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A virtue of it is that only one English rendering of each Latin word is given, when one is sufficient to tell the meaning of the Latin. In the case of words which show several more or less distinct significations in the Gallic War several translations are given; there is, however, no effort to show the order in which the meanings were developed. There is nowhere any note of derivation or word-relationship. The translations selected are, as a rule, good with respect to the passages in which the words occur; they do not distinguish the basic meanings of the words. Idioms are treated with the greatest freedom and completeness, whether idioms of the Latin language or phrases calling for idiomatic English translation. A few errors have crept in: for example, in the phrase ab tanto spatio, ab is treated as a preposition governing the ablative and meaning "at a distance of". The evident intent everywhere is to be immediately practical rather than philologically accurate. There is no indication of the relative frequency of words, or of the several significations of an individual world; there are almost no references to specific passages. An economy familiar in European vocabularies is noteworthy, which might well be imitated in this country: in the principal parts of verbs the infinitive ending is not given, but the conjugation is indicated by a figure in parentheses.

While American schoolbooks are as they are, we shall probably have little use for a separate publication such as this. When the millennium comes, perhaps we shall have School texts without vocabularies. COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF

NEW YORK.

BARCLAY W. BRADLEY.

An Introduction to Greek Reading. By G. Robertson. Cambridge: at the University Press (1915). Pp. x 113. 65 cents.

This is an interesting and suggestive little volume in which the author advocates a bold departure in teaching the first steps in Greek reading. The worthy object of the book is to arrive as soon as possible at the actual reading of Greek. This approach, the author believes, lies in a new treatment of the Greek vocabulary. Whereas formerly the meanings of the Greek words have been taught by giving immediately their English equivalents, the author would, wherever possible, give some English derivative of a new word and work back through this to the meaning of the Greek form. For example, antagonist, misogynist, hydropathic, epitaph, tactics, hegemony, panorama readily yield under proper treatment the respective meanings of ἀγών, γυνή, ὕδωρ, τάφος, τάσσω, ἡγεμών, ὁράω. This method fixes the Greek word firmly in the memory, clarifies the English, and keeps the attention of the pupil alert, all through the pleasant process of recognition. The plan works well in a surprising number of words. The sense of remoteness of the Greek vocabulary from the English, not felt in Latin, is modified and the reaction on the knowledge of both languages is stimulating and suggestive. The method, however,

is pushed too far when the High School boy is expected to find light in autochthonous, xylonite, etymology, methylated, amethyst for the meanings of xwv, žúλov, ἐετάζω, ὕλη, μεθύω. When the English meanings are unknown to the student or the connection between the Greek and the English meanings is remote, some mental confusion and waste of time must result. The rational basis of the whole scheme should also be critically examined. It is probably sounder teaching to ask a student to trace the development of meaning from root to derivative rather than to reverse in Greek the natural method followed in all his other subjects of study. Other plans for this 'indirect' teaching of Greek vocabulary are used by the author when his special method will not work. He frequently explains Greek by means of Greek already known, as Dr. Rouse does in his Vocabulary, and takes advantage of the regularity and facility in formation of Greek compounds to explain and form new words. Only in the last trench does he give the English meaning outright.

The book is divided into two parts. Part I contains the minimum of Greek formal grammar necessary for the beginning of reading. A thorough preliminary knowledge of elementary Latin is assumed, so that full advantage is taken of the syntactical similarities between the two languages. It is improbable that the book could be successfully used as a primer in American Schools, owing to the extreme compression of this grammatical treatment. Practice sentences in Greek and English are also desirable. Very long vocabularies, however, are listed under each declension of noun and adjective, every Greek word preceded by the English meaning and an English derivative. An industrious teacher has here ample material to make his own drill sentences. Part II contains some thirty extracts from Greek authors, of graduated difficulty, in prose and the simpler verse forms. These selections are interesting and not too difficult, and give an inviting glimpse even to the beginner of the variety of Greek literature.

This book would prove very stimulating and suggestive to every teacher. If, in some fashion or other, Greek words could be taught with constant reference to their English derivatives, the belief of the author would be justified that no student "could fairly complain of wasted time at whatever stage he might be compelled to discontinue his study of Greek". KATHARINE C. REILEY.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.

