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be of service to such students, and are exhibiting together objects which throw light on ancient life and civilization. The British Museum has a large room devoted to the illustration of Greek and Roman life and has published an excellent handbook of the same. The Boston Museum published in 1910 a handbook called Classical Art, and, in 1915, its Director, Dr. Arthur Fairbanks, published a handbook for High School students, Greek Gods and Heroes as Represented in the Classical Collections, which costs in paper only thirty cents. The Metropolitan Museum is making a catalogue of the material which it has for illustrating words and passages in the Greek and the Latin authors read in the Schools. The Latin Club of Wadleigh High School in New York, under the able direction of Miss Anna P. MacVay, is preparing a list of such words and passages (THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.128). Metropolitan Museum published in 1911 an Index to Objects illustrating Greek and Roman History and has issued leaflets entitled Help Offered to Teachers. It also has lantern-slides to lend.


But the teachers say they cannot procure original antiquities. Do they realize that a few dollars will purchase a score of coins of different periods, and that coins are a very important means of illustrating the Classics and the different phases of classical life? (Henry Chapman, Drexel Building, Philadelphia, and many others have coins for sale. There are some also in the Olcott collection. See THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 9.98-99). If originals cannot be bought, the electrotype reproductions made by the British Museum and costing about sixty-five cents are nearly as useful as originals. Almost all Roman coins are interesting to the teacher of Latin or Roman history, and throw light on the customs of some period and explain many an allusion in the text and at the same time give much pleasure to a class. Even a few coins will give much information about portraits of famous men, about the deities, mythology, daily life, buildings, and even political events (this will be elaborated by Miss Palmer, of Vassar College, in an article on Roman Coins as Illustrative Material in the Secondary Schools, to be published soon in Art and Archaeology). There is not time to dwell on the infinite possibilities of numismatic illustration. Coins give, as Gardner says (16), a real taste for what is classical; besides, they convey definite and historical information of a very important or artistic character".

When originals are not accessible, then recourse may be had to casts, and many Schools and Colleges now have casts of important works of Greek and Roman sculpture, which should be explained to the students when the opportunity presents itself. Casts for Schools may be procured from P. P. Caproni and Brother, Boston, from the Hennecke Company, of Milwaukee,

"Reference may be made here to articles by Professor F. S. Dunn, The Coins of Antoninus Pius, Parts I-III, in The Records of the Past, 10 (1911), 17-33, 77–91, 213-226, and A Study in Roman Coins of the Empire, University of Oregon Bulletin, New Series 6 (1909), 3-23.

which makes a speciality of casts for Schools, from Brucciani in London, from the German Archaeological Institute, and from the museums themselves. So casts of Roman weapons found at Alesia can be procured from the Musée St. Germain. Besides casts, models, maps, charts, photographs, picture post-cards, atlases, illustrated magazines, and above all lanternslides should be used in illustrating the classical authors and classical history and in bringing archaeology to bear on classical teaching. Models of ancient buildings and of ancient sites, such as Walger's model of the Athenian Acropolis (about $150. Micheli Brothers, 76A Unter den Linden, Berlin), or Marcelliani's Model of Rome (about $90), are extremely useful. Models of engines of war, of the ballista, catapult, testudo, pilum, costing from 50 cents to six dollars, can be secured through G.E. Stechert and Co., 151 West 25th Street, New York City. Models of Caesar's bridge, also, stimulate interest, and boys in the Caesar class who are taking courses in manual training often make such models in miniature and thus are enabled to cross that famous bridge more easily. At the Peru Normal School, in Nebraska, there is a Caesar's bridge over a ravine in the campus. In the Eastern High School of Baltimore, Miss Rosa Baldwin correlates the Latin work with that in handicraft by having students of both subjects make miniature furniture to furnish the different rooms in the miniature Roman house which they build, and many other teachers do likewise. See also the article by Miss Mary B. Harwood, Aids to Teaching Caesar, THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 2.98-100. Sometimes a sandboard is used for building Roman roads and bridges. Sometimes the girl students are made to dress dolls in ancient costume; and I have seen toy soldiers dressed in Roman costumes and illustrating the campaign of Germanicus. There are now many fine galvanoplastic reproductions of Cretan and Mycenaean things, of the Hildesheim silver treasures, of Arretine vases, of busts and reliefs, produced by the Württemberg Metallwarenfabrik. Beautiful reproductions of almost all the important Cretan things are made by Saloustro of Candia or Gillieron of Athens. The bronzes in the Naples Museum can be had in perfect reproductions from Sabatino de Angelis of Naples (compare Tarbell, Catalogue of Bronzes, etc., in Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 1909).

