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be a living commentary on the system which he teaches; and should not only assert but demonstrate the Gospel to be the power of God unto salvation. He should exemplify it in his own person, not as a mere speculative theory, but as an actual life. It is only by his personal holiness he can have a good report of them that are without, and act with benefit upon that exterior circle self-excluded from his pastoral ministrations: but which, without the word, might be impressed and won by his holy conversation and godliness. It may refuse to hear the word, but cannot refuse to see the visible manifestation of the Gospel, known and read of all men, in his daily walk. Without this evidence of a sincere value for the blessings which he obtrudes upon others, to account for, and justify, controversial zeal, his busy efforts to convert men to his creed must be to them either unintelligible or insulting. And it may perhaps, more than is imagined, provoke the high indignation of Almighty God as a presumptuous touching of the ark, a flippant intermeddling with, a profane intrusion into, most serious and sacred things.

And as, without holiness, he cannot reach that exterior circle which is without the pale of his official ministrations, so neither can he act beneficially upon that interior circle which is within it, and which contemplates him, not merely in his public duties, but in the privacies of domestic life. Holiness alone can render the pastor a fitting instrument to sanctify his own household, and to attempt, with any reasonable hope of success, the fulfilment of those precepts for ruling well his own house, whose reiteration, in St. Paul's charge to Timothy, evidences their deep ministerial importance. The pastor's household should be a miniature model of the Church; and each member, in its respective sphere, a living comment upon his practical exhortations. His wife should be grave, not a slanderer, sober, faithful in all things: his children in subjection with all gravity. Sheltered within the fold, fed by the shepherd's hand, and guided by his eye, each member of his household is insensibly considered as his standard of the requirements of the Gospel by those who wander upon the bleak common of the world, exposed, uncared for, and untended. Thus does his household exercise a powerful influence, for good or for evil, upon the flock. And his household he can reasonably expect to be but the reflection of his own image. Whatever beneficial influence a pastor of competent knowledge and professional habits, but without the unction of piety, may exercise upon those who know him but in his public ministrations, as regards his household, the absence of holiness will extract the vitalizing essence from all the ordinances he ministers, and associate in their minds the most sacred things with levity, hypocrisy, and infidelity. Thus the pastor's house-a city set upon a hill which cannot be hid, and which should diffuse the cheerful light of sober piety to dispel the mists of error and superstition which brood upon the valleys in which his flock feeds; which should pour down those salutary streams of pure religion, and undefiled, which would refresh and enrich the whole field of his labours,-by its levity and worldliness, or its bold impiety, the result of unholy familiarity with sacred things, dispels only the salutary awe with which the careless contemplate the Divine ordinances, and by causing them to exchange-to take its lowest estimate-superstition for infidelity, extinguishes the religious principle in many of his flock. How deeply to be deplored, and to be avoided, were this! And how deeply debtors should not we, my brethren, feel ourselves to Divine grace, which has so identified the

duties of our office with our own best interests, that, in taking heed
unto ourselves, we best take heed unto all the flock over the which
the Holy Ghost hath made us overseers and in feeding our own
souls with the Bread of life, and with the fruits of the Spirit, we best
feed the church of God,-a church which He has valued, and pur-
chased, at the inestimable price of the blood of his co-equal and co-
eternal Son.
J. M. H.


For the Christian Observer.

We now proceed with Mr. Coleridge's account of the Training-college at Stanley Grove; subject to our prefatory remarks last month.

"The object being, as above stated, to provide a superior description of schoolmasters, these might either be procured by offering increased inducements to candidates and setting up a higher standard of qualification, or they might be produced, if I may so speak, by means expressly prepared for that purpose they might, if possible, be found, or, in default of this, they might be made. In the one case it is sought to select persons of character not merely approved, but matured. These learn a method of teaching at the Central School, and receive such further instructions as can be given in a comparatively short space of time. Adults only are admitted; and this is supposed to afford a greater security, as to character and steadiness of purpose, than can be attributed to any scheme of juvenile training. We are supposed to know what these are, we cannot tell what the others may become; and if the former were indeed all that could be desired, or a reasonable approach to it, there would be much weight in this argument. The immediate want of masters can be supplied only in this way.