THE CLASSICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE
PACIFIC STATES

For a number of years there have existed on the Pacific Coast three local Classical Associations, The Classical Association of the Pacific Northwest, The Classical Association of Northern California, and The Classical Association of Southern California. During the past year plans have gradually been matured for a merger of these three bodies, and at a meeting held in Berkeley, California, on July 12-13 last,

a new association, named The Classical Association of the Pacific States, came into being. A fourth association has, accordingly, been added to the three strong Classical Associations already in existenceThe Classical Association of New England, The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, and The Classical Association of the Middle West and South, and now the entire territory of the United States is covered by four bodies of classical teachers.

The new Association has become affiliated with The Classical Association of the Middle West and South, its next neighbor, which has offered it generous terms.

The area covered by The Classical Association of the Pacific States is not fully defined, but will include at least the States of Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, and Nevada; the Association is divided into three Sections (Northern, Central, and Southern), and each of these will continue to hold meetings within its own territory.

The officers elected for the year ending August 31, 1917, are as follows: President, Professor Kelley Rees, Reed College, Portland, Oregon; Vice-Presidents, Professor F. C. Taylor, Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, Professor B. O. Foster, Stanford University, California, and Dr. Walter A. Edwards, Los Angeles Junior College, Los Angeles, California; Secretary-Treasurer, Professor Monroe E. Deutsch, University of California, Berkeley, California; Members of the Executive Committee, Miss Elizabeth Freese, San Diego Junior College, San Diego, California, Professor James T. Allen, University of California, Berkeley, California, and Dr. Andrew Oliver, Broadway High School, Seattle, Washington. The following editorial representatives on The Classical Journal were also chosen: Managing Editor, Professor Herbert C. Nutting, University of California, Berkeley, California; Associate Editors, Miss Bertha Green, Hollywood High School, Los Angeles, California, Miss Julianne A. Roller, Franklin High School, Portland, Oregon.

In addition to the organization of the Association, the adoption of a constitution, and the election of officers, the following papers were read: A Neglected Argument for the Classics, Dr. W. J. Wilson, College of the Pacific, San Jose, Cal.; Where the Fastenings are Weakest, Professor Monroe E. Deutsch, University of California; The Latin Deponent a Middle Development, Professor F. C. Taylor, Pacific University, Oregon; Efficiency in the Latin Course, Miss Anna B. Christian, San Diego High School, Cal.; The Significance of Latin as a Language, Professor Jefferson Elmore, Stanford University; Bridging the Gaps, Professor Clifton Price, University of California.

MONROE E. DEUTSCH, Secretary.

THE EPISTOLARY USE OF PAST TENSES

IN THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 9.47 Professor R. G. Kent cites the case of a boy five years of age, who, in writing to his uncle on a certain day of the events of that day, expressed himself as follows: "I had some popcorn yesterday". When corrected, the boy justified the phrasing of his letter by saying "It will be yesterday when uncle reads it".

A still closer approach to the Latin epistolary use of the past tenses may be found in the following usage. The writer, on his arrival home, sometimes finds awaiting him a note to this effect: "I have gone to the city. Will be back at four". At the time the note was written, going to the city was merely prospective;

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NOS AND NOSTER FOR EGO AND MEUS

The statement that these sub stitutions are paralleled by the 'editorial we' of English certainly leaves much to be desired. If the feeling of the writer is correct, the editorial use of 'we' is really a violation of English usage that is, if the editor is using it palpably to clothe his own personal view.

In Latin, of course, these substitutions are made with the greatest freedom, and in almost any style of composition. In fact the interchange is so easy that combinations such as Cicero, Cato Maior 5 are not infrequent; Quocirca si sapientiam meam admirari soletis . in hoc sumus sapientes, quod naturam optimam ducem tamquam deum sequimur.

The only free and idiomatic substitution in English noted by the writer is found in the language of the small boy, who, seeing another eating an apple, entreats "Give us a bite". This parallel is probably a better guide to the Latin feeling than is the editorial 'we'. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. H. C. NUTTING.

THE CLASSICAL CLUB OF PHILADELPHIA

The 22d year of The Classical Club was inaugurated on Friday, November 3, by a meeting at which Dr. T. L. Comparette, of the United States mint, read a most interesting paper on The Roman Aes Signatum.

Dr. Comparette discussed the various theories advanced in explanation of these great bars, as well as the bars themselves, and the significance of the designs stamped upon them.

His conclusion was that, since certain of the bars gave evidence solely of Greek art, they had nothing in common with Roman coin-types and were in fact trade-marked commercial ingots designed for use in the metallic arts.

