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The Classical Weekly



No. 17


By The Classical Association of the Atlantic States


A pamphlet of 40 pages, giving expressions of lawyers, physicians, journalists, engineers, scientists, educators and business men favorable to the Classics, as subjects having a direct meaning and use for those who plan to engage in various forms of practical life. Speaking from personal experience the men and women quoted in this pamphlet insist, unhesitatingly, that the study of the Classics is a rational way of fitting one's self for practical life. Copies may be obtained at the following rates:

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(2) Reprint, in the form of a 16 page pamphlet, from THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.178-182, of a paper by Professor Lane Cooper, Assistant Professor of English, Cornell University, entitled,

THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AND THE STUDY OF THE CLASSICS This paper contains a striking statement of the value, in a vital field, of a classical training. Every teacher of Latin' and Greek, especially Greek, should read what Professor Cooper has to say, and should set it before his pupils. Copies may be had at the following rates:

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BY ALBERT A. HOWARD, Professor of Latin, Harvard University

These selections illustrate life in the Roman Common-
wealth in the time of Cicero. No other book available
for the American College student can give such direct
insight into the whole political machinery of the Roman
Republic. The selections are drawn from the writings
of Caesar, Cicero, Pliny, Tacitus, Aulus Gellius, and
other writers, as well as from various edicts and legal
codes. $1.00.


70 Fifth Avenue


What you cannot find a substitute for is the classics.-WOODROW WILSON

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879




In the Baylor Bulletin 19.1-41, published by Baylor University, at Waco, Texas, in January, 1916, Professor J. W. Downer had an article entitled A Plea for Latin. After introductory remarks on the status of Latin in the United States (3-6), Professor Downer presents arguments for the study of Latin (6-12). This is followed by a consideration of the objections to the study of Latin (12-28).

In his discussion of the arguments for the study of Latin, Professor Downer begins (6) by quoting from the address given by Professor W. G. Hale at the laying of the cornerstone of the new Classics Building at the University of Chicago (The Classical Journal 10. 387-395):

Because they championed the rights of men, they <the professors of Latin in the Middle Ages> were called 'humanists'. In their triumph, Europe became humanistic. Thus classical education is not, as is so often thoughtlessly said, an inheritance from mediaevalism. It was the principal engine of revolt against mediaevalism. Classical education was the result of the victory of the free human spirit.

Professor Downer advances as the first and prime reason for the study of Latin its relation to our own English language. Here again he quotes with approval Professor Hale, from the same address:

We ought not, then, to think of our native speech as Anglo-Saxon, with some elements of Latin superimposed; we ought to think of it, and speak of it, as Anglo-Latin. If we call Anglo-Saxon the mother tongue of our race, then we should call Latin our father tongue.

Professor Downer holds (7) that the mastery of English grammar is attained by few without the study of Latin. Even greater than the value of Latin in the mastery of the structure of English sentences is its value in etymology and derivation of words. He insists also on the value of translation from Latin into English as an aid to the mastery of English expression (9-10). He passes on to emphasize "the mental development acquired by the mastery of" Latin, "or even by the partial mastery of the subject". In thus refusing to stand in awe of the term discipline as applied to the study of Latin, Professor Downer can cite nowadays considerable support, even from psychologists. Witness, for example, the quotation in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.113-114 from the paper contributed by Dr. Lawrence W. Cole, a psychologist, to the University of

No. 17

Colorado pamphlet on The Value of Latin and Greek. The views there expressed Professor Cole elaborated in a very excellent article, entitled General Intelligence and the Problem of Discipline, which was published in The Classical Journal 10.358-369. Encouraging too is the chapter, Generalized Experience, in the book entitled Psychology of High School Subjects, by Charles H. Judd, Professor of Education at the University of Chicago (Ginn and Company, 1915). The chapter covers pages 392-435. This chapter is particularly encouraging in view of the fact that Professor Judd is no special friend of the Classics (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 7.9-10, 17-18). Reference may also be made to an article entitled The Doctrine of General Discipline, by Professor Ernest C. Moore, of Harvard University, which appeared in Education for January, 1917, pages 312-324. There is some inconsistency in this paper, in statements of fact and theory both, and in the use of terms. It is a serious effort to belittle the doctrine of formal or general discipline: yet, against his will, the author says much in which the classicist finds comfort. In School and Society 2.378-385 (Vol. 2, No. 37), Professor Charles N. Moore, of the University of Cincinnati, in a valuable article entitled On Correlation and Disciplinary Values, points out that the "results" obtained by "anti-disciplinarians", Professor Thorndike among them, are vitiated by their ignorance of mathematics. Professor Moore's concluding paragraph is as follows:

Enough has been said here, however, to indicate that mathematical questions of some delicacy are involved in the interpretation of correlation results. That this has not prevented writers of little mathematical training, who had obtained correlation results by blindly following a given formula, from drawing sweeping conclusions from such results, only goes to show how little claim to scientific procedure the anti-disciplinarians have. It is evident from recent utterances that some of them are beginning to have an uneasy conscience with regard to the validity of their processes. It is to be trusted that they will go a little further in their admissions of error and frankly confess that they were not justified in drawing the conclusions they have drawn with regard to disciplinary values.

