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or from some apocryphal situation? Is the punctuation faulty, or what is the meaning of the verses on page 19? The same question arises with reference to the last stanza on page 36 and the third stanza on page 37. What is the meaning of "the winged hope called Death" (86)?

Of actual slips as to fact or expression, there are not a few. "Nike's stylobate" (5) looks like a wanton anachronism. "Pantassa" (68) must be for Pantanassa. "Thy unknown sculptor" (76) seems strangely out of place in speaking of the Hermes of Praxiteles. There appears to be no warrant for the verbal use of "phalanxes" (79). On page 102 we find "The Sculptor" as the heading of one group of verses and "Phidias" at the beginning of the lines succeeding, whereas it is manifest that the two are one. On page 110, the repeated "Xaire" should either be printed in Greek characters or spelled Chaere. Fifth century Greece was hardly acquainted with maize (114). “Tyrennian” (116) is unknown to the reviewer as an equivalent for Tyrian. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. H. LAMAR CROSBY.

Syria as a Roman Province. By E. S. Bouchier. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell (1916). Pp. ix + 304; Map; Plate of Coins. 6 shillings. Anything connected with the Roman provinces to which the name of E. S. Bouchier is attached is sure to deserve attention. Mr. Bouchier revised the third edition of W. T. Arnold's The Roman System of Provincial Administration to the Accession of Constantine the Great, and his work on that book gave him a wide knowledge of a field in which not a great deal had been done except as a by-product from epigraphical studies. Mr. Bouchier's two books, Life and Letters in Roman Africa, and Spain under the Roman Empire (reviewed in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.134-135), have already brought him into favorable notice, and the book under review will certainly increase his reputation.

The author in the title of the work now under review has set bounds to his field, and is freed thereby from the necessity of saying that he takes for granted a general knowledge of Syria in pre-Roman times. Mr. Bouchier does indeed, at the outset, give 17 pages to the peoples and national characteristics of Syria, pointing out that it is a strongly diversified country in its geographical features and therefore in its types of inhabitants. The Romans found the four chief Semitic peoples of Syria, Aramaeans, Phoenicians, Jews, and Arabs, under the governmental control of Greeks and Macedonians, and, with their usual tolerance of things they did not feel themselves able to control, were able without much resistance to Romanize Syria in a superficial way. The second chapter takes up the history and constitution of the province to the Antonine age, and scattered through the book are occasional references to Syria in early times. But it would have been easy and, me iudice, advantageous to have devoted a few pages to a succinct but readable account of early Syria.

Every reader would be glad to know that Syria as such was first known under Graeco-Roman administration and was at first restricted to the basin of the Orontes river; that now Syria for the Turks is practically the province of Damascus, with an area of 600,000 square miles and a population-dense in Phoenicia and Lebanon, but sparse in the northern steppes-averaging for the whole country only 51⁄2 persons to the square mile. Timber was the best early export, but its place is now taken by wheat, silk cocoons, and fruits, which are shipped from Beirut (Berytus) and Alexandretta. The dolmens found in Syria show early settlement. Literary and archaeological authority puts North Syria in the sixteenth century before Christ under the Hatti of Cappadocia and postulates a Canaanite period in South Syria. The country was the meetingplace during the sixteenth century for Egyptian and Babylonian elements whose commerce was carried by the Phoenicians. The Tell-el-Amarna letters give us the political relations of Syria with Egypt during the fifteenth century, and, as we know that the Egyptian kings got much booty on their Syrian campaigns, the country must have been prosperous. The Aramaean period in Syria is about 1000 B. C., and all the Semitic tongues were assimilated to the Aramaean, which held its place even against Greek and Latin. In 733 B. C. Tiglath-Pileser II overthrew Damascus, and, from that time on, the petty states of Syria were subservient to the successive world-empires, under Persia until 332, under Macedon until 83, belonging to Tigranes of Armenia 83-69, and conquered for the Romans by Pompey in 64-63. It became an independent Roman province, and a proconsulship there was most desirable. Antioch became the third city of the Roman Empire. The administration was changed several times. Under Hadrian Syria was made into three provinces, Syria, Syria Phoenice, and Syria Palestina; in the fifth century A. D. it was subdivided again into nine administrative divisions, Coelesyria, with its capital Antioch, being the most important.