B. W. MITCHELL, Secretary.

THE WASHINGTON CLASSICAL CLUB The Washington Classical Club met on November 11, at Gunston Hall, and enjoyed a very interesting paper by the Reverend John F. Quirk, S.J., Professor of Philosophy at Georgetown University, on Actius Sincerus Sannazarius, a Vergilian of the Renaissance. Father Quirk sketched the life of the poet, enumerated his works, and dwelt at some length on his master work, De Partu Virginis, an heroic poem in praise of the Incarnation, in which Sannazaro consciously imitated Vergil. The speaker cited phrases which have the true Vergilian ring, and presented striking passages in verse-translations of his own. The library of Georgetown University lent for the occasion a copy of Sannazaro's poems, dated about 1790, which was bought recently in Boston for the sum of four cents! MABEL C. HAWES, Secretary.

PARALLELS

In 211 B.C., Hannibal endeavored, by marching upon Rome, to distract the Romans from the siege of Capua. But the Romans called back only a part of

their forces to defend the city, and continued the siege with the major portion. Yet on two successive days the Roman army marched out from behind the protecting walls of Rome to stake all upon the issue of battle; each time a driving hailstorm made the troops withdraw for refuge, and prevented the conflict. Then two items of news came to Hannibal, which, though trifles in themselves, disheartened him: the first, that at this very moment, when he was encamped within sight of the walls of the city, the Romans had sent reenforcements to the army in Spain; the second, that at that very moment, also, the plot of ground on which he had his camp had been sold in Rome with no impairment of its value. All this is related in Livy, 26.11.

Now for a modern parallel. The Philadelphia Inquirer of September 27, 1916, prints a special cable from Paris, dated September 26, and copyrighted by the New York Herald Company, as follows:

"A battlefield for sale! That is the startling advertisement surely the first of its kind ever published in a newspaper-which appears in the European edition of the New York Herald to-morrow. The full text is:

'For Sale-A piece of land ten hectares, furrowed with Prussian and British trenches, right in the Somme battle centre, north of the Bois Foureaux and southeast of Martinpuich. Write Gardel, 10 Rue St. Lois, Amiens'.

Perhaps the most impressive feature of the advertisement is the robust certainty of France's victory which it reveals. The owner of the battlefield knows absolutely that the Prussian menace is mastered and offers his battlefield for sale confident of his ability to deliver the goods".

In 212 A.D., the Roman Emperor Caracalla murdered his brother and coruler Geta, and thereby gained sole power. To cover up his crime, he alleged that Geta had made an attempt upon his (Caracalla's) life, and had been slain in the struggle. Then he put to death all Geta's friends and followers, overthrew his statues, melted coins bearing his name, and carefully chiseled his name from all public documents (see in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 2.2445-2446).

All this is recalled to us by the following, taken from the Boston Globe of August 31, 1916:

“Rome, Aug. 29, via Paris, Aug. 30-By order of the City Government, workmen today chiseled from the marble memorial that was put in the Senatorial Palace on the ancient Capitoline Hill when the German Emperor visited Rome 20 years ago the names of Emperor William and Crown Prince Frederick William". R. G. KENT.

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals

II

Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres-Jan.-Feb., Les
Inscriptions Puniques de la Collection Marchant. J. B. Chabot.
American Journal of Psychology-Oct., (The Mythology of
all the Races. Edited by H. L. Gray. Volume 1, Greek
and Roman, W. S. Fox).
Baylor Bulletin (published by Baylor University, Waco, Texas)
Jan., A Plea for Latin, J. W. Downer [=Volume 19, Number
I, 40 pages).

Biblical Review-April, The Revised Version and the Greek Text of the New Testament, M. B. Riddle.-Oct., The Spiritual Failure of Classic Civilization, E. G. Sihler.

Bibliotheca Sacra-July, More Light from the Western Text, E. S. Buchanan.

Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid)-JulyAug., Inscripciones Romanas de Peñaflor en la Provincia de Sevilla (ill.), F. Fita.

