Ovid, for example, it was Tiberis that nations knew and feared (Fasti 5.641) and to which worldsovereignty had been promised (Met. 2.259). In Vergil, it is the Tiber that welcomes Aeneas and his Trojan band: the Tiber speaks for Italy. Tiberinus (Aen. 8.31), the personified river, seems rising in the gray-green mist of evening to guide Aeneas and to further his destiny. To the Roman poets, then, from Ennius down, Tiberis was a compelling name.

Some use of this magic name in "Roman Vergil's" stately lines every schoolboy can recall. Forty-one times he employs some form of the word Tiberis (this reckoning includes the Catalepton). In Vergil, the most national of the Roman poets, one naturally expects to find Tiberis mentioned often and with the most national pride. But Vergil is only one of many who in this way add to a passage a touch of vividness and concreteness. Voluminous Ovid uses the name exactly the same number of times; and Vergil and Ovid are conspicuous leaders in employing epithets and descriptive phrases, a great variety of which the poets applied to the river. And for what reason?

A poet seeks to convey an idea pictorially in a setting, and it is these well-chosen epithets that enrich and color the pictorial background.

There are at least thirty-five distinct epithets and phrases of a descriptive nature which apply directly and specifically to the Tiber, besides certain others of only limited application. Some of them are purely descriptive; others are purely literary epithets. Students of Latin may find it not without interest to follow a brief survey of the rather extended use of this stylistic feature. The range of poets covered is from Ennius (B.C. 239-169) to Maximianus (fl. middle of the sixth century A. D.).

Various epithets tend to personify, recognizing in the Tiber a mighty, beneficent deity. The most popular is pater, which occurs ten times. It carries, besides the idea of time-honored affectionate regard, the thought of power. Akin to this is the stately genitor, employed once by Vergil (Aen. 12.72) and once by Silius Italicus (Punica 12.540). In few of these instances, however, is the idea of divinity actually expressed by the word deus, i.e. the numen, the spirit of the stream. In fact, Vergil alone gives definite expression to this idea by the use of the word, once in describing the river-god's appearance to Aeneas (8.31), and again immediately following the prayer of Pallas (10.424).

A peculiar expression of this idea of personification is fluvius (8.66), 'the god of the river'. Sovereignty is likewise suggested by Martial's dominus (10.7.9), Priscianus's regius (Carm. 348), Silius Italicus's sceptifer (8.367), and Vergil's laudatory epithet which, in five words, forms a complete hexameter: corniger Hesperidum fluvius regnator aquarum (8.77). Corniger suggests the influence of contemporary art on Vergil. In art the river-gods were commonly represented in the guise of those animals whose forms they were most in the habit of assuming: the great Greek rivergod Achelous, as a rival of Hercules for the hand of Deianira, transformed himself into a horned bull. These gods were also, however, portrayed in purely human guise, with the exception of having small horns on either side of the head. This is Vergil's conception. Even as Greek art represented rivers of the Eastern Mediterranean, so must art now picture Tiberinus, the king of rivers in the land of the Evening Star (Hesperidum).

Somewhat akin to Vergil's phrase is that of Statius (Silv. 3.5.111), who represents the Tiber as ductor aquarum: the royal spirit of the river he pictures majestically leading the proud procession of the waters to the sea. Ovid (Fasti 4.572) addresses the river as future parens potentis aquae, and Grattius (Poetae Latini Minores I.II.38) speaks of it as cultor Latii, 'fosterer of Latium'. Horace (Carm. 1.2.19-20) touches upon a familiar bit of Roman mythology in his phrase uxorius amnis, 'stream devoted to his wife'. The personified spirit of the river,

which symbolizes the city near it, is imagined as exercising a benign influence from the dawn of Rome's history: not only had Tiberinus gently brought the outcast babes, Romulus and Remus, the founders of the city, to safety among the rushes, but their unfortunate mother Ilia, or Rhea Silvia, whom Amulius had caused to be thrown into the river, he took as his spouse and sought to avenge her wrongs. And finally, in a somewhat similar spirit, Claudianus (Carm. 1.98) speaks of the pius amnis.