Huelsen's map of Rome ($6.60, Rand McNally and Company, 536 S. Clark Street, Chicago, and 42 East 22nd Street, New York City), Schwabe's map of Athens (about $5, to be secured from Stechert), Kiepert's wall maps ($4.80 and up), Johnston's classical maps, especially that on Caesar's Gallic War ($2.80 and up), and Baldamus's Historical Maps ($8.00 and up),

At the meeting of The College Art Association held in Philadelphia, April 20-22, 1916, Professor Mather of Princeton read a most interesting paper on The College Art Museum and showed that at a comparatively small cost a working museum of originals could be obtained. At the same meeting Professor Bates and I both read papers on The College Museum of Reproductions. These papers have not yet been published.

are indispensable. These last two series can be secured from A. J. Nystrom, 623 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago. Cybulski's large charts for illustrating Greek and Roman antiquities are in color, and can be had for one dollar each. Gurlitt's Anschauungstafeln zu Caesars Bellum Gallicum (Perthes, Gotha, 1898, 1901), illustrating military antiquities and situations in Caesar's Gallic War, measure 24x36 inches, and cost sixty cents each, and are to be highly recommended. Both these series can be obtained from Stechert. Lehmann's helpful Historical Picture Series of color prints of the Roman Forum reconstructed, the interior of a Roman house, Roman warriors, the Acropolis at Athens reconstructed, Olympia, etc., can be had for $1.75 from A. J. Nystrom of Chicago. Hoffman and Schmidt also have a series of colored plates illustrating Greek and Roman history, at $1.00 each, obtainable through Stechert. Gall and Rebhann's more recent charts and models illustrating Greek and Roman life, the heroes and gods of the Trojan war, Greek and Roman history and mythology (Pichler's Witwe and Sohn, Vienna and Leipzig, but obtainable from Stechert), are also very useful. The picture of Cicero speaking against Catiline, reproduced in several editions of Cicero's Orations, gives reality to the reading of Cicero. The student of Greek history will be thrilled by the picture of the battle of Salamis, and the student of Roman history will almost shout as he sees the picture of the chariot race in the Circus Maximus. The pictures are large (66 by 88 cm.), in color, and cost from forty to eighty cents each (60 Kronen, or twelve dollars for 33). Forty-one interesting models in terra-cotta in the same series, representing the Trojan heroes and gods (25 cm. high), can be had for $1.60 each. These and other models of Roman antiquities can be secured from Stechert. Especially valuable are the fine lithographic reconstruction of Priene, the Greek Pompeii, by Zippelius (Teubner, Leipzig, 1910), costing about $2.258, and Winter's recently published large colored plate of the famous Alexander mosaic, and Weniger's large colore i plate of the famous Achilles shield, all of which should be framed and hung in every class-room where Greek history is studied. These and most of the things mentioned in this paper can be obtained from Stechert. Photographs of classical places, buildings and monuments, also, are important, and can be procured from Ballance, who does most artistic work (San Mamette, Lago di Lugano, Italy), from Alinari, 8 Via Nazionale, Florence, from Moscioni, Brogi, and Anderson in Rome, from Sommer and Son in Naples, from Boissonas in Geneva, Switzerland (excellent but expensive photographs of Greece and the Islands), from Giraudon in Paris, the Neue Photographische Gesellschaft and especially the Messbild Anstalt in Berlin, from the London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company and The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies in London, from Mara


