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THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Mondays from October 1 to May 31 inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or School holiday, at Barnard College, Broadway and 120th St., New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the language, the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer. Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY) are two dollars. The territory covered by the Association includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia. Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is two dollars per year. If affidavit to bill for subscription is required, the fee must be paid by the subscriber. Subscribers in Canada or other foreign countries must send 30 cents extra for postage.

Managing Editor

CHARLES KNAPP, Barnard College, Columbia University.

Associate Editors

WALTON B. MCDANIEL, University of Pennsylvania DAVID M. ROBINSON, The Johns Hopkins University B. L. ULLMAN, University of Pittsburgh

H. H. YEAMES, Hobart College

Communications, articles, reviews, books for review, queries, etc., inquiries concerning subscriptions and advertising, back numbers or extra numbers, notices of change of address, etc., should be sent to Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York City.

Single copies, 10 cents. Extra numbers, 10 cents each, $1.00 per dozen. Back Volumes, Volumes 1-10, $1.50 each.

Printed by W. F. Humphrey. 300 Pulteney St., Geneva, N. Y.

GRAPHIC LATIN

A set of four complicated charts which present the entire language at as many glances.

Adopted for general class-room use by teachers in hundreds of Secondary Schools in all States of the Union.

No higher recommendation for any School book has ever been offered than this: that— exclusive of the general adoptions-hundreds of pupils all over the United States have judged it of such practical value that they have purchased copies on their own responsibility to facilitate their work.

Price, per set, bound in heavy, tough, manila cover, postpaid, 40c.

JOHN C. GREEN, Jr.

Blair Academy, Box D
BLAIRSTOWN, N. J.

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MAR 15 1912

VOL. XI.

MONDAY, MARCH 11, 1918

No. 19

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS

By The Classical Association of the Atlantic States

(1) THE PRACTICAL VALUE OF LATIN (AND GREEK)

A pamphlet of 40 pages, giving expressions of lawyers, physicians, journalists, engineers, scientists, educators and business men favorable to the Classics, as subjects having a direct meaning and use for those who plan to engage in various forms of practical life. Speaking from personal experience the men and women quoted in this pamphlet insist, unhesitatingly, that the study of the Classics is a rational way of fitting one's self for practical life. Copies may be obtained at the following rates:

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(2) Reprint, in the form of a 16 page pamphlet, from THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.178-182, of a paper by Professor Lane Cooper, Assistant Professor of English, Cornell University, entitled,

THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AND THE STUDY OF THE CLASSICS This paper contains a striking statement of the value, in a vital field, of a classical training. Every teacher of Latin and Greek, especially Greek, should read what Professor Cooper has to say, and should set it before his pupils. Copies may be had at the following rates:

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A HANDBOOK OF POETICS

For Students of English Verse

By FRANCIS B. GUMMERE, Haverford College

A concise and systematic statement of the principles of the science of poetry. The subject is divided into three parts-Subject-matter, Style, and Metre. Each is treated from both the historical and the theoretical point of view. A few examples are furnished under each topic, with the expectation that the student will supply more. The treatment is more than the bare outline of a primer of verse and yet not too full for class use.

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Morris and Morgan's Latin Series for Schools and Colleges

BOOKS FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

Pearson's Essentials of Latin for Beginners

(Revised Edition)

By Henry C. Pearson, Principal, Horace Mann School, Teachers College, Columbia University.

With vocabularies and illustrations.

Lane and Morgan's School Latin Grammar

Prepared by Morris H. Morgan, Ph.D., LL.D., late Professor of Classical Philology, Harvard University, chiefly from Lane's Latin Grammar.

Abbott's First Latin Writer

By Mather A. Abbott, formerly of Groton School, Groton, Mass.

Mather and Wheeler's Latin Prose Writing

By Maurice W. Mather, Ph.D., formerly Instructor in Latin, Harvard University, and Arthur L. Wheeler, Ph.D., Professor of Latin, Bryn Mawr College.

Mather's Caesar. Episodes from the Gallic and Civil Wars

Edited by Maurice W. Mather, Ph.D., formerly Instructor in Latin, Harvard University.

Bishop, King and Helm's Cicero

Edited by J. Remsen Bishop, Ph.D., Principal, Eastern High School, Detroit; Frederick Alwin King, Ph.D., Intructor in Latin and Greek, Hughes High School. Cincinnati; and Nathan Wilbur Helm, A.M., Principal, Evanston, Ill., Academy of Northwestern University. With introduction, notes and vocabulary.

Franklin and Greene's Selections from Latin
Prose Authors for Sight Reading

By Susan Braley Franklin, Ph.D., Head of Latin Depart-
ment, Ethical Culture School, New York, and Ella Katherine
Greene, A.B., formerly Instructor in Latin, the Baldwin
School, Bryn Mawr, Pa.

