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The Scholia on the Aves of Aristophanes

By JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, Harvard University

cxii + 378 pages, $3.50

The book consists mainly of the Old Greek Commentary on the Aves, collected and edited from six important manuscripts. The material, in detail, comprises a literal transcript of the Commentary found in Codex Venetus 474 of the eleventh century and beneath this a collation of the five other manuscripts (Codex Venetus 475, Codex Ravennas, Codex Laurentianus XXXI 15, Codex Estensis III D 8, Codex Ambrosianus L 39 sup.) and of the Princeps. On the opposite page, facing the transcript and the collation, are given the restored text and critical notes.

The Introduction, of one hundred pages, is a brief history of annotation with special reference to comedy. The book is amply indexed as follows: I, Index of Greek Words; II, Subject Index; III, Index of Authors.

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The average pupil reads his Caesar as unrelated daily assignments, without any real idea of the thread of the narrative or of Caesar's campaigns, or of the conditions of life in those far-off days. This book adds reality and interest to the daily Latin lesson.

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 NEW YORK, MARCH 4, 1918




It is past time to continue the quadrennial bibliography of the science of language, instalments of which have appeared in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 2.50-52 and 6. 114-116, and, even though completeness is impossible under present circumstances, it seems best to publish such information as can be gathered.

There are two recent American books on the general topic of linguistic science.

Leonard Bloomfield's An Introduction to the Study of Language (New York, 1914) boldly challenges comparison with Whitney's Life and Growth of Language, and in some respects the boast is justified, although the charm of Whitney's style has not been equaled. Professor Bloomfield's book is particularly valuable as a popularization of much of Wundt's Völkerpsychologie: I, Die Sprache a work of great importance, but very difficult reading for those who are not specialists in linguistics or psychology. For a review of the book, by Professor Bolling, see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 10. 166-168.

E. H. Sturtevant's Linguistic Change, An Introduction To The Historical Study of Language (Chicago, 1917) does not presuppose any knowledge, on the part of the reader, of linguistic science, psychology, or phonetics.

C. Bally's Le Language et la Vie (Paris, 1913) is a popularization of some generally accepted psychological and sociological theories of language. I have seen only the title of G. Baumann's Ursprung and Wachstum der Sprache (München, 1913).

The fourth edition of A. Meillet's masterly Introduction à l'Étude Comparative des Langues Indo-Européennes (Paris, 1915) contains some slight improvements over the third edition (1912).

The first instalment of the third part of volume two of Brugmann's Grundriss2 (Strassburg, 1913) begins the treatment of the verb and carries it through the discussion of the tenses. There remain for the concluding instalment of the entire work the moods, the personal endings, and the verbum infinitum.

H. Güntert's Über Reimwortbildungen im Arischen und Altgriechischen, Eine Sprachwissenschaftliche Untersuchung (Heidelberg, 1914), gathers a large number of analogical formations and suggests that this linguistic process should be invoked more frequently

No. 18

than has hitherto been usual (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 9.166–167).

The perennial quest for the origin of Indo-European gender is carried on by two books. De Josselin de Jong, De Waarderingsonderscheiding van "Levend" en "Levenlos" in het Indogermanisch Vergeleken met hetzelfde Verchijnsel in enkele Algonkin-talen, Ethopsychologische Studie (Leiden, 1912), would trace gender to an original distinction between living and lifeless objects, such as that which exists in Algonquin. H. Lommel's dissertation, Studien über Indogermanische Femininbildungen (Göttingen, 1912), proves that the use of -a as a faminine suffix belongs to a relatively late period in the development of the IndoEuropean parent speech, and supports the theory that this value of the suffix originated in the pronoun so:sā.

The tendency of E. W. Fay's work, Indo-European Verbal Flexion was Analytical, A Return to Bopp (Austin, Texas, 1913), is indicated by the title. Unfortunately Professor Fay's ingenious and often suggestive explanations of Indo-European formative elements are no more convincing than those which Bopp originally proposed. Guesses sometimes lead to the real advancement of science, but only in case they can be submitted to some kind of test; the origin of the Indo-European inflections is so far beyond our observation that in regard to it one guess is about as good as another.