"The other plan proposes to form the character, both generally and with a special reference to the scholastic office. This principally, yet at the same time to give them every appropriate acquirement,-in fact, a very much larger amount of acquirement (though this be a subordinate end) than could be otherwise commanded. Agreeably to this idea, youths only are admitted, and are kept in training for a period of time measured by years, not months. The force of habit and association-early and long-continued impressions-favourable influences of many kinds-the daily sight and sound of good-the means and opportunity of discipline, moral, physical, and intellectual, such are the advantages which in this way it is intended to secure; and to these are added every facility for special instruction. Yet must this statement be received with limitation. The object is indeed to form the character; yet as the institution cannot be open to children or very young boys, a ground-work of good must have been laid beforehand. There must be evident signs of towardness in the youth at his admission; for though much may be done for him afterwards, yet much cannot be undone. It is not a school of correction. The principle of selection, therefore, cannot be dispensed with, rather stands out with increased force. A superior description of candidates will, it is hoped, be brought into the field-youths who, but for such an inducement, would, by their very merit, have been drawn into other walks of life, and have been lost to the service of education.

"All that has been said applies, with certain reservations, to school-mistresses. Accordingly, the Society has at present four Training-Institutions, one conducted on each of the above-mentioned principles for each sex. Thus will the immediate demand of the country be met as heretofore, by the two elder establishments, while the Training-College at Stanley Grove, and the sister institution at Whitelands, are left to work out their own objects in their own way.

"Stanley Grove is in the parish of Chelsea, at the western extremity, being divided from the parish of Fulham by the Kensington Canal. It contains about eleven acres of ground, principally freehold, already laid out with great judgment, both as regards beauty and utility, by the late proprietor. The excellent mansionhouse, with its adjoining offices, have been found capable of easy adaptation to the purposes of a Training-College; and to these have since been added an extensive

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range of dormitories, attached to the building, and, at a small distance, a school for the children of the neighbourhood, and a chapel of considerable dimensions, serving as a place of worship for the adjoining district, as well as for the inmates of the Institution. The Society is glad to combine in this way a considerable local benefit with its own objects; but no sacrifice has been made, nor any extra expense incurred, for this purpose. The school in which the art of teaching may be learnt, and the habit formed, by daily exercise, under the eye of the Principal, is essential to the scheme, and will, it is hoped, become one of its most important features; and though a small domestic chapel might have been sufficient for the devotions of the family, the students could not in this way have been habituated to the solemnities of public worship.

"The college is intended to consist of sixty students, under the superintendence of a Principal, assisted by a Vice-principal, who will divide with him the duties of the chapel, and two resident Teachers. All the students, after they have remained on probation for a period of three months, will be apprenticed to the National Society for a term of years, commencing with the date of the indenture, and expiring when the apprentice shall have completed his twenty-first year.


"I come now to speak of the discipline, mode of life, and studies of the College. The object being to produce schoolmasters for the poor, the endeavour must be, on the one hand, to raise the students morally and intellectually to a certain standard, -while, on the other hand, we train them in lowly service, not merely to teach them hardihood and inure them to the duties of a humble and laborious office, but to make them practically acquainted with the condition of that class of the community among whom they will have to labour. I say, on the one hand,' and 'on the other,' not that there is any real contrast either in the means taken or the ends proposed. The labours of the house, the field, and the garden, are intended to elevate, not depress: the studies of the school-room, not to exalt, but to humble. Both alike may be made to develop the understanding, and furnish materials of useful knowledge both alike may inspire true elevation and true humility. The exercises of religion, and those studies by which knowledge is added to faith, when duly performed, will be allowed by all to have this double effect. These will be our first and principal care; while a religious spirit will, it is hoped, temper and chasten our other occupations, dignifying what might else be thought menial, and making lowly what might tend to lift up. The schoolmaster, though his path of duty lie among the poor, must all the more be raised, not lowered, to his office.