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879

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CICERO, CAT. 1.2-3; TERENCE, HAUT. 75-79; HORACE, SERMONES 1.1.45-46, ETC.

In THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 10.8-10 I discussed the pointing and interpretation of the an . . . perferemus question in Cicero, Cat. 1.2-3. In connection with this discussion Professor Karl P. Harrington, of Wesleyan University, writes as follows:

You are quite right to emphasize the desirability of changing the punctuation after interfecit. I wonder if it might do to go a step further and put a first interrogation point there. Of course punctuation is largely a subjective matter, and varies from the Roman view, that it could be omitted altogether, to our careful distinctions in such cases as these. Possibly the interrogation point after interfecit would not lead the thought of the uneducated any better; but that, at any rate, is what we are after, punctuation being a device to help sort out and relate clauses for the reader, as intonation does for the listener. Further, to aid the young scholar here, it seems to me that a complete filling in of the thought as it would be in Latin is helpful, e. g. <Utrum mentior?> An vero vir interfecit? <Si autern (or igitur) Gracchum Scipio interfecit .>, Catilinam nos consules perferemus? For mentior at the beginning compare e. g. Propertius 4. 1.122 Mentior? an patriae tangitur ora tuae quam nebulosa rorat Mevania <do I lie? or is the verge of your native country touched which misty Mevania bedews ?> Here, of course, the introductory utrum is omitted. It might be omitted in Cicero too, but it would be better to write it there to make the balance absolutely clear to the young pupil. To illustrate the meaning of this type of condition, the teacher can point to a sentence in this same oration (16), where this same assumption of a fact as a basis for further argument is made: Si hoc post contigit, etc. At any rate the fact that these questions in the passage in hand have the essential value of protasis and apodosis for the development logically of the thought of the speaker is worth emphasizing.

It seems to me that the suggestion that a comma should be put after interfecit merely complicates the passage a little more, at least for most students. What Professor Harrington says, however, concerning the logical implications of the passage seems well worth printing.

Since my remarks were published, my attention has been called to the fact that Professor H. E. Burton, in his Latin Grammar, 368, printed the words an vero P. Scipio Ti. Gracchum privatus interfecit? (note the question mark) by themselves, as an example of interrogative sentences "introduced by an; this is especially common in argumentative language, introducing questions which are purely rhetorical and often

exclamatory

No. 19

.". This gives exactly the punctuation advocated by Professor Harrington. But, in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 5.162, in a review of Professor Burton's Grammar, Professor R. G. Kent wrote as follows:

Further, some examples are not typical, or are not certainly illustrative of the rule. Thus in § 368 the question quoted is only part of a twofold question, neither part of which should be quoted alone, 'Did Scipio kill Gracchus, and yet shall we bear with Catiline?': in this the first part of the question is a logical protasis to the second.

All this supplies proof, if proof be needed, that my discussion of this passage was not unnecessary.

The suggestion that a question is at times logically a protasis reminds me of a passage in Terence which has given trouble, Heautontimoroumenos 75-79: MEN.

CH.

Chremes, tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi,
aliena ut cures ea quae nil ad te attinent?
Homo sum: humani nil a me alienum puto'.
Vel me monere hoc vel percontari puta:
rectumst? ego ut faciam-non est? te ut
deterream.

Here Menedemus says, in effect, 'Chremes, mind your own business'. Chremes replies, 'What I am minding is my own business. Take what view you will of my action (vel . . . vel): think, if you like, that I am chiding you, or, if you prefer, that I am questioning you: is it right? that I may do it-is it not right? that I may deter you'. I call attention to the two questionmarks in the last verse as here printed; no edition shows such pointing. But to point in this way is to make the passage simplicity itself: the questions are rhetorical substitutes for protases. si-clauses might

have been written, thus: ut, si rectum est, ego faciam, sin minus, te ut deterream; but that form would have been lifeless.

One more ramification. In Horace, Sermones 1.1.4546, we have

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milia frumenti tua triverit area centum: non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus. Here some editors have bidden us supply si with

In his Literature and the American College, 8-9. Professor Irving Babbitt rightly challenges Brunetiere's view that this verse is a complete definition of humanism, and maintains rather that it is a declaration of humanitarianism. "This line expresses very well a universal concern for one's fellow creatures, but fails to define the It humanist because of the entire absence of the idea of selection. is spoken in the play as an excuse for meddling; and might serve appropriately enough as a motto for the humanitarian busybody with whom we are all so familiar nowadays, who goes around with schemes for reforming almost everything except himself".

triverit. Never! There are at least two explanations possible which leave no room whatever for si.