A more technical mathematical discussion of the subject, adverse to the anti-disciplinarians, appeared in Science 42.575-579 (No. 1086, October 22, 1915). In School and Society 6.767-770 Professor Moore returns to the subject, in a letter on The Inadequacy of Arguments against Disciplinary Values. In the Educational

Review, in a paper entitled Disciplinary Values, Professor Moore, had, in October last, championed the doctrine that

disciplinary values form a very important part of the benefits derived from education. This will be <demonstrated> in two ways, first by pointing out the weakness of the arguments directed against this position, second by presenting some of the important evidence in favor of it.

In the last named paper Professor Moore advises the psychologists who are so sure that no psychologist believes any longer in discipline and correlation, to follow their own advice to "study more closely the works of psychologists".

Professor Downer turns now to consider the objections to the study of Latin. Of the nineteen objections considered most are familiar. Professor Downer discusses them with admirable temper, admitting in more than one case that the criticisms are in large measure just. He appends a discussion of the deficiencies of the average College Freshman in Latin and the remedies therefor (28-40). For the fact that students of Latin on entering College do not know forms and syntax and cannot put simple Latin into intelligent English and are still less able to put simpler English into Latin, he finds two groups of causes: (1) causes due to the student, and (2) causes due to the teachers of Latin (31-40). Under the former head, he emphasizes the prejudice entertained by the majority of students from the outset against Latin. They acquire this prejudice because they hear so much on every hand said against the study of Latin. "Feeling this way about it, they naturally do not work hard enough to find out anything of value in the study of Latin" (30). Next (30–31) he deplores the use, or rather "abuse in the use", of translations by the great majority of students in preparing their Latin lessons. There is here a very serious difficulty, which Professor Downer does not blink. He points out, however, what is often forgotten or at least not mentioned by the opponents of the study of Latin, that students of languages other than Latin and Greek use translations. We have a parallel situation (30) also. . . <in> mathematics, in the sense that keys are used or at least help is gotten from other students better prepared. It is also true of written work in English and history that students get help from those who know more. It is true of all subjects in all schools in a greater or less degree.

To be sure the you-are-another argument has per se no great merit. But Professor Downer was justified in making the point in this particular connection, because of the insistence of the enemies of Latin on the idea that the use of translations by students of Latin minimizes or completely nullifies the supposed values of the study of Latin. In like manner, when a Professor of Education argues that the amount of time bestowed upon Latin in the Schools should be diminished because Latin is badly taught, it is quite fair to retort that his argument, logically pursued, means the elimination from the Schools of every subject now taught, or of every

subject that could by any possibility be included in the School curriculum, because in every subject there always have been, there always are, and there always will be poor teachers and poor students.

Professor Downer passes on to say (31) that "the main fault lies with the teacher rather than the student". Here he puts first and foremost the lack of the proper knowledge of Latin on the part of the great majority of the teachers in our Secondary Schools. If he is not at home in his subject, how can a teacher put any enthusiasm into his teaching or into his students? With a teacher who does not know Latin, who is unaware what its value is in an education, and a student who does not "like the stuff" anyhow, how could anyone expect students to be well prepared in Latin? His remarks on the measure of attainment proper for a decent teacher of Latin (32-33) are well worth reading. He assigns next as a very important reason for lack of success by teachers the failure on the part of the teachers, even those who know the subject, to realize what are the essential things to be taught. On page 33 we read:

We hear much these days of the ways of adding interest to the study of Latin. If we may take some teachers at what they say, the most of their time is taken up with the ways of making Latin interesting, and so they have little time to get to the real Latin in their teaching. Latin is interesting of itself, if the teacher has the knowledge and the knack to make the student see what is there.

One common hindrance to efficient teaching is, according to Professor Downer, to be found in the fact that many teachers allow students to dissociate the knowledge of the Beginners' book and the Latin Grammar from the proper interpretation of Latin in their future study (34-35). He makes some sane remarks (35-36) on the fact that many teachers take it for granted that their students know more than they in fact do and hence shoot in their teaching over the heads of their students.

This drill work of the preceding paragraphs is tedious and irksome to many teachers, and it is so much easier and more pleasant to shoot high, appear learned, and get the name of being an entertaining teacher. I have known teachers who could be led off into history, or mythology, or to some other hobby.

This mistake in teaching is made, he maintains, by many teachers also in the Colleges and the Universities.