ghiannis in Candia, Crete, for Cretan things, and from Rubelin in Smyrna for Asia Minor photographs, from Simiriottis, Rhomaides (his agent in America is Dr. A. S. Cooley, Auburndale, Mass.) and Beck and Bart in Athens. In America they can be procured from the museums, from Sarah Amelia Scull of Philadelphia, from S. H. Chapman (1047 Drexel Building, Philadelphia), and those whose names appear below as makers of lantern-slides. W. J. Gardner and Co., 498 Boylston St., Boston, have a large stock and can get anything that has been photographed. A good plan is to hang on a screen or blackboard on the wall of the recitation room a certain number of photographs and picture cards or prints, or even cheap reproductions, such as the Brown (38 Lovett St., Beverly, Mass.), Cosmos (119 West 25th St., New York City), Copley (Curtis and Cameron, Copley Square, Boston), Elson (Belmont, Mass.), Perry (Malden, Mass.), or Bureau of University Travel Prints (136 Stuart St., Boston. 80 cents per hundred), illustrating the subjects which are to be taken up in class or in outside talks. These can be changed from time to time. Especially pictures of the ancient battlefields, such as Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis, give valuable instruction. Most students get an erroneous idea of Thermopylae, and think it was a mountain pass, unless they see a picture of the narrow road between cliff and morass, and learn that the morass has been filled in and the shape of the land changed in the last 2000 years. The best commentaries on Aeschylus's Persae and Herodotus's account of the battle of Salamis are the Darius vase in Naples and photographs of the Bay of Salamis. Pictures of the battlefields of Caesar, such as Professor Dennison of Swarthmore College and Mr. Swain of Ann Arbor have in their possession, are a fine commentary on Caesar and even on the modern war, and show the greatness of Caesar as a general. On Caesar's battlefields in modern times see The Classical Journal 4.195 ff., The School Review 10.392-394, 11.416-417, 13.139-149, and THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.42. See also the paper by Professor Dennison, Recent Caesar Literature, The Classical Journal 1.142–145.

The atlases which can be used are many: Hill's Illustrations of School Classics (Macmillan. $2.50), Schreiber's Atlas of Classical Antiquities (Macmillan. $6.50), Engelmann and Anderson's Atlas for Homer, Oehler's Atlas for Caesar's Gallic War ($1.00), Baumeister's Bilder (out of print), Muzik und Perschinka's Kunst und Leben im Altertum (Leipzig, Freytag, 1909. $1.00. See THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 4.29-30), Gusman, L'Art Decoratif de Rome (Paris, 1908), and Langl's Bilder zur Geschichte ($1.50), Stettiner's Roma nei suoi Monumenti (Rome, 1911), and also the atlases of Sittl, Müller, Herder, Katz, Seyfert, etc., all of which can be secured through Stechert, Winter's Kunst

"A catalogue of the photographs of the German Archaeological Institute in Athens was published by Miss Bieber in 1914 (Eleutheroudakis and Bart, Athens). A list of photograph dealers by countries compiled by Miss Abbott may be obtained from Miss Hooper of the Public Library, Brookline, Mass.

geschichte in Bilder (Seeman, Leipzig), which is now in a new edition and can be had for about $2, and Luckenback's Kunst und Geschichte, or Luckenback and Adami's Arte e Storia nel Mondo Antico, which costs only about sixty cents, Bulle's Der Schöne Mensch, with 320 plates (about $8.00) and Noack's Die Baukunst des Altertums, with nearly 200 separate plates, are inexpensive and valuable series of photographic prints; and the abundant and excellent illustrations in the two volumes by Baumgarten, Poland, and Wagner, Die Hellenische Kultur and Die Hellenistisch-Römische Kultur (Teubner, 1913. About $3.00 each) make those books indispensable. For exact prices and details consult G. E. Stechert, who imports all these.

