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philosopher, the poet. In this study the author treats Empedocles's life, personality, and works, the history of the text, translations, ideas and poetry.

One paragraph in this part of the work deserves special mention (10):

He was a true poet. There is first the grandeur of his conception. Its untruth of the intellect of to-day should not blind us to its truth and power for the imagination, the same yesterday, to-day, and perhaps forever. Indeed, Milton, Dante, Hegel, Goethe argue greater things for the mind than any truth, however ingeniously discovered in the petty world of facts.

In the statement that an idea may be imposing even for the intellect where the intellect repudiates the validity of that idea, the author is reminding us that, if man were only what we call intellect, ideas such as we know them to be would never be formed at all. It is an undetermined factor as yet, but instinct must be reckoned with as a necessary factor in the formation of ideas, as some of the modern apostles of science are attempting to show.

Following a brief Bibliography are the fragments On Nature, then those On Purifications, and at the end are the Notes. The fragments number 153 and are arranged according to the order of Diels's Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. In each instance the fragment is given in full and is followed immediately by the metrical translation. The task of rendering in metrical English any of the ancient poets is difficult. Empedocles is particularly difficult because of the often obscure nature of the subject-matter, and because of the very frgamentary character of his works as they have come down to us. An instance of these difficulties may be seen in the condensed and obscure style of Fragment 15, which is rendered thus:

No wise man dreams such folly in his heart,
That only whilst we live what men call life
We have our being and take our good and ill,
And ere as mortals we compacted be,
And when as mortals we be loosed apart,
We are as nothing.

In the notes on this fragment the author quotes Zeller in substantiation of the claim that there is here no affrmation of the immortality of the psychic life. It would seem quite consistent, however, to consider this fragment such an affirmation, especially since elsewhere Empedocles plainly teaches that the soul of man is immortal and survives the death of the body (compare Frag. 115), and that even the philosopher himself claimed to have enjoyed a prior existence in various forms of life upon the earth (Fragg. 117–121).

Another instance of these difficulties is found in Fragment 4, in which the philosopher urges that in the process of perception one sense must not be trusted more than another, but that all the members in which there is a 'way of knowledge' must be trusted. And it is true, as the author points out in the notes on this fragment, that Aristotle, De Anima 3.3.427A, says καίτοι γε ἀρχαῖοι τὸ φρονεῖν καὶ τὸ αἰσθάνεσθαι ταὐτὸν εἶναί φασιν, ὥσπερ καὶ Εμπεδοκλῆς εἴρηκε “πρὸς παρεὸν γὰρ μήτις

ἀέξεται ἀνθρώποισιν", but the very fragment itself calls for a judgment by the mind between the senses and therefore assumes a criterion of truth above the senses, and Aristotle's comment is not out of keeping with this when taken in connection with his main contention that 'thought and intelligence are commonly regarded as a kind of perception, since the soul in both of these judges and recognizes something existent'. Aristotle here does not seem to confine alo@áver dat entirely to the world of sense. Furthermore, statements in Fragments 2, 3, and 105 go to show that there are certain functions of the mind which belong to it quite independently of sense. This interpretation, too, was held by the later writers (compare Sextus Empiricus, Adversus Mathematicos 7.122).

The longest and probably the most difficult passage in Empedocles is Fragment 17. Here the cosmic process is said to be a double process, the formation of unity from diversity, and the breaking up of this unity into diversity. Love and Hate are said to be the moving causes in this process. This is the ever-alternating process of becoming and ceasing to be. Each new thing is the result of a union of elements derived from the breaking down of some previous combination of elements. There are thus four periods in the revolution of being: two extremes, 'the sphere' and complete dissolution, and two means, the intermediate periods in this cycle. As others have pointed out, this present world of ours can have place in such a cosmic scheme only in the second or in the fourth period, that is, this present orderly array could come into and have being either in the period of successive separation or in that of successive recombination, but not in either of the other periods. The two possible periods in which our world could exist are the periods in which, in the one case, hate predominates in the cosmic order but love is not entirely excluded, and, in the other, love predominates but hate is not wholly eliminated. This developing of a unity out of the original cosmic chaos is at one with the doctrine of the early Pythagoreans. But the remainder of their cosmic process was simpler than that of Empedocles, since with the Pythagoreans the process of unit-forming, after the first unity was formed, proceeded continuously until the present orderly universe was set in array.