Passing now to a consideration of the remedies for the deficiencies in Latin, Professor Downer maintains that the mere stating of the case, as a rule, suggests the remedy. If the great majority of Latin teacher are not properly equipped for doing thorough work in Latin, it is our business as Latin teachers to see that the standard is raised. Teachers in Colleges and High Schools should recommend for teaching positions in Latin only such persons as are really equipped. Teachers should be encouraged to do some graduate work, to make teaching a profession, to take pride in their work, and to see just what practical value Latin has in education. If they do these things, they will be filled with

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A curious and interesting history attaches itself to the names bestowed upon the various parts of the human body. Some belong to the Renaissance period; others go back to the time of Galen, i. e. to the first century of our era; others had their origin still farther back in the ancient classical world. In this inviting field, science and the Classics may happily go hand in hand. The old anatomists, in their endeavor to describe a structure, sought often for some familiar object by which to designate it, something that was both homely and appropriate. The result is that strange terminology of technical science which is at once the despair and the bugbear of the layman and the beginner. To let a name serve merely as a tag to a structure, however, and to neglect the allusion and the history which the name itself contains, is to miss half the delight in the work. A student of the Classics, too, may find it not unworthy of his time thus to contemplate the lineaments of his being.

Two sheets of tissue invest the delicate structure of the brain, protecting and nourishing it as a mother might her child. This, at least, was the way the ancient Arabic anatomists viewed it, and they called one by a name later rendered into Latin by dura mater. Their name for the inner, closely investing, sheet of nourishing blood vessels was later translated by pia mater. Between these two membranes is a tissue of threads and strands like a cobweb; hence its Greek designation, ¿paxvoelds, 'like a cobweb'.

For the parts of the brain there is a wonderful array of picturesque terms. Its outer surface of gray matter is the cortex. This sheet of 'bark' is folded and crumpled into a strange and characteristic pattern. Each curve of the folding is a gyrus, 'ring'. Between the folds are the 'furrows', sulci. In ordinary language we speak of these as 'convolutions' and 'fissures'. The globe of the brain is divided into two hemispheres, and in the fissure between them the dura mater, curved like a sickle, forms the falx, its front end fastened to a bony knob that looks like the comb of a cock and so is called crista galli. The horizontal stretch of dura mater between the cerebrum and the cerebellum is the tentorium, or tent-like cover. Four rounded bodies joined closely together and lying deep in the center of the brain are the corpora quadrigemina. In front of them is a curious structure, shaped like a pine cone, the 'pineal' body,

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which the ancients regarded as the seat of the soul. In the base of each hemisphere is a mass of gray matter, out of which the optic nerve was supposed to emerge. The old anatomists likened this hidden structure to a room in a house, and hence called it thalamus. A patch of gray matter hidden deep in the hemisphere is called the claustrum. The posterior inner tubercle of the thalamus is the pulvinar, ‘cushion'. Between the two thalami is a space, the third 'ventricle'. The term 'ventricle' is applied to several such enclosed hollow areas throughout the body. Arching over this third ventricle is a band of fibers, the fornix, 'arch'. The floor of the third ventricle falls into a funnel-like structure, the infundibulum, at the bottom of which is the pituitary body, so called from the ancient supposition that this structure secreted phlegm (compare Latin pituitarius). Leading back from the third to the fourth ventricle is a passage known as the iter e tertio ad quartum ventriculum; it is sometimes called the Aqueduct of Sylvius. A curious fold of gray matter plunges down toward the base of each hemisphere, which, from its fancied resemblance to a fish called the sea-horse, received the name of Hippocampus. At the bottom of the great fissure separating the two hemispheres is a band of tough fibres which the old anatomists called, on account of its hardness as compared with the surrounding brain matter, the corpus callosum.

Many other strange and interesting names applied to various parts of the brain might be enumerated, e. g. the nidus hirundinis, or the spur-like 'calcarine' fissure, or the bordering 'limbic' lobe (compare Latin limbus).

From the brain one passes quite naturally to a consideration of the skull, a word derived from an old English dialectic source. The word calvarium, the top or dome of the skull (compare Latin calvaria, ‘skull') is of interest in relation to the word Calvary. Of the bones that form the skull, the 'parietals' are walls. These are 'occipital' (compare Latin occiput), or 'temporal' (compare Latin tempora). The 'sphenoid' is a curious bone wedged in the base between the others (compare σønvolds, 'wedge-like'). The 'ethmoid' is a sieve-like bone (compare ouós, a 'strainer') through which the olfactory nerves pass to the nose. Other terms are 'malar' (compare Latin mala), and the 'mandible', the lower jaw (compare late Latin mandibula, from mandere, 'to masticate'). 'Genial' 'relating to the chin', is from Latin gena. The 'turbinal', a scroll or wheel-like bone in the nose, reminds us of Latin turbo. The bar of bone that forms the side of the cheek, connecting the temporal with the malar, is the 'yoke'; (zygoma, júywμa); the two bones were thought of as yoked together. The eye socket, from its circular rim, is called the 'orbit' (compare Latin orbis). The hairless space between the eyebrows is the 'glabella' (compare Latin glaber, 'smooth'). The top of the head is indicated by a Greek term, bregma. Here, in infancy, a deficiency of bone formation leaves a space in which the pulsing of the blood flow to the brain may be seen and felt; this pulsing has given rise to the name 'fontanelle'

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