The stereoscope can now be used, and Underwood and Underwood of New York City have prepared several series of classical views, with maps and handbooks. The reflectoscope can also be used to advantage and especially the lantern, for lantern-slides for almost all classical subjects are available (compare G. R. Swain, The Stereopticon in Secondary Teaching, The School Review 10.146-153). Dr. A. S. Cooley, of Auburndale, Mass., Professor J. T. Lees, of the University of Nebraska, T. McAllister, 49 Nassau Street, New York City, J. P. Troy, of Ithaca, and especially G. R. Swain, 1230 Woodland Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan, are a few of the Americans who have lanternslides of classical subjects. Mr. Swain has a special set of 400 slides for Caesar, classified according to the sections of the Gallic War, and all of the illustrations in Mau's Pompeii, besides several thousand dealing with Greek and Roman archaeology (40 cents each). Slides of the Saalburg Collection, etc. can be got through Henry Blattner, Benoist Building, St. Louis. The Records of the Past Exploration Society, of Washington, 330 Maryland Building, furnishes 40 slides for illustration of Vergil's Aeneid for $14.00, 50 slides of Pompeii or 50 slides of Rome for $17.50, 65 slides for $22.75 to illustrate the Iliad and the Odyssey, and 25 slides, to illustrate Xenophon's Anabasis, for $9.00. Stoedtner in Berlin, Kruss in Hamburg, and other German firms make classical slides very cheaply, at a mark or less per slide. The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies in London has recently issued a supplement to the Journal of Hellenic Studies giving a long catalogue of its slides of classical subjects; several American Colleges have secured these valuable series of slides. Moving pictures are, also, now available for many classical subjects, such as Julius Caesar, Spartacus, Hadrian's Villa, Last Days of Pompeii, Quo Vadis, Antony and Cleopatra, Cabiria (with a fine representation of a testudo siege), Damon and Pythias, the Odyssey, etc. (compare THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.201-202).

To show the influence of the Classics in modern times the charts of Miss Sabin (see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 7.89) are extremely useful. Peripatetic lectures should be arranged to point out the classical features

in modern buildings near the student's School. Pictures can be shown of other modern buildings based on classic models, such as the Scottish Rite Temple in Washington, or the Parthenon of Nashville, or the Walhalla near Regensburg, or the other modern masterpieces of classical architecture such as are being featured in Art and Archaeology. In Baltimore, we have the influence of the so-called Theseum in the McKim Free School and of the Erectheum in the Baltimore Savings Bank; nearly every city has public buildings with classic features. Saratoga even has a Pompeian house, and in one of Baltimore's homes is a Pompeian room. In this way the student will come to realize that to disentwine the warp of classical art from the woof of modern architecture and decoration is as impossible as to separate classical from English literature.

This leads me to the last and perhaps best method of illustration, the acting of an ancient play or a modern classical play with as much archaeological accuracy as is possible in staging, costuming, etc. Many Colleges and Schools now produce an ancient play every year either in the original or in translation (compare D. D. Haines, The Presentation of Classical Plays, The Classical Journal 9.189-198, 251-260, 344-353, and recent performances of the Lysistrata at Cleveland, The Menaechmi at Hardin College, the Captivi at Mt. Holyoke, Iphigenia in Tauris at Smith, etc.). Some Schools give modern plays based on a classical subject, such as Professor Miller's Dido, or Fall of Troy (University of Chicago Press, 1908, $1.00: se THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8. 169-170), or Miss Paxson's A Roman School, or A Roman Wedding (Ginn and Co., Boston, 1911: see THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 5.1-2), or Wilson's spectacular Vestal Virgins (Werner and Co., 43 East 19th St., New York City). Some Latin clubs, like that of the Wadleigh High School, give elaborate tableaux representing Greek statuary and paintings of classical subjects. For Homeric tableaux compare C. M. Moss in Werner's Magazine for December, 189810.

Archaeology should be incidental to the study of the literature, but it also should be given a place in the sunlight and must not be postponed till the Graduate School, for it produces new material and makes students feel an interest in the progress of classical studies. In reading Homer, the student should know about Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, and Crete; in reading Xenophon he should know about the excavation of Sardis (and no text-book is needed more than an archaeological edition of Xenophon's Anabasis by one who has travelled identically the same route). In reading Vergil, the student should learn about Carthage, should see a

10Good lists of illustrative material have been published by Professor R. V. D. Magoffin, in the History Teachers' Magazine, 5.209-218, (compare also 4.158-168), by Professor Walter Dennison in a Swarthmore College Bulletin for April, 1912, and by Myres in Gardner's Classical Archaeology in Schools, cited in note 1. In The Classical Journal 11.174 ff. Miss Woodruff of Chicago published another excellent list with prices and addresses, including some names which I have not mentioned. This is the last such published list and appeared after my original paper.

cast or at least a photograph of the Vatican Laocoon and Alinari's fine chromophotographic reproduction of the Hadrumetum Vergil mosaic that was published as a supplementary sheet to Atene e Roma 17.66-94 (Nos. 183-184, March-April, 1914). So one might go on citing archaeological parallels to the authors read in Schools and Colleges, but this paper is already too long. THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. DAVID M. ROBINSON.