A striking contrast to Professor Fay's work is furnished by Professor Walter Petersen's articles on The Origin of the Indo-European Nominal StemSuffixes (American Journal of Philology 37. 173-193, 255-281). The author shows in detail how several Indo-European suffixes may have originated in the analogical transfer of a stem-final from several words of similar meaning to new words of similar meaning much as English mine and thine beside my and thy have led to the vulgar forms hisn, hern, yourn, and theirn. He does not ask us to accept all of his suggestions as proven fact, but he argues that suffixes are observed to develop in this way more frequently than in any other, and that the vague force of many Indo-European suffixes is most easily explained by such an origin. It is therefore unreasonable to assume a purely conjectural compound as the source of a suffix, when several simple words of the required form and meaning are known to have existed.

Brugmann's article, Zur Geschichte der Hiatischen Verbalverbindungen in den Indogermanischen Sprachen

(Berichte über Verhandungen der Königlichen Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Phil. Hist. Klasse, 1913, 3 Heft, 141-218), is especially valuable for students of Greek, Latin, and Germanic.

I have not seen M. Schlossarek's Sprachwissenschaftlich-vergleichende Kasusbetrachtung im Lateinischen und Griechischen, eine Terminologisch-genetische Studie über den Ablativ, Genetiv, Dativ und ihren Synkretismus (Breslau, 1913), or W. Marcus's Zur Bildung der Intensive in den Altarischen Dialekten und im Griechischen (Leipzig, 1914).

E. Halter's Indogermanen, Sprache, Ursitz, Ausbreitung, auf Geologischer und Linguistischer Grundlage (Jena, 1913) does not properly distinguish hypothesis from proven fact. In spite of the author's learning and acumen the book is not reliable. Von Hagen's Die Indogermanen (Gütersloh, 1914) is an excellent compilation giving a brief summary of the current theories.

Much more important is S. Feist's Kultur, Ausbreitung, und Herkunft der Indogermanen (Berlin, 1913). The author's account of the first two topics named in his title is largely derived from the work of others, although he everywhere employs sound and independent criticism. Most praiseworthy is the importance attached to the influence of non-IndoEuropean speech and culture upon the nations of our family. The entire treatment is so cautious that one puts down the book with a wholesome realization that the subject is full of the utmost difficulties and uncertainties. Feist vigorously dissents from the theory, now popular in Germany, that the original home of the Indo-Europeans was in the Baltic region, and that the Germanic inhabitants of that region are their lineal descendents. He devotes a separate treatise, Indogermanen und Germanen (Halle, 1914), to a fuller exposition of his views on this point. The contention that the East is still the most probable source of IndoEuropean speech is sound, and many outside Germany will appreciate the rebuke.of the "nationale Eitelkeit" which seeks to make Germany the ultimate source of the greater part of civilized speech. Feist is probably correct also in his assertion that the great alterations of Germanic speech presuppose its transference at some period from one community to another; only foreigners, he thinks, would so completely change the sound and structure of a language. His detailed application of this theory to the mutation of consonants, the shift of the accent, and the decay of inflection is, however, too full of conjecture to be of value.

There is a new linguistic periodical, Indogermanisches Jahrbuch (Strassburg, 1913-), three volumes of which have been received in this country. It contains very complete bibliographies, accounts of philological meetings (those in the United States are reported by R. G. Kent), personal notices, and a few articles. The most important of the latter are one by A. Meillet on Le Tokharien and one by H. Reichelt on Das Nordarische, both in the first volume.


The study of two of the Asiatic Indo-European languages has been much facilitated by A. Meillet's Grammaire du Vieux Perse (Paris, 1915) and Altarmenisches Elementarbuch (Heidelberg, 1913). It goes without saying that both books are eminently practical and abreast of the best scholarship of the day. improve upon their predecessors, most notably in the increased attention paid to syntax. Of especial interest is Meillet's explanation of the grammatical blunders of the later Old Persian inscriptions; he says that these were written by clerks whose knowledge of the language was deficient, and whose mistakes remained uncorrected because few if any native Persians at that time understood the system of writing.