Bulletin of Geographical Society of Philadelphia-April, Mount
Aetna [ill.], W. W. Hyde.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester-Jan.-Mar.,
The Origin of the Cult of Apollo, J. R. Harris.
Candid-May, Roman Fiscality [short note].
Colonnade-Aug., "Apology for Herodotus" Up-to-Date, Mary
V. Young.
Contemporary Review-Aug., (W. Temple, Plato and Christian-
ity). Oct., J. H. Moulton, From Egyptian Rubbish
Heaps.
Dial-May 11, (Gisela M. A. Richter, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman
Bronzes in the Metropolitan Museum of Art; Loeb Classical
Library).-May 25, (R. Rodd, "Love, Worship and Death",
Some Renderings from the Greek Anthology).-June 8,
(Homer in English Hexameters, B. Q. Morgan).-June 22,
(C. E. Boyd, Public Libraries and Literary Culture in Ancient
Rome).-July 15, A New Lyric from Sappho's Pen; Homer
in English Hexameters, C. D. Platt [note].-Oct. 5, (A.
Maurel, A Month in Rome).
Dublin Review-July, (E. S. Bouchier, Syria as a Roman Province);
(W. Warde Fowler, Virgil's "Gathering of the Clans").
Folk-Lore (London)-June, Masks and the Origin of the Greek
Drama, F. B. Jevons; The Pharmakos, M. Roberts; (W.
Ridgeway, The Dramas and Dramatic Dances of Non-
European Races, in special Reference to the Origin of Greek
Tragedy).

Fortnightly-July, Demosthenes and the Principle of Patriotism,
W. L. Courtenay.

Independent July 17, As Homer would have Cabled it [Comment on the War in the Near East, humorous in intent].-Sept. 4. Two New Poems of Sappho, Marion M. Miller.

Journal of the New York State Teachers' Association-Jan.,
Latin in its Relation to English as a Vocational Subject in
Commercial Education, A. S. Perkins.

Literary World-May 4, (F. Taylor, The Carthaginian).—July
6, (R. Adlington, Latin Poems of the Renaissance); Latin
Literature (M. S. Dimsdale, A History of Latin Literature);
(H. G. Blomfield, The Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus,
Book i; W. Warde Fowler, Virgil's "Gathering of the Clans").
Aug. 3, Sculpture Ancient and Modern (H. N. Fowler,
A History of Sculpture).-Sept. 7, Syria under Rome.
Man-April, W. Ridgeway, The Dramas and Dramatic Dances
of Non-European Races, in Special Reference to the Origin
of Greek Tragedy (E. S. Hartland); W. J. Phythian-Adams,
Religions Ancient and Modern: Mithraism (A. L. L.).
Muséon-Mar., Deux Etymologies Mithriaques, L. H. Gray;
Le Culte du Taureau Apis à Memphis sous l'Empire Romain,
J. Toutain.
Museum Journal (University of Pennsylvania)-June, A Greek
Torso, S. B. L.
Nation (London)-April 1, Art and Religion (Apotheosis and
Afterlife. Three Lectures on
Art and Religion

in the Roman Empire, by Mrs. A. Strong).-July 22, At
Helicon's Foot = (R. Rodd, "Love, Worship and Death",
Some Renderings from the Greek Anthology).

National Geographical Magazine.-Feb., Pushing Back History's Horizon (ill.), A. T. Clay; The Cradle of Civilization: The Historic Lands along the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers where Briton is fighting Turk (ill.]. J. Baikie.

Open Court-May, W. E. Leonard, Socrates:

Master of Life

(M. C. Otto).-July, Symposium on Erasmus. Poet Lore Vacation Number, An Ancient Realist, G. Norlin.

Poetry-Sept., Homage to Quintus Septimius Florentius Christianus Epigrams].

Rivista di Scienza delle Religioni-Mar.-Apr., Il Culto dell' Eufrate nell' Epoca Romana, F. Cumont.

Rivista Storica Italiana-Apr.-June, G. Poggi, Genova Preromana,
Romana e Medioevale (E. Paudini); Età Preromana e
Romana [Reviews of five books on Roman life and his-
tory.]
Saturday Review-July 1, Verses Old and New = (R. Rodd,
"Love, Worship and Death", Some Renderings from the
Greek Anthology).-July 8, Old Latin Hymns (A. G.
McDougall, Pange Lingua: Breviary Hymns of Old Uses
with an English Rendering).-July 22, The Pursuit of Latin;
Incertae Murmura Famae, O. Aldis [correspondence]: Ser-
mons in Stones = (Mrs. A. Strong, Apotheosis and Afterlife:
Three Lectures on
Art and Religion in the Roman
Empire).-Aug. 5, Interference in War [quotes Livy], T. Ogilvy.
-Aug. 26, The Pursuit of Latin, J. Scott [Correspondence].
--Sept. 23, (J. J. Mooney, The Minor Poems of Vergil).
Scientia Aug., Le Rôle d'Archimède dans le Développement
des Sciences Exactes, J. L. Heiberg.