In our judgment, one of the best pieces of work in the book is that on Fragment 84, in which the philosopher sets forth his fanciful idea about the function of the eye in the sense of sight, and which the author translates as follows:

As when a man, about to sally forth,
Prepares a light and kindles him a blaze
Of flaming fire against the wintry night,
In horny lantern shielding from all winds;
Though it protect from breath of blowing winds,
Its beam darts outward, as more fine and thin,
And with untiring rays lights up the sky:
Just so the Fire primeval once lay hid
In the round pupil of the eye, enclosed

And thus kept off the watery deeps around,
Whilst Fire burst outward, as more fine and thin.

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Ten years ago, when I was teaching Latin and Greek in the Carnegie High School, I came in touch with the inspiring influence of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States and The Classical Association of the Middle West and South. I had visions of a similar organization in Pittsburgh which would include all who were fond of the Classics in Western Pennsylvania, the extreme Eastern part of Ohio, and Northern West Virginia. I thought such an organization would help to unify the interests of classical teachers, and develop a larger appreciation of classical literature, and that it would at the same time be a distributing center for a more general knowledge of the happenings in the world which are of significance to classical students.

After pondering these things, I wrote to Professor H. S. Scribner, of the Greek Department of the Western University of Pennsylvania (now the University of Pittsburgh), concerning the formation of such a Classical Association. He undertook to interest the College. faculties of the community and I sought to reach the teachers in the Secondary Schools.

We had sufficiently encouraging response to justify our calling a meeting.


The following persons met in the Pittsburgh Academy, on May 25, 1907: Mr. Charles Coffin, Allegheny High School; Miss Sara Covert, Homestead High School; Mr. Dougherty, Avalon High School; Miss Ethel Fitzsimmons, Coraopolis High School; Griffiths, Avalon High School; Miss Loretta Mitchell, Fifth Street School; Miss Elizabeth Minor, Central High School; N. Anna Petty, Carnegie High School; Miss Martha Sanford, Sheridan High School; Professor H. S. Scribner, Western University of Pennsylvania; Miss Effie Sloan, Bellevue High School; Mr. W. L. Smith, Allegheny High School; Mr. Spiker, Munhall High School; Mrs. Lyda Williams, Homestead High School. Professor Scribner was elected temporary President and the writer Secretary pro tempore. Many enthusiastic speeches were made favoring a permanent organization.

Our next meeting was held on November 9, 1907. Thirteen persons were present, six of whom were not at the first meeting: Messrs. A. A. Hays and R. B. English of Washington and Jefferson College, Miss D. E. Lovejoy, of the Pennsylvania College for Women, Mr. McCullough, of Allegheny High School, Mr. J. B. Hench, of Shadyside Academy, and Miss Ruth R.

'This account is condensed from a letter sent by Miss Petty, then President of the Association, to the joint meeting of The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity and The Classical Associa tion of the Atlantic States, held at the University of Pittsburgh, April 27-28, 1917. Miss Petty was absent on leave, and a student then, at Columbia University. It is a pleasure to be able to publish so good a record as this letter contains.

C. K.

Ealy, of Homestead. At this meeting A. A. Hays, W. L. Smith and N. Anna Petty were appointed to draft a constitution. It was unanimously agreed that Saturday morning was the best time for our meetings. The first officers of the Association were as follows: Professor H. S. Scribner, First Vice-President; A. A. Hays, Second Vice-President; N. Anna Petty, Secretary-Treasurer.

The first lecture before the Association was given that same month, on November 23, by Dr. R. B. English, of Washington and Jefferson College, on The Roman Forum in 1906. At that meeting the constitution was adopted. The object of The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity was set forth as follows: "To create a larger appreciation of classical literature, to encourage more efficient instruction, and to unify the interests of classical teachers".

On January 11, 1908, Dr. Elliott, of Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa., gave an illustrated lecture on A Day at Old Troy with Dörpfeld's Party.