Recent years have brought several additions to our knowledge of Albanian. G. Weigand's Albanesische Grammatik im Südgegischen Dialekt (Leipzig, 1913) and Albanesisch-Deutsches und Deutsch-Albanesisches Wörterbuch (Leipzig, 1914) are intended chiefly as aids in learning the dialect of Durazzo and vicinity. Scientific linguists, however, may be grateful for the abundant new material thus made available, particularly as this dialect has hitherto been practically unknown. The dictionary contains valuable etymological suggestions. G. Reknezi, a native Albanian, has published a scientific comparative grammar entitled Grammatik der Albanesischen Sprache (Wien, 1908). M. Lamberg and Reknezi have published Lehr- und Lesebuch des Albanesichen (Wien, 1913), an introduction to the North Albanian literary language.

H. Pedersen's Vergleichende Grammatik der Keltischen Sprachen (Göttingen, 1911-1913) is now complete.

H. Collitz's Das schwache<Germanische> Präteritum und seine Vorgeschichte, in Hesperia I (Göttingen, 1912) scarcely brings the final solution of this problem, but contains many valuable suggestions on various points of Indo-European grammar.

Leo Wiener's Commentary to the Germanic Laws and Mediaeval Documents (Cambridge, Mass., 1915) is the first of two volumes in which the author plans to overturn many accepted dogmas of Germanic philology, among others the early date of the Gothic Bible. The volume is as unsound in method as it is pretentious in its claims and crude in style.

Joseph and Elizabeth Wright's Old English Grammar2 (Oxford, 1914) is convenient but, like Wright's other grammars, mechanical and inexact. The second edition of O. Jespersen's Growth and Structure of the English Language (Leipzig, 1912) is little changed from the first (1905) edition. An invaluable work for students of English and for all English-speaking students of language is O. Jespersen's A Modern English Grammar (Heidelberg, 1909-1914). The mass of carefully authenticated material which it contains is so skilfully classified that it tells its own story with a minimum of comment by the author.

The first volume of E. Bernecker's Slavisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (Heidelberg, 1908-1913)

is complete. Only the first fascicle of the second volume (extending to the article on morů) has been received.

A. Meillet's Aperçu d'une Histoire de la Langue Grecque (Paris, 1913) is the best introduction to the scientific study of the Greek language. It is furthermore one of the books that should be read by every student of Greek literature (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.45-46). Wackernagel's Über die Geschichte der Griechischen Sprache (Göttingen, 1913) is a discussion of selected topics, such as the importance of the dialects and of loan-words from the Aegean languages.

Brugmann's Griechische Grammatik has appeared in a fourth edition (München, 1913), revised by A. Thumb. The book is still the fullest and most trustworthy scientific Greek grammar (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 7. 103-104).

H. W. Smyth's A Greek Grammar for Schools and Colleges (New York, 1916) contains some excellent phonetic and morphological explanation. Although this part of the book is necessarily brief, it will to some extent do for Greek what Bennett's Latin Language and Niedermann's Latin Phonetics have done for Latin (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY II. 79-80).

W. Crōnert's new edition of Passow's Wörterbuch der Griecischen Sprache (Göttingen, 1912-) seemed to promise a new era in Greek lexicography; but even before the war it was estimated that sixty years would be required for the completion of the work. Only three parts (to ȧvá) have been received in this countrynone since 1914 (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 7. 121). E. Boisacq's excellent Dictionaire étymologique de la Langue Grecque (Heidelberg, 1907-1916) was brought to a conclusion just before the importation of books from Germany ceased.

V. Magnien's Le Futur Grec (Paris, 1912) contains a huge mass of material which is arranged first by a very satisfactory formal classification and then less skilfully according to meaning. The author's conclusions as to the origin of the Greek future will not be final.

Several works on Greek noun-formation have appeared. F. Eichhorn's dissertation, De Graecae Linguae Nominibus Derivatione Retrograda Conformatis (Göttingen, 1912), indicates some additional instances of retrograde derivation. Walter Petersen's The Greek Diminutive Suffix -KO-ισκη (New Haven, 1913) maintains the high level of excellence of the author's Greek Diminutives in -ov (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 4. 197-198). E. Fraenkel's Geschichte der Griechischen Nomina Agentis auf -rhp, -Twp, -rns (Strassburg, 1910-1912) is now complete, as is also E. H. Sturtevant's work, Studies in Greek Nounformation, Labial Terminations (Chicago, 1910-1913). The series to which the latter belongs has been continued by C. D. Buck's Dental Terminations, published in Classical Philology 12. 21-29, 173-189, 295-301, 13. 75-88.

