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Dr. Husband's view is that the events happened much as described in the Gospels, but that the Sanhedrin was sitting not as a court but as an examining and accusing body. To make this clear, he cites the procedure used in Egypt-a procedure recently disclosed to us by the papyri.

However, despite the author's confident statement, the Gospel account resembles the procedure of the papyri as little as it does that of the Talmud. It is obviously a strange thing, to equate the nome-strategus with a board of seventy men. Then, it is quite illegitimate to transfer the Egyptian system to Syria. The organization of Egypt was unique. Again, the cases cited by Dr. Husband are almost exclusively civil, and therefore hardly in point. And, finally, there is nowhere in our evidence the remotest suggestion that the Sanhedrin ever had the functions here ascribed to it.

Professor Husband, in this connection, is compelled to examine the Talmudic passages. Unfortunately, the difficulties of sources are enormous. As in the case of Gospel criticism, the author seems to presuppose a general knowledge of the nature and composition of the Talmud. In that, he probably docs his readers more than justice. It would have been better to state briefly that the text of the Talmud, the Mishna, handed down by oral tradition from early times, was compiled into its present form about the year 200 A. D., and that the lectures and discussions upon the Mishna which took place in the Palestinian and Babylonian academics were collected into the Gemaras of Jerusalem (circa 375 A.D.), and of Babylon (circa 500 A.D.). It is the latter, i.e. the Babylonian Gemara, that is generally referred to, when the term Talmud is used without further qualification.

While it is in no sense a mysterious book, the Talmud is a very difficult one. The Mishna, written in Hebrew, is concise and obscure to the last degree. The Gemaras, written in Aramaic, are extremely discursive and contain matter of the most heterogeneous character and origin. The difficulties are enhanced by the fact that textual criticism of the Talmud is in its infancy and that there is no satisfactory translation. The French and German translations are incomplete. The English translation, by Rodkinson, used by Dr. Husband, was prepared with an incredible lack of care and conscience, so that it is practically worthless. The result is that Dr. Husband, in his use of the Talmud, has been compelled to rely upon very inexpert guidance. Most of the citations in Chapter V are wrong. While that may be mainly due to lapses in proofreading, there are cases which cannot be so explained, such as on page 128, where Dr. Husband cites, as from the Talmud, something that really forms part of an eleventh century commentary, not upon the Talmudic passage, but upon the Biblical quotation contained in it. Again, on page 115, the phrase, "as in the case of Jesus and others", does not occur at all in the passage from which it is cited, which,

incidentally, should have been "Sanhedrin, 41 a", not "4, fol. 37". There are further serious errors in the renderings of passages on pages 113, 117, 133, 154.

It may also be stated that it is usual to quote the Mishna by chapter and section, and to cite the Gemara

by folio and page. To depart from that method, as

the author often does, compels the examination of many pages in order to verify the reference. Once (126), he cites the Jerusalem Talmud by section and folio. This involves a search through four columns of fine print, each of which contains about 120 lines. The passage was finally determined to be, not “1, fol. 18", but "1, fol. 19, c, line 26".

As to the question of the trial before the Sanhedrin, Dr. Husband seems to have attached insufficient importance to one circumstance which is emphasized in most discussions of the subject. Whatever may be the historical value of the Synoptics for details, it is clear that they wish to convey the belief that the trial of Jesus was flagrantly illegal. That one fact doubtless represents a tradition in the Christian community and far outweighs the testimony of the Gospels as to what actually happened at the hearing before the Sanhedrin. And it is easily possible that, in its main outline, the Synoptic account is true. We must remember that the High Priest was little better than a Roman appointee, since he owed his office to one of the Herodian princes who had received the right of appointment from Rome. That he should seize one whom he deemed to be a dangerous agitator and condemn him to death by a packed jury-we are not told that a complete court was summoned-is quite probable indeed, and is still the most plausible theory, under the circumstances.

