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refpect to the decrees of God, which have their neceffary, unchangeable, and certain event,. and a neceffity of influence by the power the grace of God, to that which is fpiritually good; and by the firength and prevalence of corruption, to that which is evil; all which is confiftent with the natural liberty of the will: but then we say, it is free, not only from a neceffity of co-action or force, but alfo from a phyfical neceffity, or a neceffity of nature; fuch as that by which the fun, moon and ftars, move in their course, fire burns, light things afcend upwards, and heavy bodies move downwards; whereas Mr. Hobbs affirms, That "( every man is moved to defire that which is good to him, and to avoid that which is evil to him, especially, the greatest of natural evils, death; and that by a certain neceffity of Nature, no less than that by which a ftone is moved downwards." And elfewhere he expreffes himself thus: "My meaning is, that the election I fhall have of any thing hereafter, is now as neceffary, as that the fire that now is, and continueth, fhall burn any combustible matter thrown

* Fertur enim unus quifque ad appetitionem ejus quod fibi bonum & ad fugam ejus quod fibi malum eft, maxime autem maximi malorum naturalium, quae eft mors; idque neceffitate quadam naturae non minore, quam qua fertur lapis deorfum. Hobbs's de Cive. c. i.Sec. 7. p. 11. Ed. Amsterd. 1657.

The questions concerning liberty, neceffity and chance, clearly flated and debated, p. 232.

into it hereafter; or, to ufe his (the Bishop's) own terms, the will hath no more power to fufpend its willing, than the burning of the fire to fufpend its burning; or rather, more properly, the man hath no more power to fufpend his will, than the fire to fufpend its burning."

6. Mr. Hobbs's opinion, makes God the caufe of all finful actions, as well as good; and this is not only a confequence deduced from his principles by his oppofers, but is what is allowed by himself; tho' he will not admit that it follows, that God is the author of them. "Author, he fays, is he which owneth an action, or giveth a warrant to it: do I fay, adds he, that any man hath in the fcripture (which is all the warrant we have from God for any action whatfoever) a warrant to commit theft, murder, or any other fin? does the opinion of neceffity infer that there is fuch a warrant in the fcripture? Perhaps he (the Bishop) will fay no; but that this opinion makes him the cause of fin. But does not the Bishop think him the cause of all actions? and are not fins of commiffion actions? is murder no action? and does not God himself say, non eft malum in civitate quod ego non feci? And was not murder one of thefe evils?

8 The questions concerning liberty, neceffity and chance, clearly ftated and debated, p. 175.

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evil, cannot be granted without impiety; and tho' from their birth, they may have defire, fear and anger; yet they are not to be reckon'd evil on the account of thefe, fince the affections of the mind, which flow from the animal nature, are not evil; but the actions which arife from them are fometimes fo, when they are noxious and contrary to duty. Infants, unless you give them all that they defire, weep and are angry, and even beat their parents, and this they have from nature; and yet they are without fault: nor are they evil; first, because they cannot hurt; and next, because, wanting the ufe of reafon, they are free from all duty." In this the Arminians agree with him, who, one and all, deny the doctrine of original fin: it would be needlefs to refer to authorities in proof of this.

2. We fay, that every imagination of the thought of the heart is evil; that the first thought and defire of fin, or inclina

fatim omnia quae fibi placent, cupiant, faciantque quantum poffunt, ut quae impendunt mala, aut metu fugiant, aut ira repellant, non tamen ab eam caufam mali cenferifolent. Nam affectus animi qui a natura animali proficifcuntur, mali non funt ipfi, fed a&tiones inde provenientes, malae aliquando funt, nimirum quando & noxiae funt & contra officium. Infantes nifi omnia, quae cupiunt, dederis, plorant atque irafcuntur, etiam parentes ipfos verberant, habentque a natura, ut ita faciunt; attamen culpa vacant, neque mali funt, primo, quia nocere non poffunt, deinde quia rationis ufu carentes officiorum omnium immunes funt. Hobbes Praefat, in Lib, de Cive.

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point, of the confiftence of liberty with neceffity, why fhould it be caft upon us in a way of reproach? when it is notorious, that in many things, there's a plain and manifeft agreement between him and the Socinians and Arminians; for, not now to give inftances of his agreement with the former, about the doctrine of the Trinity*, the perfon' and offices of Chrift, and his fatisfaction", the doctrine of Juftification the Immortality of the foul, its State after death, and the Eternity of the future torments of the wicked", I fhall just hinc fome few things in which he agrees with the latter; by which it will appear, that if any reproach attends an agreement of fentiments with him, it will fall upon them, and not upon us. And,

1. We fay that all men are, as David was, hapen in iniquity, and conceived in fin; that they are evil from their birth, and are by nature children of wrath, Buc Mr. Hobbs fays, "That men are by nature evil,

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k Leviathan, c. 16. p. 81. c. 46. p. 317. Append. ad Lev. 1 Leviathan, c. 46. p. 317. c. I. p. 333, 339, 342, 346. App. c. I. p. 339. m Lev. c. 38. p. 217. c. 41. p. 226, 227. " Leviathan, c. 43. p. 287. de Civ. c. 18. p. 12. viathan, c. 38. p. 211. c. 44, 295. App. c. 3. p. 363. P Leviathan, c. 38. p. 210, 211. c. 44. p. 295, 300, 301.

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9 Objectum porro a nonnullis est, quod omnes homines non modo malos, fed etiam (quod concedi fine impietate non poteft) natura malos effe. Quanquam enim a natura, hoc eft ab ipfa nativitate, ex eo quod nafcantur animalia, hoc habeant, ut

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evil, cannot be granted without impiety; and tho' from their birth, they may have defire, fear and anger; yet they are not to be reckon❜d evil on the account of thefe, fince the affections of the mind, which flow from the animal nature, are not evil; but the actions which arife from them are fometimes fo, when they are noxious and contrary to duty. Infants, unless you give them all that they defire, weep and are angry, and even beat their parents, and this they have from nature; and yet they are without fault: nor are they evil; first, because they cannot hurt; and next, because, wanting the ufe of reason, they are free from all duty." In this the Arminians agree with him, who, one and all, deny the doctrine of original fin: it would be needlefs to refer to authorities in proof of this.

2. We fay, that every imagination of the thought of the heart is evil; that the first thought and defire of fin, or inclina

ftatim omnia quae fibi placent, cupiant, faciantque quantum poffunt, ut quae impendunt mala, aut metu fugiant, aut ira repellant, non tamen ab eam caufam mali cenferifolent. Nam affectus animi qui a natura animali proficifcuntur, mali non funt ipfi, fed actiones inde provenientes, malae aliquando funt, nimirum quando & noxiae funt & contra officium. Infantes nifi omnia, quae cupiunt, dederis, plorant atque irafcuntur, etiam parentes ipfos verberant, habentque a natura, ut ita faciunt; attamen culpa vacant, neque mali funt, primo, quia nocere non poffunt, deinde quia rationis ufu carentes officiorum omnium immunes funt. Hobbes Praefat. in Lib. de Cive.

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