School Review-May, Measuring Progress in Learning Latin,
P. H. Hanus.-June, W. E. Leonard, Socrates, Master of
Life (W. Heidel).
Sewanee Review-July, G. Murray, The Stoic Philosophy (T. P.
Bailey); W. A. Percy, Sappho in Levkas, and Other Poems
(G. L.).

Times (New York) Book Review-June 18, The Loeb Library.-
July 16, Sir Gilbert Murray Tells of Oxford in War Time
Tan interesting comparison of Gerinan and English classical
scholarship).

University of California Chronicle, xviii.i-Tacitus and Some Roman Ideals, J. Elmore.

[graphic]

Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 NEW YORK, DECEMBER 18, 1916

VOL. X

THE SOCIALIZATION OF THE CLASSICS1 A comprehensive discussion of my topic would require, first, after a definition of terms, an analysis of the evidence which has led me to the conclusion that the socialization of the Classics is a necessary step, and, secondly, an analysis of the ways and means of attaining that end.

It is not my purpose, however, to discuss to-day the theoretical side of my subject, the adequate exposition of which would take all the time at my disposal. A theoretical discussion would involve, besides other things, an analysis of the development that is going on so rapidly in the professions of medicine and law, in the ideals that science acknowledges. They are no longer ends in themselves, but means to an end, and that end the direct service of mankind, even when that involves self-annihilation, the goal of preventive medicine. It would require also an examination of the fate that has befallen Greek, the causes that have produced it, and the analogous remedies necessary to rehabilitate it.

Such a discussion, while indispensable to the ultimate acceptance of my theory, would be wholly theoretical, and I prefer therefore not to defend my thesis to-day, but to proceed directly to the practical details of its execution. I shall assume that, whether you admit or deny the validity of my fundamental principle, you will be able at any rate to see for yourselves the theoretical principles inherent in the tangible recommendations that I shall make.

What does the ideal involved in my topic demand? It demands that the material and the method of our secondary Latin text-books shall be selected solely on the basis of their capacity for entering into and interpreting the contemporary or subsequent intellectual environment of the pupil. More specifically

This paper was read-with some additions-at the Ninth Annual Meeting of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, held at Swarthmore College, May 7, 1915. It was read again at a special meeting of The New York Latin Club, on December 4, 1915. It was received at a later date for printing, but too late for publication in Volume 9.

As preliminary or supplementary to the present paper the reader will find it worth while to consult other papers by Dr. Gray, as follows: The Classical Journal 7.196-203, Co-ordination of Latin with the Other Subjects of the High-School Curriculum. I. The General Problem of Co-Ordination; ibid., 7.338-348, with same title, a discussion of the coordination of the languages in syntax; ibid., 8.244-248, with same title, a discussion of the coordination of Latin with physics; ibid., 9. 301-306, a discussion of the coordination of Latin with biology; 11.33-49, a discussion of the coordination of Latin and Greek with chemistry; The School Review 22.217-226, Co-ordinating Latin with Other HighSchool Subjects.

C. K.

No. 10

it demands that all the tangible facts of vocabulary, syntax and inflection shall successfully meet the test of the widest applicability outside the Latin classroom. It demands that, as application is always more difficult than acquisition, so training in application shall be an essential part of the methods included on the printed pages of our text-books and inculcated by the teacher. It demands that this ideal shall be the controlling factor from the first day in a Latin class, when the pupil should in the simplest possible ways be directed to his environment for his first lessons in both acquiring Latin and applying it, to the doctor's thesis.

I said I should not take time for destructive criticism, but, lest any should question my contention that this ideal is not now implicit in our books, let me merely remind you of the way the writers of the most recent first year Latin text-books have misused Professor Lodge's Vocabulary of High School Latin and Mr. Bryne's Syntax of High School Latin in still further narrowing first year Latin to a preparation for Caesar, in perpetuating and intensifying the ideal that Latin is an end in itself.