Seleucus, satrap of Babylonia, came into possession of the most of Syria after the battle of Ipsus in 301 B. C., and, twenty years later, after the fall of Lysimachus, got Macedonian Asia Minor. This great area had been governed from three capitals, Antioch in Syria, Seleucia on the Tigris, and Sardes, but the invasion of the Galatians, the Parthian revolt, the Roman victory at Magnesia in 190 B. C., native revolts, and Diadochian dissensions gradually brought the Seleucid monarchy so near to disintegration that Lucullus and Pompey had little difficulty in getting control of the country, that being, however, quite a different thing from getting it under control. To be sure the Romans' main idea was to erect Syria into a barrier against the oriental monarchies and to gain control of the trade routes to the West, and Pompey put this purpose well in hand by encouraging municipalities and by arranging a financial system. It is not hard to understand why the first proconsul of the new

province was A. Gabinius, and despite what Cicero says Gabinius was an excellent governor. Crassus, Cassius, and Antony successively made Syria the seat of their rapacity or intrigue, but, after Actium, Octavian gave special attention to Syria, settled confusion, and, putting the province under an imperial legate, began to establish stable government. During the reign of Nero came the great Jewish revolt, the suppression of which made the reputations of Vespasian and his son Titus. Trajan used Syria as a base during his trans-Euphrates campaign. Meanwhile his legate there, Hadrian, was getting the experience which enabled him later, when Emperor, to suppress the great Jewish rebellion under Barcochab. By the time of the Antonines the influences, religious and moral, of the native oriental substratum were beginning to nullify all Romanizing influence, and the effeminacy of the army and the usurpation in governmental positions foreshadowed the wreck of the Roman imperial system.

The third chapter of the book has as its title, Antioch. Mr. Bouchier tells something about the topography and the folk-lore of the place, of the early relations of Rome and Antioch, the local constitution of Senate and Assembly in the time of the early Empire. In connection with the mint, we may note in passing that Pompey tried to bring the two Seleucid standardsAttic for royal, Tyrian for municipal-to the Attic. Several pages at the end of the chapter are given to a description of the shrine of Apollo at Daphne with its famous statue by Bryaxis, and to the Olympian festival inaugurated there by Claudius in place of the Daphnaean festival which in Seleucid times had lasted for forty-five days.

Chapter IV, The Syrian Dynasties at Rome, has little of interest, and Chapter V, The Chief Cities of Syria, hurries over the history of Berytus, Damascus, Heliopolis (seat of the cult of Jupiter Heliopolitanus), Apamea, Sidon, and Tyre. The Rise and Fall of Palmyra, the Persian Wars of Diocletian, and his provincial reorganization of Syria, which brings a revival of Roman authority in the East, fill Chapter VI. Our author takes from Ezekiel the heading for Chapter VII, on Natural Products and Commerce:

Syria was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of thy handiworks: they traded for thy wares with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and rubies.

Mention is made of the siliceous sand of the river Belus which was made into glass at Sidon, of the process used to get the dye from the murex and buccinum, and of the fine oils and balsams of the country.

Two chapters (IX and X) are devoted to the literary men and literary schools of Syria, and they make rather a formidable showing. There was in Syria during the age of the Seleucids no school of literary artists such as Pergamum and Alexandria could boast. The poet Antipater of Tyre, toward the close of the second century B. C., heads the list of Syrian writers, and he is followed, about the time of the Roman annexation, by

the poets, Meleager the epigrammatist, and Philodemus the Epicurean philosopher, both of Gadara. Another poet who attained such reputation that Cicero defended him against a charge of usurpation of citizen rights, the fee presumably to have been a poem on Cicero's consulship, was a native of Antioch, namely Archias, the client of Lucullus. The Stoic philosopher and historian Posidonius came from Apamea, the grammarian M. Valerius Probus was a native of Berytus, the Jewish historian Josephus wrote on Syria and lived there. Every branch of Greek literature was enriched by Syrians from 100 A. D. to the time of Justinian. Maximus of Tyre, Cassius Longinus of Emesa, and Libanius of Antioch are the leading names of the Syrian Sophistic school of rhetoric; the union of Greek philosophy with eastern mysticism known as Neoplatonism had as its later exponents Porphyry, Iamblichus, Isidore, and Damascius, all Syrians; Herodian and Ammianus Marcellinus, the secular historians, are Syrians; Christian literature is represented by the Syrians Eusebius and Chrysostomus, Euhemerism by Philo, and satire by the famous Lucian. At the law school of Berytus was a group of men who wrote in Latin, Papinian and Domitius Ulpianus, whose best work was put by Justinian in his Digest, being the most important. Nearly all these Syrian writers, it is true, left Syria because neither the Seleucids nor the Roman provincial governors were models of literary patrons. As might be expected, Religion (Chapter XI) in Syria was a matter of intense interest. The Semite did not care about religious system, as the Romans did, he had no mythology, as had the Greeks, but he was a thoroughgoing intense believer in his own tribal god, a monotheistic devotee. Ritual, ecstatic display, even debauchery at times characterize the Syrian religions. We find pillar saints, Christian mystics, Semitic altars in groves, asceticism, Babylonian triads, Isiac and Persian doctrines of future life, Chaldaean astrology, and Greek rationalism, all mixed together, making a sort of national pantheon composed of single gods, single ideas, or exclusive groups. Mr. Bouchier specifies as the representative deities making up the Syrian pantheon Jupiter Dolichenus from Asia Minor, Hadad and Atargatis (= Tyche), the Aramaean divine pair, Astarte and Adonis of Phoenicia, Marnas and Derceto of the Philistines, and the Arab Dusares and Allath.