Dr. Husband properly rejects the common statement that Jesus was condemned for 'blasphemy'. If by that word is meant the offense stated in Lev. 24. 13-16, the term is plainly inaccurate. The crime of perversion of the people, 'false prophesy', is a capital one, according to the Pentateuch (Deut. 13.5), and this may have been the charge brought against Jesus.

The last part of the book (234 ff.) deals with the Roman trial. The author, following Hirschfeld and Liebenam, correctly points out that the procurator was in no sense the vicar of the Syrian legate, but had an independent authority conferred directly by the princeps. This independence, however, is not to be inferred from the phrase ius gladii, which merely extended his jurisdiction over Roman citizens as well as provincials, limited by the ius provocationis (cf. Cagnat, s.v. Procurator, in Daremberg et Saglio, Dictionnaire des Antiquités.) The procurator took the place of the carlier provincial quaestor,-without, however, completely rendering that office obsolete. And even in Republican times we hear of a quaestor pro praetore (Sallust, Cat. 21. 1), who probably acted much as an independent procurator did. Yet we must remember that Judea had shortly before been an appanage of Syria (Josephus, Ant. 17.13. 5; 18.1.1);

that the Syrian governor was the procurator's close neighbor and his superior in rank, and that the special commission to Vitellius (175 L: Tacitus, Ann. 6. 32) may have been couched in general indefinite terms like the senatus consultum cited by Caesar (B.G. 1.35). Dr. Husband is in error in supposing that the latter procurator had no independent jurisdiction at all. He did have a limited jurisdiction of his own (Ulpian, Dig. 40.19. 9. 2).

The author seems to realize quite inadequately the measure of arbitrary power implicit in the proconsular imperium, delegated directly to the procurator. For that reason, the discussion of whether there was or was not a written indictment is largely futile.

According to Dr. Husband, the charge brought against Jesus when he was arraigned before Pilate was maiestas-for which it would have been better to cite the definition in Paul's Sentences, 5.29.1, than that of Ulpian (Digest 48. 4. 1). It is, however, more likely that the charge was seditio (Paul, Sent. 5.22. I; Digest 48. 19. 38. 2), since crucifixion is mentioned among the penalties for this crime, but not for maiestas. In passing, it may be noted that the author's statement (267), "Nothing less than death was ever recognized as adequate for treason", is slightly inaccurate. Upon the honestiores, relegation was inflicted.

That the scourging was used to elicit a confession, as is suggested on page 268, is scarcely possible. Roman law, in earlier and later times, knew of torture for that purpose only in connection with slave testimony (Decree of Augustus, 8 A.D., Digest 48. 18.8. pr.). The Barabas incident seems to have been misinterpreted. The passage from the Digest cited on page 270 states that, in the time of Marcus, the withdrawal of a sentence by a proconsul had become obsolete, and it seems to imply that a rescript of Marcus and Verus made it illegal thereafter. Dr. Husband believes that between the conviction and sentence, as in our procedure, there was an appreciable interval. But the sententia here referred to contained both conviction and sentence. As stated on page 270, Barabas was probably awaiting such trial as a Roman administrator might choose to mete out to a man of his type. Again, on page 233, a rescript of Gratian is quoted (Cod. 9.4. 5) as though it applied only to convicted traitors and provided that execution shall "follow swiftly after conviction". However, the rescript is quite general and states that all prisoners shall either be convicted and punished or else freed from arrest as quickly as possible.

Another incident, apparently misunderstood, is that of Herod. The passages cited on page 264 do not at all bear out Dr. Husband's contentions. The first (Dig. 1. 18. 3) states as a general rule that governors have authority primarily over persons legally domiciled in their district, and only exceptionally over extranei. Another passage (Celsus, Dig. 48. 3. 11) states that an extraneus is to be tried by the local praeses. And he goes on to say, illud a quibusdam observari solet ut

cum cognovit et constituit, remittat illum cum elogio ad eum qui provinciae praeest unde is homo est. From the rescript of Caracalla (Cod. 3. 15. 1), the author omits the important phrase, ‘or where the man is found'.