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Less definite expressions, likewise betokening patriotic love, are linked with the river's name. Prudentius (Hymnos Peristephanon 12.29), Martial (4.64.24), and Silius Italicus (16.679) Tiberis is sacer; similarly, to Aeneas the Tiber's stream is sanctum (8.72). A noble epithet is Claudianus's proprius (Carm. 26.505), i.e. 'Rome's own dear Tiber'. But Vergil goes farther than this: the river is not simply peculiarly Rome's own, but, as deus Tiberinus says to Aeneas, caelo gratissimus amnis (8.64); i.e. Tiberis, to the gods as well as to men, symbolizes the city which is the instrument of heaven's destiny on earth. The fabled relationship of the war-god to Rome's founder finds recognition in the epithet Martius, which Statius alone employs (Silv. 2.7.45). Another rare but appropriate epithet, in honor of Rome's first king, is Romuleus (Claudianus, Carm. 1.226).

Certain epithets have to do with the source and the region of the Tiber: e.g. Ovid's advena, in the sense of 'coming from afar' (Fasti 2.68, 3.524), and his Appenninigena (Met. 15.432). The adjective Tuscus is used with great frequency, being especially popular with Ovid; it occurs fifteen times in the verse of six Latin poets, viz. Statius (Silv. 2.1.99, 4.5.39), Silius Italicus (8.362, 13.6, 17.15), Vergil (Georg. 1.499), Martial (9.101.10), Ovid (Met. 14.615; Fasti 1.233, 1.500, 4.47, 4.294, 5.628; Ibis 5.138), and Lucan (1.381). The significance is, of course, that the Tiber is an Etrurian stream, since it rises in the Tuscan Apennines, and for almost its entire length borders Etrurian territory. A similar idea is conveyed by the adjective Tyrrhenus (Silius Italicus 13.66; Statius, Silv. 5.2.113; Vergil, Aen. 7.242; Lucan 2.210). A reminiscence of the popular tradition which traced the arts and the civilization of Etruria, nay, even the origin of the Etruscans themselves, to Lydia in Asia Minor, is seen in the epithet Lydius Vergil, Aen. 2.782; Statius, Silv. 1.2.190; Statius, Silv. 4.4.5 Lydia.

ripa). Vergil (Aen. 5.83) characterizes

the Tiber as Ausonius, an epithet derived, of course, from Ausonia, an ancient name of middle and lower Italy, or of Italy in general. Similarly he uses the adjective Laurens (Aen. 5.797), derived from Laurentum, the ancient capital of Latium, but here referring to Italy in general.

Other epithets have to do with the course and the current of the river, though naturally the description is of a sentimental rather than of a scientific order.

Horace (Carm. 1.2.18) and Martial (10.85.4) allude to the stream as vagus; the context shows that the wo d is used of the river only in flood ime. An inte sting epithet is Ovid's lubricus (Fasti 6.238), 'the gliding Tiber'. Rutilius (Itinerarium, 1.180) uses the very suitable adjective dividus, 'the divided Tiber'; it refers to the river in the vicinity of the island. Ovid (Fasti 6.228), in a reference to the cleansing of Vesta's shrine in the month of June, styles the river placidus Thybris: Somewhat contradictory, it might at first seem, is the term implicidus, occurring in a fragment attributed to Caesius Bassus (Fragmenta Poetarum Romanorum II, in ertae sedis 6), a friend of Persius. It probably is part of a passage referring to the river-god himself in an angry frame of mind on some particular occasion.

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Several epithets are descriptive of the stream proper and its water. The most popular of these is the adjective flavus, 'yellowish'. Six poets employ it, Horace and Ovid with equal frequency, and in the course of Latin poetry (as previously defined) it occurs twelve, times (Silius Italicus 1.607, 9.207; Horace, Carm. 1.2.13, 1.8.8, 2.3.18; Ovid, Fasti 6.228, Trist. 5.1.31, Met. 14.448; Statius, Silv. 4.4.5; Vergil, Aen. 7.31, Cat. 12.23; Consolatio ad Liviam 221). On account of the amount of sediment carried by the stream by the time it reaches Rome, the epithet is most appropriate. A slightly variant form is Avienus's flavens (Descrip. Orb. Terr. 494). Less popular than its kindred rival is Ovid's hirenosus (Fasti 1.242). Vergil (8.62) is the only author, says Anthon (in his Classical Dictionary, s.v. caeruleus), who applies to the Tiber the term caeruleus, probably in a general sense of 'dark'. Vitreus, 'clear as glass', is used once of the Tiber (Carmina Latina Epigraphica 409.2), but in the early part of its course, the Umbrian region, before erosion could work much change in the nature of its water. Ovid's phrase, liquidas aquas (Ibis 5.138) would indicate nothing more than 'flowing' or 'continuing without interruption'. Gelidus (Carm. d. Vir. Illus., P. L. M., V. lxxxi. 2.3) can be used only in a general and poetical sense.