The last chapter deals with Architecture and the Arts. The author very briefly traces the growth of artistic development, showing that its general characteristics are Greek with superimposed oriental features. Syria had a splendid building material in the basalt of the volcanic district of northeast Syria (the iron bedstead, nine cubits long, of Og, King of Bashan, was probably an ancient basalt sarcophagus). Passing mention is made of the Syrian sepulchral monuments, especially the royal tombs of Commagene, and of the frescoes, painting, and mosaics which are found everywhere.

The book has few mistakes in it. Some words are spelled in antique fashion, and there are a few comparisons which are not quite apropos. It is a bit guidebookish in style, but all in all it is a book both valuable and meritorious. THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.

RALPH VAN DEMAN MAGOFFIN.

Boston.

The Assault on Humanism. By Paul Shorey. Atlantic Monthly Company (1917). Pp. 80. 60 cents.

The Atlantic Monthly Company has made a new departure by publishing as the first of a series of important monographs which deserve more permanent form a reprint of an article by Professor Shorey which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly some months ago. To summarize what has been said so admirably is the despair of the reviewer. To decry the past is an occupation that appeals to many minds, especially if they have not eyes to see. Dissatisfaction with things as they are has been a symptom of every age, and a necessary precursor of reform. There is nothing new in the ideas advanced by Mr. Flexner save that a new generation is on the stage. There are scientific thinkers whose utterances are not so sweeping as those of Herbert Spencer, whose minds are better poised, like John Stuart Mill, who see in the Classics works of transcendent merit that are not likely to be duplicated. But why should the twentieth-century boy and girl entering High School study Latin when there are so many subjects less remote from their daily lives to which they may devote their hours of study? Because we have inherited in large measure through France and England our tradition of Greco-Roman civilization, and, furthermore, the vocabulary which will become part and parcel of their daily lives was harnessed and adapted to literary uses by men who both read and wrote Latin. We cannot be too familiar with our own language, which must ever be adapted to a growing fund of ideas. English is the harmonious union of two distinct lines of development, AngloSaxon and Latin. How few know all its stops! Great is the need of Latin in the High School; it is manifold greater in a College worthy of the name.

While these statemen s are truisms, their reiteration is necessary owing to the manner in which they are ignored, suppressed, or disregarded by those assailants of the Classics who have interests of their own to subserve. These assailants are like lawyers that hold a brief for the opposing side and strive for victory regardless of the means. Even the standard books in the field of education make excerpts from writers like Spencer and Huxley without at the same time publishing refutations by scholars of equal eminence on the other side. Small wonder, then, that in the class-rooms of professors of pedagogy to-day we have one-sided presentations of the subject under discussion.

In arguing that Latin is useless, you must discriminate between the higher and the lower utility, the

immediate and the remote, the direct and the indirect. There is, furthermore, no connection between the equality of men before the law, which all admit, and the attempt to equalize the educational value of all subjects for all purposes.

The dead set against 'mental discipline' on Mr. Flexner's part is polemics, not science. Professor O'Shea is cleverly quoted here: "Hewing to the line in manual training will make the student realize the necessity of hewing to the moral line in all his conduct."

A true science of education is still in the distant future, however fondly its votaries may believe otherwise. To call the modernist school an experiment in any scientific sense of the word is to mislead public opinion and prejudge the entire question. The intellectual disinterestedness of an experimenter who proposes to test Latin by suppressing it altogether inspires as little confidence as does his logic.

In concluding his criticism of Mr. Flexner's so-called Modern School, Professor Shorey wisely remarks that life and education are both complex. He is convinced of the entire sincerity of Mr. Flexner's enthusiasm for the betterment of American education, but must withhold congratulations on his scientific disinterestedness. The main issue raised by Mr. Flexner's School is the survival or suppression in the relatively small number of our graduates in High Schools and Colleges of the very conception of linguistic discipline, of culture, taste, and standards. To declaim to the contrary is sheer waste of words. Greek and Latin have become mere symbols and pretexts. Shakespeare, Milton, Dante, and others are in equal disrepute. Our little systems have their day; but the human spirit that creates and dissolves all systems abides. The study of that abiding spirit is-humanism. ALFRED W. MILDEN.

UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI.

EX-PRESIDENT ELIOT AND LATIN

My attention has been called to the fact that, in a paper in The Atlantic Monthly, in February or March last, in which ex-President Eliot argued against the compulsory study of Latin, he found it necessary himself to employ Latin words frequently. In the 500 words beginning with "In the present state," etc., page 359, column I, the percentages of Latin words in the several hundreds are as follows: 41, 31, C. K. 37, 33, 32. The average is about 35%.

CLASSICAL MEETING AT VASSAR COLLEGE

The time of the meeting of The Classical Section of the Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the Middle States and Maryland, of which mention was made in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY I1.40 has been changed to 10 A. M., Saturday, December 1. The meeting-place is Taylor Hall.

The general Association will be in session on Friday. Those who wish to attend on that day may get information concerning hotels or other accommodations for Friday night by writing to Professor Elizabeth Hazelton Haight, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York.

THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Mondays from October 1 to May 31 inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or School holiday, at Barnard College, Broadway and 120th St., New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the language, the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY) are two dollars. The territory covered by the Association includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia. Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is two dollars per year. If affidavit to bill for subscription is required, the fee must be paid by the subscriber. Subscribers in Canada or other foreign countries must send 30 cents extra for postage.

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President

MISS JESSIE E. ALLEN, Girls' High School, Philadelphia

Secretary-Treasurer

PROFESSOR CHARLES KNAPP, Barnard College, New York City

Vice-Presidents

Professor Harold L. Cleasby, Syracuse University.

Professor Helen H. Tanzer, Hunter College, New York City.

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Mr. W. W. King, Barringer High School, Newark, N. J. Book Catalog Magazine

Miss Mary M. Gottfried, Miss Hebb's School, Wil

mington, Del.

Professor Evan T. Sage, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Miss Mary E. Armstrong, Goucher College, Baltimore, Md.

Professor Charles S. Smith, George Washington University, D. of C.

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and Booklet PRINTING

The Complete Plant

Special attention given to technical and scientific works

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I. The CUM Constructions: their history and functions, by William Gardner Hale. Parti:
Critical, 1887. Part ii: Constructive, 1889.

(Out of Print.)

II. Analogy and the Scope of its Application in Language, by Benjamin Ide Wheeler, 1887.

III. The Cult of Asklepios, by Alice Walton, 1894.

(Out of Print.) (Price 80 cts.)

IV. The Development of the Athenian Constitution, by George Willis Botsford, 1893.

(Price $1.50.)

V. Index Antiphonteus: composuit Frank Lovis van Cleef, 1895.
VI. Studies in Latin Moods and Tenses, by Herbert Charles Elmer, 1898.
VII. The Athenian Secretaries, by William Scott Ferguson, 1898.
VIII. The Five Post-Kleisthenean Tribes, by Fred Orlando Bates, 1898.
IX. Critique of some Recent Subjunctive Theories, by Charles Edwin Bennett, 1898.

(Price $1.00.) (Price $1.50.) (Price 50 cts.)

(Price 50 cts.)

(Price 50 cts.)

X. The Athenian Archons of the Third and Second Centuries Before Christ, by William Scott Ferguson, 1899. (Price 75 cts.) XI. Index in Xenophontis Memorabilia, Confecerunt Catherina Maria Gloth, Maria Francisco Kellogg, 1900. (Price $1.00.)

XII. A Study of the Greek Paean, with Appendixes containing the Hymns found at Delphi and the other extant Fragments of Paeans, by Arthur Fairbanks, 1900. (Price $1.00.) XIII. The Subjunctive Substantive Clauses in Plautus, not including Indirect Questions, by Charles L. Durham, 1901. (Price 80 cts.) XIV. A Study in Case-Rivalry, being an Investigation Regarding the Use of the Genitive and Accusative in Latin with Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting, by Clinton L. Babcock, (Price 60 cts.) XV. The Case-Construction after the Comparative in Latin, by K. P. R. Neville, 1901. (Price 60 cts.)

1901.

XVI. The Epigraphical Evidence for the Reigns of Vespasian and Titus, by Homer Curtis Newton, 1901.

(Price 80 cts.)

XVII. Erichthonius and the three Daughters of Cecrops, by Benjamin Powell, 1906.

(Price 60 cts.) XVIII. Index to the Fragments of the Greek Elegiac and Iambic Poets, as Contained in the Hiller-Crusius Edition of Bergk's Anthologia Lyrica, by Mary Corwin Lane, 1908. (Price 80 cts.)

XIX. The Poetic Plural of Greek Tragedy, in the Light of Homeric Usage, by Horace Leonard Jones, 1910. (Price 80 cts.)

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