It would seem, accordingly, that either Pilate or Herod might have entertained the charge against Jesus and that it was purely a question of comity whether Pilate, who had physical control over his person, should turn him over to Herod or not.

On the same page, another citation of the Digest (49.16.3. pr.) is strangely misapplied. The actual facts are just the reverse (Dig. 48.3.9).

Sometimes Dr. Husband is at pains to prove what might safely be assumed. So he cites Caesar B.C. 3. 108 (doubtless a slip for 107), to show that a trial might take place in the open air. The passage, however, refers to jurisdiction rather than to place. Another somewhat hasty assumption is that the 'Acts of Pilate' are a source of any kind (235, 261). To attempt to obtain information about the actual trial from this book is as hopeful a proceeding as to expect to derive knowledge of Ezra or Enoch from some of the apocryphal books that bear their names.

The bibliography, while necessarily selected, is ample. One might add to it Adolf Büchler, Das Synedrion im Jerusalem (1902); Heinrich Laible, Jesus Christus im Thalmud (1900)—which must be used with caution and with careful note of Dalman's corrections.

Diversity of judgment on controversial matters is inevitable. As has been seen, the reviewer and the author differ toto caelo on many points. If the foregoing seems to be little more than a tabulation of such points, a wrong impression may readily be created. Even those who disagree with Dr. Husband at every step cannot fail to derive profit and stimulation from his presentation and anyone who undertakes to examine the important questions here discussed will be extremely ill-advised if he disregards this book. NEWTOWN HIGH SCHOOL, Elmhurst, New York City.


Studies in Greek Prepositional Phrases; did, ảπó ék, els, v. Chicago University Dissertation. By Emily Helen Dutton. Chicago: distributed by the University of Chicago Libraries (1916). Pp. ix +211.

Every student of Greek, or in fact of any foreign language, has been annoyed by the curiously erratic meaning of many prepositional phrases. Who could infer from a knowledge of the separate words the meaning of the English phrase, 'on purpose', or of the Greek phrase, ἀπὸ στόματος εἰπεῖν, to speak from memory'? These and other so-called idiomatic phrases have developed independently of their component elements; they have become isolated from other locutions which contain one or more of the same words. English ‘on purpose' is no longer closely associated

with such phrases as 'on top', 'on the spot', 'on time'; and it is less closely associated with the phrases 'my purpose', 'the purpose of the machine', 'to the purpose, etc., than these are with one another. 'On purpose' has undergone an independent semántic development in which the other phrases cited have had no share. It has in short become virtually a compound word; its meaning can no more be learned by a process of grammatical analysis than can the meaning of such words as 'railroad' or 'typewriter'. Such phrases demand treatment in a dictionary or in a treatise more or less on the plan of a dictionary.

Dr. Dutton has undertaken to supply a comprehensive treatment of individualistic prepositional phrases in Greek. The task is too large for a dissertation, and so the author has limited herself for the time being to five prepositions, and to "classical Greek literature from Homer to the time of Aristotle', although there are illustrative citations outside of these limits. The first limitation is sound; it would perhaps have been better still to treat only one preposition at this time. The restriction of material is unfortunate. The treatment of later authors, inscriptions, and papyri from this point of view will have to be undertaken some day, and Dr. Dutton would have contributed more if she had chosen to treat more thoroughly a smaller part of her subject. A dictionary should rest upon as wide a base as possible.

The book consists, then, of brief articles on a large number of prepositional phrases. These will be of value for the interpretation of Greek authors, and to students of style (including those who are cultivating their own or their students' Greek style). A cursory reading and the verification of a number of references indicate that the work has been done with extraordinary accuracy-no mean virtue in a dictionary. Since the best editions and translations have been consulted, even inexperienced students will find here a safe guide. The users of the book would have been saved much trouble if the alphabetic arrangement had been adopted.

