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THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Mondays from October 1 to May 31 inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or School holiday, at Barnard College, Broadway and 120th St., New York City.

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I. The CUM Constructions: their history and functions, by William Gardner Hale. Parti:
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By CHARLTON T. LEWIS, PH. D., author of a Latin Dictionary for Schools,
and editor of Harper's Latin Dictionary. With an Appendix of Names of Persons
and Places, compiled by HUGH MAC MASTER KINGERY, PH. D., Professor
of the Latin Language and Literature, Wabash College.

The new edition of this popular small dictionary has been considerably increased by the addition of an Appendix of 77 pages containing the names of persons and places met in the Latin authors commonly studied in the first two years of the College course.

In prose the following authors and works have been added: The De Senectute, the De Amicitia and selections from the Letters of Cicero; Books I, XXI, and XXII of Livy entire, with the portions of other books contained in Burton's Selections; selections from the Letters of Pliny; and the Annals, Histories, Agricola, and Germania of Tacitus. In verse the following works are included: all of Catullus, Horace, and Terence; the eight plays of Plautus most generally read; and all the selections in Harrington's edition of the Roman Elegiac Poets.

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879

VOL. XI

NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 4, 1918

ROMAN PERSONAL NAMES1 Romans usually had three names-the nomen or tribe name, the cognomen or family name, and the praenomen or personal name. There is a history for each of these, both individually and in combination with the others. We shall not, however, attempt to give that history in full, but shall merely present an outline of four chapters: I. The Names used by Writers; II. The Origin of the Names; III. The Changes in Names; and IV. The Names of Women.

I. The Names Used by Writers

When we examine the Classical Dictionary, we find that, of nine men who are mentioned of the Lentulus family, eight have four names; so also eight of ten of the Metellus family. Of twenty-two Scipios, four have three names, fourteen four, three five, and one six, if we count Minor as a separate name in Publius Cornelius Aemilianus Africanus Minor. But three was the normal number, at least for one period, and only when, by reason of his strength, physical or mental, a man had done something worthy of note, was it proper for him to add another, as an indication of what he had done. Examples are Africanus, Asiaticus, Macedonicus, Numidicus, indicating the country which had been conquered. However, not all the additional names were developed in this way. Scipio Nasica got his additional name from his nose, Metellus Sura from his leg, and Lentulus Spinther from his bracelet.

The answer to the question, Which names did writers use?, is not the same for all generations, not the same for Ammianus Marcellinus as for Tacitus, not entirely the same for Tacitus as for Caesar, and not the same for the different works of Caesar.

In the Gallic War are mentioned two men whose names are frequently associated, Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta and Quintus Titurius Sabinus. The former of these is referred to by Caesar in five different ways: Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta, Lucius Cotta, Lucius Aurunculeius, Cotta, and Aurunculeius. In the case of the other, one form, Quintus Sabinus, is lacking. In other words, we find these variations used: the praenomen with the nomen and the cognomen, as well as with both separately, and also both these without

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the praenomen. The names of other men are not given with the same fulness. We find M. Caelius Rufus, M. Rufus, and Caelius, but only T. Labienus and Labienus, G. Trebonius and Trebonius. The combination nomen and cognomen is the only one that is lacking, but this is found in the Civil War. There is thus a distinct difference of usage in the two works.

The usage of Tacitus is sharply contrasted with that of Caesar in the Gallic War. He uses three names only in Ann. 12.41.1 Ti. Claudio quintum Servio Cornelio Orfito consulibus; and possibly in Ann. 2.1.1 Sisenna Statilio [Tauro] T. Libone consulibus. According to W. Schulze, Zur Geschichte Lateinischer Eigennamen, 491 (Berlin, 1904), in the case of about 700 men for whose designation Tacitus uses two names, the nomen and the cognomen are found in more than two-thirds of the number. Yet this does not indicate that it took all the time between Caesar and Tacitus to develop this usage, for it was well known to Horace (Schulze, 494). He has Crispe Sallusti in Odes 2.2.3, and a dozen other examples in the Sermones and the Epistulae. After Horace there was considerable irregularity in method, as can be seen from a few references in Velleius, Paterculus to the consuls:

1.10.6 Fulvii Flacci et Postumii Albini; 1.14.6 Q. Fabio Decio Mure; 1.14.8 Torquato Sempronioque; 1.15.2 Cn. autem Manlio Volsone et Fulvio Nobiliore.

The best illustrative passage is that taken by Schulze, 493, from Pliny, Epp. 5.3.5-6:

An ego verear (neminem viventium, ne quam in speciem adulationis incidam, nominabo), sed ego verear ne me satis deceat quod decuit M. Tullium, C. Calvum, Asinium Pollionem, M. Messallam, Q. Hortensium, M. Brutum, L. Sullam, Q. Catulum, Q. Scaevolam, Servium Sulpicium, Varronem, Torquatum, immo Torquatos, C. Memmium, Lentulum Gaetulicum, Annaeum Senecam, Lucanum et proxime Verginium Rufum. Inter quos vel praecipue numerandus est P. Vergilius, Cornelius Nepos, et prius Ennius Acciusque.

Here there are three types of statement; yet they are not used haphazard. The names for the old writers had long been established, as is shown by Horace, Epp. 2.1.55 ff., Serm. 1.5.40, 1.10.81 ff. When Pliny wrote Ennius Acciusque, he was merely true to the type that had been developed, as also with the other two sets. As far back as the time of Valerius Maximus and Velleius Paterculus, the designation Asinius Pollio, or the reverse, had been established. Seneca, Quin

tilian, as well as Tacitus have the same form; see the Dialogus De Oratoribus 38.15 exceptis orationibus Asinii, quae ab ipso tamen Pollione habitae.