William Godwin's Enquirer, 6 (1797: new edition, 1823), contains a defence of the Classics. To the modern reader the essay is a mixture of insight and commonplace. Godwin's exposition of the benefits that followed the rediscovery of Greece is excellent; his ideas on the proper age for learning languages and his observations on the inadequacy of translations are sound; his feeling for Latin style is keen and his appreciations of Latin writers are enthusiastic and at times felicitous. But no like treatment is accorded to the Greek writers; they are not condemned: they are ignored. Perhaps, too, undue stress is laid on Latin as mental discipline. And, when Rome is exalted as affording the world's purest models of virtue, the age of scientific history groans.

According to the Dictionary of National Biography William Hazlitt did not read Greek. Yet his paper On Classical Education (in The Round Table, Number 2, February 12, 1815) is a defence of the Classics that has not been surpassed for dignity, conciseness and good sense. To him Latin and Greek are not important primarily because they strengthen the intellect or the morals, but because they soften and refine the taste. He is impressed with their permanence, with their power to recall men from the ephemeral to the eternal. "By conversing with the mighty dead we imbibe sentiment with knowledge", says he. Further, he distinguishes between knowledge for its own sake and professional knowledge. He believes that the Classics are a part of the former, for he does not recognize their vocational aspect.

The study of Classics is less to be regarded as an exercise of the intellect than as a 'discipline of humanity'. . . . It teaches us to believe that there is something really great and excellent in the world, surviving all the shocks of accident and fluctuations of opinion, and raises us above that low and servile fear, which bows only to present power and upstart authority. Rome and Athens filled a place in the history of mankind which can never be occupied again. They were two cities set on a hill, which could not be hid; all eyes have seen them, and their light shines like a mighty sea-mark into the abyss of time.

Charles Lamb's interest in Greek and Latin was largely conditioned by his admiration for the Elizabethans and the seventeenth century. He loved Homer chiefly because Chapman translated him, and he revived his Latin that he might read all of Milton. Lamb's defence of Latin (or is it his sister's?), in his

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As to English he reassures her thus:
Think not I shall do that wrong
Either to my native tongue,
English authors to despise,
Or those books which you so prize;
Though from them a while I stray,
By new studies call'd away,
Them when next I take in hand,
I shall better understand.
For I've heard wise men declare
Many words in English are,
From the Latin tongue deriv'd
Of whose sense girls are depriv'd,
'Cause they do not Latin know.

Then finally, with magnanimity, he proposes (with his
parents' consent) to keep the peace and let his sister
learn Latin with him. So, with Godwin emphasizing
the mental discipline of the Classics, with Hazlett
writing of their permanence and power to refine and
elevate, and with Lamb pointing out in pleasant rhyme
the dependence of English words on Latin (and, by
implication, of English literature on ancient), we see
anticipations early in the nineteenth century, from
English essayists, of those numerous defences that we
are enjoying to-day from scholars.



To the prizes offered by the Latin League of Wisconsin Colleges reference has been made in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 7.14, 8.46-47, 9.47-48. This year the Louis G. Kirchner Latin Memorial Prize of $250 was won by Miss Cora Smith, of Ripon College. In the four competitions thus far held for this prize the winners have been students of Milwaukee-Downer College, Lawrence College, Carroll College, and Ripon College, respectively. The trophy cup for the College making the best showing went to Ripon College, for the second time. For the first two competitions the cup was won by Lawrence College. The silver medal went to a student of Beloit College, the bronze medal to a student of Ripon College. LAWRENCE College, Appleton, Wisconsin.



Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 NEW YORK, OCTOBER 9, 1916


I have long been interested in various passages in the Latin commonly read by way of preparation for College which do not seem to be adequately explained in the current editions.