A few phrases admit of only special application: e.g. imperii fines (Juvenal 8.265), 'bound of the Roman dominion', a term very appropriate in Cloelia's time, but not in later days. Claudianus (Carm. 35.178) addresses the river as Latiis nondum praecincte tropaeis Thybri, that is to say, the city on the Tiber had not yet entered upon her career of world conquest. Juvenal's matutinus (6.523) involves, of course, rather an expression of time than a qualification of Tiberis.

In conclusion, it is interesting to note the relative popularity of these numerous epithets. Of most frequent occurrence is Tuscus, which is employed fifteen times. Next in popularity is flavus, found twelve times. A close third is pater, occurring eleven times. Eight of the others occur twice or more→

Tyrrhenus, sacer, Lydius, advena, deus, vagus, genitor, and fluvius. Vergil, whose ange of epithets is notably wide, is most partial to pater. The favorite of Ovid and Silius Italicus is Tuscus; of Horace, flavus. ST. LAWRENCE UNIVERSITY. VERNER J. Warner.

REVIEWS

The Standard Bearer: A Story of Army Life in the Time of Caesar. By A. C. Whitehead. New York: The American Book Company (1914). Pp. 305. With Illustrations and Maps. 52 cents.

There has been real need of a novel based upon Caesar's Gallic Memoirs. Davis's excellent book, A Friend of Caesar, is a story of the Bellum Civile.

The book under review is avowedly a juvenile; its language and style are adapted to children; its hero, though supposedly an able-bodied young man of nineteen years when he is introduced to us, has the unsophisticated speech, demeanor, and acts of a youth in his early teens.

Improbabilities, incongruities, and daring escapades everybody expects in fiction, so that The Standard Bearer should not be too severely censured for its picture (19) of a dog almost "tearing the man's throat into bloody shreds" and yet leaving that man able to run away and carry no scar with him in after life; or for impossible instinct on the part of the young shepherd in reading the man Caesar and his destined greatness at first sight (20); or for the acrobatic feat, recounted on page 95, of leaping from one runaway chariot into another.

The very arrangement of the story, as shown by the Table of Contents, a division into five books, entitled respectively Pastor, Miles, Aquilifer, Dux, and Vir, reveals an illogical jumble instead of a climax as intended. From the Roman point of view the hero was Vir to begin with. The author has confused two ideas-ascent in military honors and progress in years. Mr. Whitehead's allusion to Caesar's escape by way of the Flaminian Gate (30) is an error commensurate with that of scores of others who forget that the Aurelian Wall with its Porta Flaminia was four centuries subsequent to Caesar's time. A reference to the "prisons" on page 160 also indicates ignorance of the fact that the Tullianum was the only real prison known to Rome.

Why was the account of the Rhine bridge (181) set after the first invasion of Britain (175)? On page 48 Caesar's propraetorship in Spain, four years past, is alluded to by a first year's Gallic campaigner as "year before last". The hero is two years old (29) when Caesar rescues him on his flight from Sulla in 82 B. C., and yet is "about four and twenty" (255) in the seventh year of the Gallic War in 52 B. C.

The book is full of lapses of memory. On page 150 we read of Trebonia's "pair" of horses as running away; on page 152 Trebonia says "I slashed the horse and he dashed away". Note the following sentence (178):

"The soldiers of the other legions', seeing those of the Tenth advancing, followed their example, and soon the whole of the two legions were moving toward the beach".

In Book V, Chapter I (256), "Caius" is described as having "risen to the rank of legatus"; yet Chapter V, page 283, is named The Man Becomes A Lieutenant, and contains not a single allusion to such promotion.