"This leads me to consider the description of pupils best adapted for this training. Except under peculiar circumstances, they should not be taken from the upper ranks in society. Boys bred up in refinement, and accustomed to higher expectations, would with difficulty be made to accommodate themselves to the discipline of the Institution, and still less to its objects. Yet habit and principle will do much. In the lowest rank the requisite qualifications are almost never to be found, unless where the youth has been already prepared by a course of judicious training, commencing in childhood,- -a case which has already occurred, and may hereafter occur more frequently. The sons of small, or, indeed, middling farmers and shopkeepers, of schoolmasters and office-clerks, and of the better class of artisans, are, perhaps, to be preferred. They ought to have had a home with some domestic advantages, and to leave it not without a home-bred feeling of self-respect. The more liberal employments, again, or such as are so accounted, are often accompanied by severe indigence, and still more often leave behind them an inheritance of penury. If under these painful circumstances, the father or widowed mother of a promising son could find for him in this Institution an immediate asylum, with the prospect of a good education, and an honourable, though humble, livelihood hereafter, a double benefit might accrue. "The age of the youths at their admission is also matter of grave consideration. It must, for many reasons, be short of manhood. This follows of course, if the formation of character be the principal object of the Institution; but, besides this, the habits of the place are suited to boys, not men. Fifteen or sixteen is perhaps the best age, though a year or two later in favourable cases is no objection. Experience has already shewn that youths of the proper description are almost everywhere to be found, who would joyfully avail themselves of the advantages held out by the institution, but whose friends are unable to meet the required outlay. At the opening of the College, the Committee offered ten free apprenticeships for public competition, which were quickly and satisfactorily filled up; but against every one of the candidates who came forward on that occasion the premium would have placed an effectual bar. Youths of fifteen and upwards, in the lower and middle classes, have in general ceased to be a burden to their parents; and the higher their qualifications, the more likely is this to be the case. They are already


getting their own living, or at least are in the way of doing so; and to pass from this to the payment of twenty-five pounds a year, though for an ultimate benefit fully equivalent, is rarely to be expected. That this obstacle will eventually be removed, when the scheme is fully developed, and in actual operation, I entertain no doubt. When it shall be seen that the outlay is met by an equivalent return, whether measured by the income, comfort, or respectability of the young man in after life, candidates will be prepared for this and similar colleges, expressly on account of their apparent fitness and inclination for the scholastic office, and the hopes which it may hold out to industry and talent. In this, as in every other calling, the advancement of a few will encourage the many.

"Not that any national want which partakes of a spiritual nature (if I may be permitted to express my full belief) can be satisfactorily supplied by commercial calculations there must ever be a provision set apart for such purposes by the foresight of Christian wisdom, and the free bounty of Christian love. The national Church is a standard record and exemplification of this truth. It may be hoped and trusted that a principle, from which such inestimable benefits have, for so many centuries, been derived, in the case of our Church, and of the elder educational establishments in the country, will eventually operate in favour of the poor; in other words, that permanent and gradually increasing endowments will ultimately be formed, by which fit labourers may be drawn into this field of duty.

"A brief remark on the description of youth to be selected for this college may find a place here. There is a certain seriousness of character which appears at a very early age, and which affords the surest pledge of future excellence in every walk of life. For the purposes of this institution, it is indispensable. A very simple education, if really good, would suffice. I suppose, of course, a groundwork of religious knowledge.


'Some attention should also be paid to physical qualifications. Good health is indispensable: a strong, well-grown boy much to be preferred. Simple manners, and a pleasing address, however rustic, are desirable, as much for what they betoken as on their own account. A very faulty pronunciation, and, still more, an extremely coarse accent, are objectionable. Considerable defects of this kind may indeed be removed in teachable boys, where there is no natural impediment; but in some cases the attempt is hopeless. The monotonous chant with which reading and recitation is accompanied in so many schools, apparently as a matter of course, becomes not unfrequently an almost incurable habit. An observant, intelligent lad, however provincial, will rarely exhibit these faults in excess. Every peculiarity, whether of sound or expression, which leads to corrupt and deprave the language, either in the way of coarseness or affected refinement, should be carefully weeded out of the country; and this for a reason which implies many others that the speech of the people may be brought to the standard of that which is heard in the Church.


"In the above allusion may, I think, be recognised one of those first principles by which the studies of the College are to be regulated. To raise the speech, and, by implication, the understanding of the people, to the level of the Church service, has been regarded as one object, one excellent effect at least, of the Church itself, considered as a national establishment of national education as depending upon the Church, it may be considered as a leading object. The benefit accruing is directly of inappreciable importance; indirectly, it embraces all that deserves the name of civilization. Into this stock may be readily ingrafted whatever knowledge or acquirement the circumstances of the times may demand, whether for particular classes of the community, or for the people at large; and the wholesome sap of the trunk will circulate through the branches, and nourish the fruit. The schoolmasters of the people must, therefore, be well able to teach their own language; and it needs not be said that this implies no ordinary degree of mental culture. "It is on this account, and not with any view to classical attainment, in the restrictive sense, that Latin is taught as an essential part of the course. It is by no means proposed to do more than lay the foundations of a sound acquaintance with the accidence, syntax, and etymology of the language, which is a very different thing from that familiarity with its literature, to which the higher class of students are conducted in a superior grammar-school.