In February, 1908, an invitation was extended to Dr. Charles Knapp, of Columbia University, to address the Association in the following April. Dr. Knapp is the godfather of the Association. From its very inception he has cheered us on, freely given suggestions, and published reports in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY of all our meetings. He gave an illustrated lecture on The Roman Theater, in April, 1908. Again, when the Association met at Washington and Jefferson College in February, 1910, Dr. Knapp spoke on Some Phases of Roman Business Life as Seen in Horace. In April, 1914, he gave us a paper entitled References to Literature in Plautus and Terence.

The following list of papers read at our meetings shows the place of Greek in the programmes of The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity:

An address by Dr. Riddle, in May, 1908, Dost thou know Greek?; Professor Scribner's paper, Position of Women in Ancient Greece and Rome; Dr. Kelso's lecture, in February, 1999, The Attic Theater of the Fifth Century (a discussion of the Agamemnon of Aeschylus); a paper by Professor Hamilton Ford Allen, of Washington and Jefferson College, in December, 1909, on Positions taken by the Ships in the Battle of Salamis; in 1910, a paper by Dr. Hussey on Plato's Ideals as given in the Republic, and Dr. Kelso's address on Hellenistic Greek; in 1911 Professor Edward B. Capps, of Princeton University, lectured on Some Aspects of Greek Comedy; in 1912 Professor Allen presented an account of Recent Notable Finds in Greek Manuscripts. In 1913, Professor Scribner read a paper on The Influence of Homer on Education, and Principal Maurice Hutton, of University College, Toronto, Canada, spoke on The Wit and Wisdom of Herodotus. In 1914 Professor Scribner spoke on The Art of Euripides. In 1916 Professor Charles Edward Bishop, of the University of West Virginia, gave a paper on Greek Comedy, and Professor Scribner brought The Message of Greek Vases.

That the pedagogical side of the programme has not been neglected in the past ten years the following list of subjects presented will prove: Vergil in the Secondary School; Ancient, particularly Greek and Roman, History; Prose Composition in School and College; Preparatory Classics; Some Ways to Vitalize High School Latin; Symposium: What should the High School Teacher know about the Classics?; How to improve present Conditions; Recent Achievements in Standardization of Secondary Latin Work; debate on Should all Students in Academic High Schools be required to study Latin?; The Direct Method as used by Dr. W. H. D. Rouse, and a practical Demonstration

of the Same; A Roman School of ancient Times; The Relation of the Classical Teacher to the Community; Non-Essentials in teaching First Year Latin; Should Latin be taught in the Seventh and Eighth Grades?; Saving Greek in College; A Comparison of the Dido of Vergil and the Medea of Apollonius Rhodius; Teachers' Courses in the Classics as they are (1) at the University of California, (2) at Columbia University, (3) at the University of Pittsburgh, (4) as they should be in the light of educational theory.

Special lectures have been of such general interest as to attract many outside the teaching fold, persons interested in classical literature. Here belong the lectures by Dr. Knapp, and some mentioned under Greek subjects, beside the following: Dr. Paul Shorey's lecture on Nature Faking in Antiquity; The Practical Value of Classical Research, by Dr. B. L. Ullman, of the University of Pittsburgh; What is there in it for me? by Superintendent Andrews, of New York City; Printers and Publishers in Ancient Rome, by Dr. Evan T. Sage, of the University of Pittsburgh; Europe Ancient and Modern in the Throes of War, by Dr. R. B. English, of Washington and Jefferson College; Reminiscences of a Latin Professor,by Dr. J. C. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania; Linguistics in Literature and Classical Studies, by Dr. George P. Bristol, of Cornell University; The Life of a Roman Woman, by Dr. W. B. McDaniel, of the University of Pennsylvania.

Within the past year the printed programme has been expanded to include information about all local events which are of interest to classical students.

Permit me to say in closing that it is the realization of a pleasant dream that The Classical Association of the Atlantic States is with us to-night, in the celebration of our tenth birthday. I trust that after these happy experiences every member of The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity will become enrolled with The Classical Association of the Atlantic States. Here's to both Associations. Long may they live and grow in fruitful cooperation.



En, libertatis filii,

reges et regna concidunt; tyrannus odit et timet, lux libertatis emicat.