The author often permits his fictional scheme to do violence to the narrative as set forth by Caesar. There are episodes in which he should either have followed Caesar explicitly, or have invented wholly new action. As it is, he has evinced a penchant for contaminatio, which, on the one hand, manifestly garbles Caesar, and, on the other, completely lacks originality. For example, in pages 205-224, Mr. Whitehead is plainly basing his story of the defence of the camp upon a fusion of the events of Books V and VI, centering in the revolt of Ambiorix and the two sieges of Quintus Cicero's camps. The same general features are there, even to the rivalry of Vorenus and Titus Pullo, the heroism of Vertico the Nervian, and the gallant defense of Baculus, who are all called by their true names. Only a few variations are introduced here and there. But the effect of the whole is spoiled by making the fictitious "Caius" commander of the camp and having him remark (214) that the Gauls "will come to beseige us as they did Cotta and Cicero".

But worse defects are to be discerned almost anywhere the book may be opened. To begin with, the author has dipped very sparingly, or at least not digestingly, into 'outside helps' and has appealed to his imagination in preference to historical authority. How else could Caesar be spoken of (52) as proconsul to Cisalpine Gaul and consequently as having no part, except as a meddler, in Gaul beyond the Alps?

Again, Caesar's account of the defence of the Rhone bank is taken as meaning literally "a wall and a ditch from Lake Geneva to Mt. Jura, a distance of nineteen miles" (57: compare 183), whereas scholars have long since accepted the estimates of engineers and excavators that there were only five localities in all that distance where positive works were needed to fortify the south bluffs of the river.

The assertion (175) that Caesar's was "the first naval fleet of civilized men to seek those shores" (Britain), while perhaps true as far as fleet is concerned, is apt to leave an erroneous impression. Too little is said, even in English histories, of the adventures of Pytheas and the trading voyages of the Phoenicians. Caesar's foray thereby receives a false emphasis as if it were the opening chapter in the annals of Britain.

Even a cursory reader in Caesarean bibliography would be dismayed by the unflattering picture of Caesar to be gathered from The Standard Bearer. Caesar delivers a childish oration to his troops at Geneva (57), among other reprehensible features detailing silly explanations to his private soldiers. He is decidedly

The italics are mine.

loquacious (153, 162, 180). He dismisses news of a vital nature in ludicrous fashion (150). He makes a foolish promise to spare the life of a villain (278). He is dubbed "the red-coated little man" (230), though Suetonius is authority for his being of good height. It is true that this is put in the mouth of a Gaul, but one is led to fear that Mr. Whitehead himself has been too deeply impressed by Caesar's own comparison (B.G. 2.30) and has had 'The Little Corporal' in mind. On page 19 Mr. Whitehead describes Caesar as "somewhat tall"!

In things military, The Standard Bearer is replete with errors. Among the faulty allusions are "plumed helmets" (37), and togas, scarlet-bordered at that, for soldiers, "with shoes and headdress to match" (43). Ballista is twice used as a noun in the plural (177, 178). The vexillum is vaguely called at one time white (55, 188), at another red (104). A "camp praetor" is mentioned on page 59. Caesar mounts the military tribunal "clad in a rich toga" (291). Lanius, one of the confessed hangers-on (118), wears armor (37, 56) and is detailed on duty (276).

The author's ideas of promotion in military service are quite crude. His characters are popped into readymade vacancies at a word from Caesar (180, 201), while the hero, a tiro in the Twelfth, is rewarded for his bravery in the Battle of the Sambre by being made forthwith aquilifer in the veteran Tenth (140). Titus, a late arrival (163), is also discovered to have been mustered into the same veteran legion (177 ff.). The youthful and lately recruited aquilifer, of the Tenth Legion, without so much as a hint of farther probation as either centurio or tribunus, is placed in command of a garrison of five of its cohorts (205-224).

Publius Considius, a subaltern and leader of a scouting party, who made himself so conspicuous by his panic just before the battle at Bibracte, is confusedly called one of the "oldest lieutenants" (74), whereas Quintus Pedius, a real legatus, is deputed to command a reconnoitering contingent (143). "Caius", the hero, is termed Dux (translated "Commander") throughout Book IV of the story; yet manifestly he has the duties of a legatus. And, as actual legatus, so-called, in Book V, what an un-Roman spectacle he makes in leaving his cohort to make its way back as best it can, while he pursues his love venture (258–268)! Again, is it likely that a Roman commander would go on an escapade as spy (255 ff.)?