One such passage is Cicero Cat. 1.2-3:

An vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, Ti. Gracchum mediocriter labefactantem statum rei publicae privatus interfecit, Catilinam orbem terrae caede atque incendiis vastare cupientem nos consules perferemus?

First of all, I would have the reader note that I have set a comma after interfecit, instead of the semicolon or the colon shown in our texts. Next, let the reader, if he knows any Greek, recall the familiar μèv . . . dè combination. He will then see at once that a passage which, as usually pointed and explained, is difficult, is in reality very simple. We may translate as follows:

Did in truth that great man, Publius Scipio, when pontifex maximus, though he held no (civil) office, kill Tiberius Gracchus, who was only slightly disturbing the balance of our commonwealth, (and) shall we, though we are consuls, brook Catiline, who has set his heart on destroying with fire and sword the wide, wide world?

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Since the words vir amplissimus. voice a well known fact, it follows that, in a strictly logical interpretation of this sentence, the only true question contained within it is, of course, Catilinam

perferemus? This part of the sentence, then, and this alone, in strict logic, an can and does introduce. Therefore, even if we stick to logic alone, we see that to point with a semicolon or colon after interfecit is to destroy, hopelessly, the integrity of the sentence. But it is easy enough, in rhetorical writing or speaking, and at the same time most effective to question the actuality of a well known fact. A good example of this is afforded by Juno's words in Aeneid 1.39-41:

Pallasne exurere classem

Argivom atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto
unius ob noxam et furias Aiacis Oilei?

It may be noted here that Juno answers her own rhetorical question by reciting in full the facts, in 42-58. Verses 39-48 thus lead up most effectively to the impassioned outburst (49-50):

Et quisquam numen Iunonis adorat praeterea aut supplex aris inponit honorem?

Following the form used by Cicero in the passage under discussion, we may sum up Aeneid 1.39-49

No. 2

by writing (though the result would, I grant, be awkward):

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An Pallas quidem classem Argivom exurere potuit ego autem frustra una cum gente tot annos bello gero, quisquam numen Iunonis adorat praeterea aut supplex aris inponit honorem? 'Was Pallas so mighty, I so feeble, (and) does any one. ?'

i.e. 'Though Pallas was so mighty, I so feeble, does any one. ?'

We see, then, that in our Ciceronian passage, considered from the point of view of rhetoric, an introduces really all the words of the sentence. We note, finally, what effective instruments of expression the Greeks had in μὲν and δὲ.

Similar is Cicero Pomp. 58:

An C. Falcidius, Q. Metellus, Q. Caelius Latiniensis, Cn. Lentulus, quos omnis honoris causa nomino, cum tribuni plebi fuissent, anno proximo legati esse potuerunt, in uno Gabinio sunt tam diligentes qui in hoc bello, quod Lege Gabinia geritur, in hoc imperatore atque exercitu, quem per vos ipse constituit, etiam praecipuo iure esse debebat?

Could Gaius Falcidius, Quintus Metellus, Quintus Caelius Latiniensis, all of whom I name only to honor them, could these men, I ask, be legati the year after they had been tribunes of the people (i.e. would they allow all these men to become legati, etc.), (and) are so they so painstaking in the case of Gabinius alone, a man who, in this war, which is being waged in accordance with the Lex Gabinia, in connection with the present general-in-chief and his army, . . ought to have even extraordinary privileges?

An even more interesting example is Pro Archia 30: An statuas et imagines, non animorum simulacra, sed corporum studiose multi summi homines reliquerunt, consiliorum relinquere ac virtutum nostrarum effigiem nonne multo malle debemus, summis ingeniis expressam et politam?

Did many men of the first rank take pains to leave behind them statues and portraits, counterfeit presentments, not of their souls but of their bodies, (and) are we not in duty bound to be far keener to leave behind us likenesses of our minds (what we did) and of our merits (what we were)?

In this passage so excellent a critic as Professor James Reid, in his fine edition of the Pro Archia (Pitt Press Series. Cambridge University Press, 1891) sets a colon after reliquerunt, and in his Notes writes as follows:

The an is really out of place when the first branch of the sentence merely states categorically an admitted fact; it has passed into this form of the sentence from that form in which both the branches contained interrogations.

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