(1) triverit may be future perfect indicative in a statement of an assumed (prospective) fact, which assumption is, logically, a protasis of non

capiet. So we might say, 'Here are two triangles with certain characteristics: they will be equal, each to each, in all respects'. We might say, more normally, but less effectively, 'If these are two triangles they will be', etc. With the passage thus explained compare Horace, Sermones 1.3.49-53:

Parcius hic vivit: frugi dicatur. Ineptus
et iactantior hic paulo est: concinnus amicis
postulat ut videatur. At est truculentior atque
plus aequo liber: simplex fortisque habeatur.
Caldior est: acris inter numeretur.

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Here a string of si-clauses could be written: si vivit, si ineptus . . . est, si est truculentior atque liber, si caldior est. It is entirely possible also to set a question mark after centum in 1.1.45, and after vivit, est, in 1.3.49-50, and after est in 1.3.53.

(2) triverit may be a volitive subjunctive. In that case compare the ordinary form of a geometrical theorem: 'Let these be two triangles with certain characteristics; they will be equal', etc. From this way of expressing, with respect to the future, what logically amounts to a full conditional complex, it is an easy step to doing the same sort of thing with respect to something that lies wholly in the past, as in Horace, Sermones 1.3.15-17:

Decies centena dedisses

huic parco, paucis contento, quinque diebus nil erat in loculis.

Here, in spite of some editors, there is no need to supply si. What we have is a volitive expression, dederis, transferred to the past. Compare, in this same Sermo, verses 4-7 (rightly explained in Greenough's note).

It is the fashion to describe the subjunctive in the familiar quaerat quispiam (dicat) as 'potential'. I have long thought it was volitive, 'Let some one say', equivalent, logically, to si quis quaerat (dicat). This simple suggestion has never, so far as I know, been presented in print. Compare such an expression as Horace, Sermones 1.3.19-20 nunc aliquis dicat mihi, 'Quid tu? nullane habes vitia'? Immo alia et fortasse minora. This, logically, equals Si quis nunc dicat mihi <respondeam> alia et fortasse me minora vitia habere. It becomes decidedly interesting, then, in connection with Horace, Sermones 1.1.49, 1.3.15 to recall that in the Silver Age we have, commonly, dixerit rather than dicat.

C. K.

CLASSICAL PLAYS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE1

The fundamental aim of the theater is to provide entertainment; the fundamental aim of the School is to

This paper was read at the Eleventh Annual Meeting of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, held at the University of Pittsburgh, April 27, 1917.

furnish instruction. It is true that some confusion prevails to-day as to the respective aims of these institutions: many playwrights attempt to teach, while not a few pedagogues seem to be aiming to amuse. Such misdirected efforts are doomed to failure. Accordingly, when we import the stage into the scholastic domain, we must not seek to change its proper function. Even in the School the play must first of all amuse, must entertain, must interest. This is, indeed, the justification for its introduction-its peculiar power to make impressive and real the ideas and the facts which it teaches. Teaches? Yes, for the play does teach; we may even go so far as to say that it interests just because it teaches. The tragedies of Aeschylus and Shakespeare, the comedies of Molière and Plautus are the greatest of dramas because they teach the greatest of truths. If, however, these masters had not thought first of entertaining, amusing, interesting their hearers, if they had, instead, considered edification and instruction as their all-important aims, Prometheus and Hamlet, Tranio and Mascarille would not be our familiar friends to-day. Consequently, we must ever bear in mind that the predominating purpose of the play in School and College is to interest rather than to teach. In particular, the classical play endeavors to create in the minds of our students and their parents an understanding of the men and the women of Rome and Greece, and a realization that they too were struggling with the same passions and problems as the present generation. While we are to accomplish this end by making use of material drawn from literature, history, mythology, and antiquities, we must ever take care not to become too didactic from behind the footlights.

Classical plays are of two kinds, those written in the ancient tongues, and those in English. The former aim to revive both the ancient life and the ancient language, the latter reproduce the life only. The Latin or Greek plays benefit the students especially; the English plays, as a rule, are more interesting to an average audience. The former require much more labor in preparation; the latter, perhaps, call for more subtle effects in the acting. Both kinds of plays may be used to advantage by the same School; often, it is advisable for beginners to offer a program made up of a few short pieces in Latin or Greek, varied by an English play or two.

To list all plays available for students of the Classics would be an invidious task. I shall merely comment briefly upon some of those which are most commonly given. First, in Latin, the simplest plays of all, suitable for reading in the class-room as well as for acting upon the stage, are those contained in such collections as the Perse Latin Plays and Decem Fabulae. Slightly longer and more dramatic are the three compositions in Cothurnulus. Professor J. J. Schlicher's book, Latin

2By Messrs. Jones and Appleton (Cambridge, W. Heffer and Sons, 1913). By Messrs. Paine, Mainwaring, and Ryle (Oxford University Press, 1912). By E. V. Arnold (London, G. Bell and Sons, 1911).

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