The author has chosen, however, to arrange her material according to meaning, use, grammatical form, etc. Such a classification, if wisely made, would serve the interests of a third group of readers, namely students of language as such, and in particular students of semantics. The material here presented is of the utmost scientific importance and some of it has not heretofore been accessible; but Dr. Dutton's classification is not scientific. In fact she nowhere gives evidence of acquaintance with the abundant recent literature on semantics, although she has made use of scientific grammars and etymological dictionaries (with the curious omission of Thumb's revision of Brugmann's Griechische Grammatik and of Boisacq's Dictionaire Étymologique de la Langue Grecque). Through neglect of the semantic side of linguistic science she has left to others the easy task of reaping the

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The Tradition of the Latin Accent. By James S. McLemore. University of Virginia (1917). Pp. 96.

Dr. McLemore undertakes to discuss, in this University of Virginia dissertation, the testimonia on the Latin accent from the point of view which his teacher, Professor Fitz Hugh, has made familiar under the name of the "tripudic theory". The reviewer does not find himself in agreement with this theory, but it would be unkind to attack the teacher over the student's head! It is enough to say that Dr. McLemore explains most of his material as due to the influence of those "hellenizing pragmatists", Tyrranio, Cicero, and Varro. Here and there he finds a scrap of evidence indicating that Latin accent was all the while a matter of stress upon the first syllable of every word; for example, Diomedes's phrase plus sonat, and the same author's description of the accent velut anima vocis; for a stress accent "is indeed the anima vocis-the vital principle of the word".

The bulk of the dissertation consists of a large number of passages from ancient authors dealing with Latin accent. All of this material and some more besides was collected forty years ago by F. Schoell, Acta Societatis Philologae Lipsiensis 6.73-215; but Dr. McLemore's chronological arrangement of the material furnishes an excuse for reprinting it. Unfortunately some of the most important passages from Cicero and Varro have been omitted, no doubt because they have already been discussed by Professor FitzHugh. Little attention seems to have been paid to the text of the passages cited; but, as far as noted, good editions have been used.

It would have been well to distinguish citations from the author's comments by different type. As it is, the reader who begins a passage from Quintilian finds himself half way through an account of a certain "tripudic" rhythm before he knows it. E. H. STURTEVANT.



The Essex County Greek Club, of which the late Dr. James F. Riggs was Secretary for the last fifteen years, will continue its meetings. Members and all others interested in the reading of the Greek Classics will kindly communicate with Mr. W. O. Wiley, 44 South Clinton Street, East Orange, New Jersey.

There came to hand lately a copy of a pamphlet of 288 large pages, entitled University of Pennsylvania Schoolmen's Week Proceedings, April 12-14, 1917. This was published by the University of Pennsylvania, as part of The University Bulletins, Seventeenth Series: No. 6, Part I.

In the pamphlet are various matters of interest to students and teachers of the Classics, especially the following: The Aim and Method of a College Teacher of the Classics, John C. Rolfe, pages 202-209; The Aim and Method of a Teacher of the Classics in the Secondary School, Ellis A. Schnabel, 209-214; Model Class in Latin, Bessie R. Burchett, 214-216; General Discussion, 216–217.

C. K.

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Game of the Latin Noun, new; may be played by all grades including beginners. Price, 50 cents.

Verb Games, a series of five games, each 29c.; 1 and 2, on principal parts; 3 and 4, on verb forms; No. 5, on verb terminations. Game of Latin Authors. Price, $1.04.

These games always please and profit; are highly recommended by teachers and pupils. Any or all sent postpaid on receipt of price. Stamps accepted.

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Text of Caesar, Book I-IV, with Notes.
English-Latin Prose Exercises.

Grammatical Appendix containing all Latin
Grammar illustrated in Caesar.

Vocabulary to Books I-IV.
Selections for Sight Reading.

These are all provided in Towle and Jenks' Caesar-Book I-IV, with Selections for Sight Reading.

Emory B. Lease, College of the City of New York-I do not hesitate to say that for the second year students Towle and Jenks' Gallic War is the best on the market. The chapter on the syntax of Caesar is especially to be recommended. It recognizes the greatest difficulty the student finds in the interpretation of this author, and makes easy of access the grammatical principle required.

D. C. HEATH & CO., Publishers Chicago London


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