The errors in allusion to Roman antiquities, both public and private, are overwhelmingly numerous. The author dotes on "scarlet-bordered togas" and the like. Lanius, the gentleman from Rome, wears them (118). "Roman senators" wear them at the Lucca conference (149), and Trebonius is described as "wearing a toga with a broad purple stripe" (147). In both instances the author suffers from a confused idea of the tunica lati clavi. The purple-bordered toga, i. e. the toga praetexta, was restricted to children and curule officials. It was not until the next generation that this

distinction was broken down with other licenses that came in under the Empire.

The account of the conference at Lucca is replete with inaccuracies. An ex-tribune, so-called, is attended by lictors (148) and is borne in a chair (147). It is flying in the face of all that we know of Rome to assign a lictor to a tribune, an ex-tribune at that. The whole passage concerning this tribune (147-148) is preposterous, particularly since such nonsense is put in the mouth of Caesar Imperator! Further, this Trebonius was in reality not tribune until 55 B. C., having, by the way, a very memorable tribuneship. On page 164 we read that Trebonius, immediately after the Conference, became Caesar's legatus; but he did not hold that office till 54 B. C.

In the final chapter the hero is brought into Rome, "clad in the toga of a provincial governor". At least two serious crimes are therein committed against things Roman. First, provincial governors were not elected or appointed from the provinces themselves, but from among ex-praetors and ex-consuls at Rome, and there is no indication whatever that The Standard Bearer had been graduated from the required cursus honorum at Rome. Secondly, the governors were invested with the imperium as military commanders, to remain in the provinces until expiration of that imperium. To leave the provinces otherwise meant the forfeiture of the position, indication of which might be read in the reassumption of the toga in lieu of the former military accouterment.

The author's use of proper names displays here and there inaccuracy and inconsistency. His hero's name is "Caius", perpetuating the old-time misinterpretation of Gaius. "Curo" (25), being neither Curius nor Curio, is an anomaly. "Bassa", a masculine of the first declension (30), is also strange beside the familiar form, Bassus. "Lanius", the name of the villain, is, on the surface, a clever fiction, as shown by the allusion (59) to his father's trade as a butcher. It is rather out of the question, however, for the name is a nomen and implies the preexistence of a gens Lania. The old merchant, too, would seem to be appropriately named "Matho", at once suggesting' Phoenician origin. But the surmise is dissipated by his announcing (50) his full name as M. Pomponius Matho and that his father's grandfather, a merchant also, was made a praetor during the Second Punic War. Now there was a real personage of that name who was praetor in the second year of the war with Hannibal, but the interpolation of the peddler's trade into the genealogy of such a family is a false stroke; a peddler would scarcely have been praetor.

It would have been safer if Mr. Whitehead had adhered to the more usual practice of the times and had employed nomina only for his female characters. Feminine praenomina, such as “Publia "(159), are very sparsely attested for the times of the Republic, while the feminine cognomina (“Camilla", 23; "Crispina”,

27) and the diminutive form of the cognomen ("Crispilla", 159) were largely developments of the next generation. Matho's daughter should be a Pomponia, but we are surprised to hear him call her "Nigra” (186) There are some flashes of genius in the story that offer a compensating value, as, for instance, the startling scene in which Caesar is attacked with "the falling disease" (199-201), or the description (42 ff.) of Ravenna, Caesar's gubernatorial capital, as a city of the Venice type. FREDERIC S. DUNN.

UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, Eugene, Oregon.

CLASSICAL CONFERENCE AT SYRACUSE NOVEMBER 27-28

The Classical Section of The New York State Teachers' Association will meet at Syracuse, Central High School, on Tuesday and Wednesday, November 27-28. The programme is as follows:

(1) Tuesday, 9.15 A. M., "A Modern School": Dr. Flexner and his Critics, J. P. Behm, Central High School, Syracuse; Symposium-The Importance of Classical Studies as an Essential Element in Liberal Education and the Practical Value of Such Studies: Medicine, J. L. Heffron, Dean, College of Medicine, Syracuse University, Law, C. W. Tooke, Attorney-atLaw, Ministry, Rev. W. R. Ferris, Park Presbyterian Church, Journalism, J. B. Howe, Editor Syracuse Herald, Engineering, W. P. Graham, Dean College of Applied Science, Syracuse University, Business, W. A. Dyer, Chappell-Dyer Company; Two Views of Education, Lane Cooper, Cornell University;