F. Bechtel's Lexilogus zu Homer (Halle, 1914) is a collection of brief etymological articles of great value.

Kurt Witte contributes the article on Homer's language in Pauly-Wissowa 8. 2213–2247, in which he summarizes the views which he has developed in numerous articles. Witte thinks that the epic dialect was very largely determined by the requirements of the dactylic versea view which is as improbable as it is incapable of demonstration. At present many scholars agree with him, but surely so mechanical a theory will be shortlived. More significant than Witte's work is Wackernagel's Sprachliche Untersuchungen zu Homer (Glotta 7. 161-319), which brings proof of a hitherto unsuspected amount of Atticism in our text of Homer (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 9. 213).

Collitz and Bechtel's Sammlung Griechischer Dialekt-Inschriften (Göttingen, 1884-1915) has been completed by the publication of the additions, grammars, and indexes to the Ionic (P. Gärtchen and Otto Hoffmann, 1914) and to the Cretan and Sicilian inscriptions (E. Fraenkel and K. H. Meyer, 1915).

E. Rüsch's Grammatik der Delphischen Inschriften, erster Band, Lautlehre (Berlin, 1914) will, when finished, be a more complete statement of the facts than we now have for any dialect. C. Favre's Thesaurus Verborum quae in Titulis Ionicis Leguntur cum Herodoteo Sermone Comparatus (Heidelberg, 1914) is excellent on the epigraphical side, but it unfortunately ignores the literary Ionic except Herodotus (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 9. 7).

A. Maidhof, Zur Begriffsbestimmung der Koine besonders auf Grund des Attizisten Moiris (Würzburg, 1912), concludes that the word Kowý denoted a common language as distinguished from the standard language, namely Attic. The prevailing opinion that the kowý was by its speakers contrasted with local dialects and regarded as a general language appears to be incorrect.

R. M. Dawkins's Modern Greek in Asia Minor, a Study of the Dialects of Silli, Cappadocia, and Pharasa, with Grammar, Texts, Translations, and Glossary (Cambridge, 1916) gives us our first reliable knowledge of the Greek of Asia Minor outside of Pontic. S. Angus's translation of Thumb's Handbook of the Modern Greek Vernaculars (Edinburgh, 1912) is based upon the second German edition. There is an important review of the book by C. D. Buck in Classical Philology 9. 85-96, which contains a summary of the most important characteristics of the modern inflectional system as compared with that of the ancient language.

A. Gleye's Kretische Studien: I, Die Westfinnische Inschrift auf Diskus von Phaistos (Tomsk, 1912) is another mad interpretation of the Phaestus disc.

The new edition (zweite und dritte Auflage!) of F. Sommer's Handbuch der Lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre (Heidelberg, 1914) has been thoroughly worked over and almost every page shows improvements. The first edition is entirely superseded by this. A fuller discussion of 148 controversial points is relegated to a companion volume, Kritische Erläuterungen zur Lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre (Heidelberg,

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Max Niedermann's useful little manual, Historische Lautlehre des Lateinischen, has appeared in a second edition (Heidelberg, 1911). A. Ernout has tried, not very successfully, to apply Niedermann's method to Latin forms in his Morphologie Historique du Latin (Paris, 1914). A German translation by H. Meltzer appeared in the previous year, entitled Historische Formenlehre des Lateinischen (Heidelberg, 1913. For both books, see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 7. 199–200).

The second edition of W. M. Lindsay's A Short Historical Latin Grammar (Oxford, 1915) differs from the first chiefly in the correction of misprints and the softening of some over-confident statements. The most striking change in doctrine, to the effect that ae was a monophthong, is certainly incorrect. Although the first edition of the book appeared as long ago as 1895, the author did not realize the need of a thorough modernization of his treatment. It is to be hoped that some one will soon publish a usable historical Latin grammar in English. For a review of Lindsay's book see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 10. 188-190.

W. Kroll's collection of Kleine Schriften von Franz Skutsch (Leipzig, 1914) will be of great convenience for all students of Latin grammar. A review by E. W. Fay, in Classical Philology 10. 337 f., contains criticism of some of Skutsch's theories.