"It is for the sake of the English language, and of the knowledge which it implies, that the study of Latin is indulged to any of the apprentices; and this, as above stated, with an especial reference to the Church-service remembering that, in the Liturgy of the Church of England, the reading of holy Scripture forms a prominent part; and that if, by Divine favour, the public devotions of the Church are permitted to us in the vulgar tongue, it is above all things necessary that the whole should be understanded of the people.' With the same paramount object,

the Bible is read aloud by the students at least twice a day. The Bible is read at least twice a day, at morning and evening prayer, and the portion selected for reading illustrated in various ways: sometimes the language is explained; sometimes the doctrine is investigated, and practical inferences drawn; sometimes the history, geography, and antiquities connected with the sacred text are elucidated. These also form a separate study. A distinct, intelligent, and reverential mode of reading is especially inculcated, with a correct pronunciation, and, as far as possible, a pleasing accent. The object is not to teach what is called fine reading ;indeed, any appearance of display would be instantly checked ;-but to get rid of peculiarities and gross defects. This has been found a task of much difficulty. Schoolboys of all sorts read, for the most part, very badly; and where a bad habit has been formed, time alone can correct the mischief. In addition to the Church Catechism, which forms of course a prominent subject of instruction, the Articles of the Church are committed to memory by the elder boys, with references to Scripture, and appropriate comments. The History of the Christian Church during the first three centuries, by Dr. Burton, has already been read once by the upper class, who are going through it a second time. Some account of the Reformation, both in this and other countries, with a summary view of the darker periods in the annals of the Church by which it was preceded, will next engage their attention; while the history, constitution, and antiquities of the National Church, considered as an ecclesiastical establishment, will be brought under their notice from time to time, as shall be found practicable or expedient; regard being had to the capacity of the students, and to their state of preparation. In the last year of the course, I propose to go over the whole subject in a more systematic, or at least a more formal


"Of the remainder of the course I shall speak very briefly. English grammar, as distinct from that of the Latin language, will be carefully studied, and every exertion made to accustom the pupils to an easy, clear, and correct style of composition. Geography, with mapping, and the use of the globes, is taught in conjunction with history; both with an especial reference to this country. Due attention is also paid to writing, both plain and ornamental. Arithmetic is carefully and fully studied, with a view not merely to facility and accuracy of calculation, but to a clear understanding of the theory; -the principles of numbers, as distinguished from the practice of cyphering. The elder and more advanced students read the elements of Euclid, of which they have mastered the first three books, and the first part of algebra, in which they are advanced as far as quadratic equations. They have also commenced trigonometry, and will be made acquainted with the rudiments of land surveying, &c. These acquisitions, besides their indirect uses, will, it is believed, tend to make the country schoolmaster respected in his neighbourhood. His school will be looked up to, and admission into it will be sought after. The outlines of physical science will be taught as opportunity shall occur. Of the several branches of natural history, botany is the only one to which any serious attention has hitherto been given, and from its connexion with gardening, and with rural life in general, it will always claim a preference. Drawing, with the practice of geometrical perspective, and the drawing of plans and elevations, both geometrical and perspective, has been taught with considerable success. Two lessons a week are also given in vocal music, which is taught under the superintendence of Mr. Hullah. Half an hour is also set aside for daily practice. The daily service of the chapel will, it is trusted, set forth the paramount object for which this acquirement is studied, which will thus be learnt in immediate and continual connexion with its best and highest use.

"The food is of the plainest description, but is the best of its kind, and carefully prepared. It is not given out in rations; if any youth were to eat habitually to excess, he would be reproved for it, as for any other fault, but with this exception, (if exception it may be called), there is no stint. Intemperance in eating, where the opportunity is given, is indeed a not uncommon vice among boys, but it should be corrected, as far as possible, by admonition and moral treatment.

"The clothing comprises a Sunday and working suit. An uniform dress prevents many inconveniences, and has in several ways an excellent moral effect, as might indeed be expected from a practice so generally adopted, from so early a date, in every scholastic institution connected with the Church in this country. It should be a grave and simple habit, but neither so very poor, nor so very peculiar, as to carry with it any degradation, relatively either to the rank of life from which the students are derived, or that for which they are intended. The tendency of all education should be in a certain sense to elevate. The first lesson which a boy (particularly from the very lowest classes) has to learn, is self-respect, as the only condition under which he will practise self-denial, or even observe

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