Tacitus also has Lentulus Gaetulicus, Annaeus Seneca, and Verginius Rufus, and these may be taken as the recognized forms for the generation of Pliny. The use of the praenomen with the names of the men of old seems to have about it an air of dignity; for this reason it is sometimes retained even when it is not needed to distinguish definitely the individual from others having the same nomen. At least the rule seems to be, the nomen for writers, the nomen with the praenomen for men of old, and the nomen with the cognomen for men of Pliny's generation. This holds true also for Tacitus, Dialogus De Oratoribus. The four speakers are Curiatius Maternus, Iulius Secundus, Vipstanus Messalla, and M. Aper, who, being a Gaul, had no tribe name. The names of ten others with whom these four were in touch are given, sometimes in reverse order, as Secundus Pomponius, 13.10; Marcellus Eprius, 8.1; Crispus Vibius, 8.2. We also find the praenomen in a few other passages.

The retention of the praenomen for politeness's sake, or to retain the color of antiquity, is well shown by Fronto and by Gellius. The former (in Naber's edition, pages 113-114) gives one name to each of eleven Greeks and fifteen Romans, and has also Tullius

Cicero; but, for him, Cicero is usually M. Cicero or M. Tullius. The latter is the only designation he uses for Cicero in characterizations (pages 63, 125, 221): M. Tullium, qui caput atque fons Romanae facundiae cluet M. Tullius summum supracmumque os Romanae linguae fuit. Nunc, ut orationem istam M. Tulli paucis commendem: mihi profecto ita videtur, neminem umquam neque Romana neque Graecorum lingua facundius in concione populi laudatum, quam Cn. Pompeius . . . laudatus est.

Gellius, in 2.26.1, has M. Fronto; in 1.24.1, Cn. Naevii, Plauti, M. Pacuvii; in 13.2.1, M. Pacuvio et L. Accio.

Good illustrations of the force of the praenomen, as dignifying the persons so named, can also be seen in Apuleius, De Magia 66.538:

Neque autem gloriae caussa me accusat, ut M. Antonius Cn. Carbonem, C. Mucius A. Albutium, P. Sulpicius Cn. Norbanum, C. Furius M. Aquilium, C. Curio Q. Metellum.

Contrast with this De Magia 95.589, where the greater emphasis is placed on the work of his friend:

Quamcumque orationem struxerit Avitus, ita illa erit undique sui perfecte absoluta, ut in illa neque Cato gravitatem requirat, neque Laelius lenitatem neque Gracchus impetum nec Caesar calorem nec Hortensius distributionem nec Calvus argutias nec parsimoniam Sallustius nec opulentiam Cicero, prorsus inquam, ne omnia persequar, si Avitum audias, neque additum quicquam velis neque detractum neque autem aliquid commutatum.

About 390 A.D., Ammianus Marcellinus wrote his History, covering the period from Nerva to the death of Valens. It is the last word on Roman history, and

gives the final form of the development of Roman names, at least for members of the military class. In this work there are few indications of the existence of a praenomen. More than 90 per cent. of the men have but one name. Most of those who have two are Romans of the good old days, men whose names had been consecrated in history-Appius Claudius, Camillus Furius, Domitius Corbulo. In the case of some of these the arrangement is a matter of interest, as in 14.6.8 Censorius Cato; 28.4.21 Cato Porcius; 28.3.9 Cursor Papirius (but in reverse order in 30.8.5).

Once upon a time all roads led to Rome, and, though this had ceased to be literally true, along all roads of the Empire men poured into the Roman army. Even without other evidence, we can tell the character of the army from the names given by Ammianus. Long before the fourth century A. D., Juvenal (3.62–65) had bewailed the fact that the Syrian Orontes had poured into the Tiber its language and its customs. The stream of foreign influence had never ceased, and the general color of the names can be seen from those of some of the tribunes: 18.6.12 Abdigidus; 18.8.10 Aiadelthes; 15.4.10 Arintheus; 14.11.14 Bainobaudes; 27.2.6 Balchobaudes; 26.9.8 Barchalba;. 30.1.11 Barzimeres; and, to close the list, in 27.8.2, Provertuides. These indicate something of the extent to which the brain and the brawn of barbarians had won a recognized place in the army, and show that the scepter de facto if not in nomine had passed from the Romans.

There is little need of a second name for others, except occasionally to indicate the country from which the person came, as in 15.5.33 Boniti

Franci;

22.1.2 Aprunculis Gallus; 23.1.2 Alypius Antiochensis; 23.2.3 Heliopoliten quendam Alexandrum; 31.12.16 Bacurius Hiberus quidam. The fulness of expression is noticeable in 14.7.8 Eusebius ab Emissa Pittacas cognomento; and in 19.12.12 Demetrius itidem Cythras cognomento. Of non-Romans with more than one name there are but few; see, however, 29.2.22 Festinus quidam Tridentinus, and the most noteworthy of all, 27.6.14, Eupraxius Caesariensis Maurus, 'Weldon, the Moor from Caesarea'. Names beginning with Euare common-the sign of their Greek origin. There are some which we should not expect to find: 30.1.11 Danielius; 19.9.2 Iacobus; 28.1.44 Esaias.

The closing words of this section may well be those of Ammianus. He states (16.10.5-6) the impression made on a Roman Emperor when he visited Rome in 356 A.D.:

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