Walter Petersen's article on Latin Diminution of Adjectives (Classical Philology 11. 426–451, 12. 49–67) employs the excellent method of the same author's work on Greek diminutives.

The article by Professors Sturtevant and Kent on Elision and Hiatus in Latin Prose and Verse, Transactions of the American Philological Association 46. 129– 155, proves that elision involved the complete loss of the elided vowel and corrects certain statements in the handbooks regarding the prevalence of elision at various periods and in certain positions. See also E. H. Sturtevant's paper, Elision and Hiatus in Latin Prose and Verse, The Classical Journal, 12. 34-43. F. W. Westaway's Quantity and Accent in the Pronunciation of Latin (Cambridge, 1913) is utterly unreliable.

C. Juret's Dominance et Résistance dans la Phonétique Latine (Heidelberg, 1913) advocates radical changes in our current notions about Latin phonology. His views are not likely to win acceptance (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8. 22-23). A. Grenier's Étude sur la Formation et l' Emploi des Composés Nominaux dans le Latin Archaique (Paris, 1912) is better as regards the history of civilization than as regards grammarwhere it is very weak indeed.

There is great need of a Latin etymological dictionary briefer than Walde's Lateinisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch through the omission of numerous uncertain and unverifiable conjectures but free from the bewildering abbreviation, both of words and of thought, which makes Walde a sealed book to all who are without

technical training in comparative grammar. A. Zim

mermann announces an excellent plan for filling this need in the preface to his Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Lateinischen Sprache, hauptsächlich bestimmt für die Höhere Schulen und für Klassische Philologen (Hanover, 1915). Unfortunately Zimmermann's phonological ideas are loose, and consequently many of his etymologies are impossible. The book is peculiarly dangerous for precisely the people for whom it is intended as a guide, for its weakness concerns that part of the subject which they cannot check. I have not seen K. Meister's Lateinisch-Griechische. Eigennamen, I, Altitalische und Römische Eigennamen (Leipzig, 1916).

The most important recent contribution to the study of the Italic dialects is Danielsson and Herbig's publication of the Faliscan inscriptions in the Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum, Vol. 2, Par. 2, Fasc. 1 (Leipzig, 1912).

W. Meyer-Lübke's Romanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (Heidelberg, 1911-), which supersedes Körting's Lateinisch-Romanisches Wörterbuch, reached the article on tabella in 1914. No parts have been received since then. J. Brüch's Der Einfluss der Germanischen Sprachen auf das Vulgärlatein (Heidelberg, 1913) is a careful study of a difficult subject, which is important chiefly for Romance and Germanic philology. E. H. STURTEVANT.



It is commonly taken for granted that Horace (whether in jest or earnest) is speaking here1 from the Stoic standpoint2, the ravening beasts against which the virtuous man needs no defence being the ills of life in general. But neither integer vitae (with its almost negative implication) nor scelerisque purus seems to belong to the language of Stoicism with iustitia, temperantia, fortitudo, and sapientia as its cardinal virtues. Some special reference to these is expected (and even required), in the expression of the Stoic ideal. Moreover, the language here employed does not of itself indicate an exceedingly high degree of virtue. Integer (glossed by the scholiast with innocens) is used by Cicero3 to denote the same range of excellence as incorruptus, modestus, etc., while scelerisque purus indicates merely exemption from notable moral transgression. Such a man would be free from serious moral blemish, but by no means a paragon1.

Carmina 1.22.

2Hendrickson is an exception. See his article in The Classical Journal 5.250-258. Sorof's paper (which he mentions on page 252) I have not seen. Hendrickson's interpretation seems to me untenable, but it represents a wholesome reaction against the accepted view. In a similar mood of skepticism I once proposed, on the analogy of integer mentis, integer animi, etc., to take integer vitae ('whole in respect to life') as 'wholly human'. The happiness which could not be assailed was that which came (along with the preservation of a certain moral integrity) from giving expression to the human instincts and desires, of which love is the most important. The doctrine has sufficient wisdom, but is perhaps a little too sophisticated for Horace.

3De Finibus 1.21; Pro Plancio 1.3.

4Compare Tacitus, Dialogus 28.7 (of a well brought up child): integra et nullis pravitatibus detorta natura.

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