(2) 2 P. M., New Problems in the First Two Years of Latin, T. A. Gallup, President of St. Lawrence University; Important Factors in the Successful Teaching of Beginning Latin, R. E. Holmes, West High School, Rochester, and Katherine Hewitt, North High School, Syracuse; Class-room Methods and Devices in First Year Latin, Laura C. Manley, Elmira, and Retta Maloney, Central High School, Syracuse; Visual Instruction: Educational Analysis vs. Waste of Time and Energy, A. W. Abrams, State Education Department; The Reading League, Its Value and Progress, G. D. Kellogg, Union College;

(3) Wednesday, 9.15 A. M., Classical Plays in High School and College, H. L. Cleasby, Syracuse University; The Conspiracy of Orgetorix-a Dramatization, Syracuse Central High School Classical Club; The Saalburg Camp on the Roman Frontier (illustrated), Charles Knapp.

Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals

The preparation of the list of Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals will again be in charge of Professor H. H. Yeames, of Hobart College, Geneva, and Dr. William Stuart Messer, of Barnard College, Columbia University. All readers of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY are invited to send to Professor Yeames or Dr. Messer or to the Managing Editor titles of such articles, especially of articles they have themselves contributed to various Journals (with some indication of the contents).

To save space a set form should be followed by all contributors. Thus, an entry like (J. C. Stobart, The Glory that was Greece) indicates an unsigned review of the book named; an entry like J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough (Andrew Lang), indicates a review of Frazer's book by Andrew Lang; an entry like How did Thucydides write Numbers?, J. P. Mahaffy, indicates an article by Mahaffy; an entry like Professor Verrall or Sophocles's Ichneutae means an unsigned editorial or note or cominent on the subject indicated. An entry like A Great Greek Statesman (A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom) means that under the caption A Great Greek Statesman has appeared an unsigned review of Mr. PickardCambridge's book. Comments explanatory of titles, meant to give some hint of the nature of the article or note, are given in square brackets.

Atlantic Monthly-April, Education as Mental Discipline, Abra-
ham Flexner; A House in Athens, Anne C. E. Allinson.-
June and July, The Assault on Humanism, Paul Shorey.
Harvard Alumni Bulletin--May 17, Prof. John Williams White.-
June 7, The Defense of the Classics (editorial]; Morituri Saluta-
mus: A Latin Teacher's Apologia pro Vita Sua, H. C. Kittredge.
International Studio-Oct., The Weirdest Sculptured Lion in
Captivity, F. O. Payne [ill.--Greek sculpture of 5th cent. B. C.]
Journal of Education-July 12, The Peril of 'Bookish' Education,
H. C. Nutting.
Metropolitan Magazine-April, Regulus, Rudyard Kipling [a
School story].