Supplex et instans patria “Quousque tandem perferam minas et vim, quaeso, hostium? ad arma", clamat, "surgite!"

E vallibus, de montibus, ex agris, campis omnibus auditur vox iurantium: "Venimus, sancta patria".

Libertas, o regina, mox fac splendeat ius gentium; solvas servorum vincula, tyranni nomen perduis!

En, libertatis filii,

reges et regna concidunt! Ubique gentes clamitant: "Lux libertatis emicet!”

1The verse is iambic dimeter. In the last line of stanza foui, perduis is archaic for perdas. The stanzas may be sung to the tune, Missionary Chant, to be found in Church hymnals.

Look up, ye sons of liberty,

Proud empires totter to their fall;
The lowering tyrant shrinks aghast

That freedom's beacon shines for all.
Our country stands with hands outstretched:
"How long", she cries, "must I endure
The outrage of a ruthless foe?

Who will by arms my peace assure?"

From forest glen, from mountain steep,
From field and heath, from far and near
Is heard the pledge of loyalty:

"Fear not; we come, O country dear".
Fair freedom, 'neath they queenly sway
Be human rights not long delayed;
Strike of the fetters of the serf,
The despot hurl to nether shade!
Look up, ye sons of liberty,

Proud empires totter to their fall!
The shout united rends the sky:
"Let freedom's beacon shine for all!"

THE SOURCE OF A TACITEAN EPIGRAM It has long been recognized that not all the pithy sayings in Tacit is are of Tacitean authorship. E. Norden has pointed out that the well known expression in Historiae 1.81, cum timeret Otho, timebatur, is to be found in Plutarch, Otho 3, and earlier in Cicero, De Republica 2.45, in a fuller form (see E. Norden, Die Antike Kunstprosa, 1.341, and Nachträge, 16; Schanz, in Müller's Handbuch 2.2, page 319).

To Cicero's works may be traced the source of another, perhaps even more famous, epigram of Tacitus, in Historiae 1.2, et quibus deerat inimicus, per amicos oppressi. A turn of phrase very similar to this was used by Servius Sulpicius Rufus: see Cicero, Ad Fam. 4.12.2 et cui inimici propter dignitatem pepercerant, inventus est amicus qui ei mortem offerret. The similarity of the two statements is evident. Not only is there the same antithesis, but there is the same order of clauses-the relative preceding the main clause. The effective condensation of the passage in Tacitus is worthy of notice.

It would perhaps be overbold to claim that Tacitus found the expression in Sulpicius's letter (though that is quite possible), or to claim that Sulpicius was the first to use it. It is, however, quite clear that the epigram is not original with Tacitus, but was current at least 150 years earlier. UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA.


In THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 9.105-106 I called attention to the work of the Publicity Committee of the Wisconsin Latin Teachers' Association. Since that time the Committee has published a pamphlet of ten pages, entitled Is High School Latin a Valuable Basis for Work in the University? The pamphlet contains answers to this question from men representing sixteen departments of the University of Wisconsin. The departments speaking in favor of Latin include English, History, Ancient and Modern, Philosophy, Pharmacy, Political Economy, Journalism, Zoology, Mathematics, Law, and Chemistry.

Copies of the pamphlet may be had from the Chairman of the Committee, Leta M. Wilson, Madison High School, Madison, Wisconsin, at a nominal charge of three cents per copy.

C. K.

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THE LATIN GAMES Game of the Latin Noun, new; may be played by all grades including beginners. Price, 50 cents.

Verb Games, a series of five games, each 29c.; 1 and 2, on principal parts; 3 and 4, on verb forms; No. 5, on verb terminations. Game of Latin Authors. Price, $1.04.

These games always please and profit; are highly recommended by teachers and pupils. Any or all sent postpaid on receipt of price. Stamps accepted.

THE LATIN GAME CO., Appleton, Wis.

THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Mondays from October 1 to May 31 inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legalor School holiday, at Barnard College, Broadway and 120th St., New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the language, the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY) are two dollars. The territory covered by the Association includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia. Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is two dollars per year. If affidavit to bill for subscription is required, the fee must be paid by the subscriber. Subscribers in Canada or other foreign countries must send 30 cents extra for postage.

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