=

Nation (New York)-April 12, Chapman's "Homer" and Others,
H. M. Ayres.--April 19, "Iphigeneia" in Michigan, H. H.
Yeames. May 17, Prof. John Williams White.-May 31,
A Greek Scholar John Williams White]. E. O. Fisk; Early
Latin Manuscripts = (W. M. Lindsay, Notae Latinae);
under Notes (E. L. Woodward, Christianity and Nationalism
in the Later Roman Empire).-June 7. The Battle of the
Classics [editorial]; The Sham Argument against Latin,
G. Lodge; under Notes (The Discourses and Manual of
Epictetus. Translated by P. E. Matheson); Princeton Con-
ference on Classical Studies.-June 21, Prof. John Williams
White, Edward Capps; under Notes (Lucretius On the
Nature of Things, Translated by W. E. Leonard).-June 28,
(Loeb Classical Library: Paton, Greek Anthology, Vol. 2;
Gaselee, Achilles Tatius; Miller, Seneca's Tragedies).-July 5.
Dr. Flexner's Figures [Latin], W. P. Parker. July 19, Latin
in the Schools, G. F. Miller.--July 26, under Notes (John
Burnet, Higher Education and the War; Paul Shorey, The
Assault on Humanism; W. W. Jackson, Ingram Bywater).
Aug. 9, Quantitative Hexameters in English (Robert
Bridges, Ibant Obscuri: An Experiment in the Classical
Hexameter); The Yale Oriental Series = (E. T. Newell,
The Dated Alexander Coinage of Sidon and Ake).-Aug. 16,
(Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 28); (C. H.
Moore, The Religious Thought of the Greeks).-Sept. 6.
The Bigotry of the New Education, Paul Shorey; (P. V. N.
Myers, Ancient History; C. E. Robinson, The Days of
Alcibiades; F. H. Cowles, Gaius Verres, an Historical Study;
E. S. Bouchier, Sardinia in Ancient Times); Mr. Flexner's
Modern School, J. C. Dana.-Oct. 11, Aristophanes (B. B.
Rogers. The Wasps of Aristophanes, with a Translation into
Corresponding Metres, Introduction, and Commentary).
School and Society--March 3, General Discipline and the Study
of Latin, H. C. Nutting.-Sept. 1, Two Phases of Mental
Discipline, H. C. Nutting.
Times (London) Literary Supplement-March 30, Myth and
Medicine (Rendel Harris, The Ascent of Olympus);
Hexameters in English, George Young, John Sargeaunt;
Virgil or "Vergil"? A Question of English, John Bailey,
A. H. Cruickshank; The British School at Rome, Eugenie
Strong; (Rhys Carpenter, The Ethics of Euripides).-April
6. First Century and Twentieth Century (Epictetus,
The Discourses and Manual, Translated, with Introduction
and Notes, by P. E. Matheson); The Trial of Jesus = (R. W.
Husband, The Prosecution of Jesus, its Date, History, and
Legality); Hexameters in English, W. R. Inge; The Ear
of Dionysius, E. Brabrook.-April 13. A Scholar's Life = (W.
W. Jackson, Ingram Bywater: The Memoir of an Oxford
Scholar, 1840-1914); Virgil or "Vergil", and Afterwards,
Hastings Crossley, A. H. Cruickshank; Hexameters in
English, W. H. D. Rouse.--April 20, Virgil or "Vergil",
John Bailey; Quantitative Metres, J. D. Anderson; A Classi-
cal Dictionary; The Ear of Dionysius, F. C. Constable;
Notes: Greek Papyrus of Census in Egypt A. D. 34.-May
II, The New Comedy (P. E. Legrand, The New Greek
Comedy, Translated by James Loeb); The Ear of Dionysius,
G. W. Balfour.-July 6, (Tertulliani Apologeticus, Annotated,
with an Introduction by J. E. B. Mayor, with a Translation
by Alexander Souter); Seneca and Dryden, Montague Sum-
mers; Pliny and the Nightingale, G. G. Loane.-July 13,
An Italian Scholar's Collected Papers (Ettore Stampini,
Studi di Letteratura e Filologia Latina); (Memoirs of the
American Academy in Rome, Vol. 1: School of Classical
Studies); Seneca and Dryden, The Reviewer; (F. H. Cowles,
Gaius Verres).-July 20, Seneca and Dryden, Montague
Summers; Pliny and the Nightingale, M. Gilbart; A Neglected
Utopia (Christianopolis, Translated from the Latin of
I. V. Andreae, by F. E. Held).-July 27, Seneca and Dryden,
The Reviewer. -Aug. 3. A Greek Romance = (Achilles
Tatius, with an English Translation by S. Gaselee); Pliny
and the Nightingale, M. H. S., T. F. Royds.-Sept. 7. On
Classic Ground (J. G. Frazer, Studies in Greek Scenery,
Legend, and History).-Sept. 14. (Annual of the British
School at Athens, Vol. 21); On Classic Ground, Ernest
Myers. Sept.21, Erasmus on Peace = (The Complaint of Peace,
Translated from the Latin, 1559. Edited by Alexander Grieve).
Times (London) Educational Supplement-Aug. 9, America and
Classics, J. P. Postgate.-Aug. 16, America and Classics,
N. W. H.-Aug. 23. America and Classics, J. P. Postgate;
(H. E. Palmer, The Scientific Study and Teaching of Langua-
ges). Aug. 30, America and the Classics, N. W. H.
Unpopular Review-April-June, Teaching Greek and Latin.
Yale Review-Oct., Virgil and the New Patriotism, Anne C. E.
Allinson.

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