There is one point upon which I particularly do not wish to be misunderstood. The socialization of the Classics involves no displacement of relative values. I have the most profound faith in the disciplinary and cultural values of classical studies. Not only that, but I regard these values as far higher than the practical value, the development of which I am urging upon you. But, apart from the fact that these values are not recognized to-day by all psychologists, or even, I regret to say, by all classical teachers themselves, it is certain that these values will never be the ground upon which a democracy will admit Latin as an essential element of its education. Their very intangibility and lack of susceptibility to demonstration results in a preference for subjects that can claim equally great value in these directions and an immediate social value as well. The question asked by democracy is What capacity for social service does Latin possess and to what extent is that capacity realized? Furthermore, the suspicion prevalent that we are not accomplishing our aims in the intangible disciplinary and cultural aspects of classical work is occasioned largely by the lack of convincing evidence that we are accomplishing our aim in the one aspect in which the results are tangible enough to be measurable and

demonstrable. In proportion, therefore, as we make good our claim that Latin is practical in the sense in which the average citizen uses the term, in that proportion will there be recognition of our claim to higher service.

But not only is the development of the social and practical side an important element from the point of view of the external economy of the Classics, in fact essential to their life, but it is equally essential from the internal point of view. We shall be much more likely to accomplish the higher aims of classical study which are beyond the understanding or appreciation of the average High School student, if we develop thoroughly and scientifically the one value of the study which he can appreciate and understand, and, in proportion as this vitalizing and humanizing element enters into the teaching of the subject, the more likely is the pupil to reap the higher fruits of the study of Latin.

How shall the principle of socialization, of coordination, be applied? Every element in our work is involved-vocabulary, syntax, inflection, translation, content. It is obvious that in proceeding to details I must devote my attention to some very limited quarter of the entire field. I shall limit myself to a brief outline of the first two, vocabulary and syntax, and discuss the third, inflection, in detail. Translation and content I must omit entirely, although in some respects they offer the most fruitful field for the application of the socializing principle.

I. What does the principle we are discussing demand in the teaching of vocabulary?

(1) It demands that the pupil shall be brought at the outset into contact with the living Latin around him and shall cull from his previous experience all the Latin he has ever met. This involves the laboratory method, the search of magazines, newspapers, books for all the Latin phrases that can be found. This initial contact with life should be maintained permanently and developed continuously.

(2) It demands that the book used should have its vocabulary selected, not on the basis of the number of times words are found in Caesar, which the majority will never read, but upon these considerations:

(a) the demands of the pupil's every-day colloquial English environment;

(b) the demands of his contemporary English reading;

(c) the demands of contemporary and subsequent science studies.

Our principle furthermore demands that the English derivatives to be discussed should constitute material just as definite and as carefully organized, lesson by lesson, as any other element of the work. In our work in the East High School, Rochester, we seek to cover about 1000 derivatives during the first year, although the selection is still upon an unscientific basis, pending such investigations as I have suggested above. These

words should be chosen so as to represent all possible ways in which derivation may assist. They should include

1. previously familiar words now fully understood; 2. previously unfamiliar words of the literary type; 3. previously unfamiliar words from contemporary science;

4. words the correct use of which is determined by derivation: e. g. alternative, avocation, mutual, in

genuous, etc.;

5. words preserving interesting stories or ideas: e. g. money, pecuniary, siesta, rostrum, candidate, Rochester, etc.;

6. words where spelling is assisted by derivation: e. g. separate, laboratory, different, etc.;

7. words retaining their Latin form: e. g. maximum, verbatim, versus, alibi, alias;

8. words used in English;

9. curiosities: e. g. tandem, host, onion, cabbage,

etc.

(3) Again, it demands that training in application should be continuous. Problems requiring the application of a new word in interpreting an English word should be as regular as one demanding its use in a Latin sentence.

(4) Finally, the effort should be made to convince the corresponding departments of English and science that the work being done is valuable enough to warrant their cooperation, both in the selection of material and in its use in the class-room. In my own School they have been quick to see this and all the words that we cover in the Latin classes are reviewed regularly on the basis of their derivation in the contemporary English and science. Coordination is thus the practical basis of our work. A moment's consideration will, I think, show you that this is a case where one plus one equals three. The effort that the pupil must make to break away from the traditional and inherited tendency to confine his knowledge of Latin to use within the Latin class-room produces inevitably the result that the review of a given fact in the class-room of a different subject makes a more lasting and dynamic impression than a second review in the Latin class-room would have done.

This work is now in operation in my School in definite though tentative form. The School Board has published in pamphlet form the series of papers on the Study of Words and has provided the pupils with the biology and physics lists at cost.

II. The second field in which the ideal of socialization may be carried out is syntax. What is demanded in this field by such an ideal?

(1) The ideal demands that the grammatical phenomena incorporated in a first year book should not be selected on the basis of their relative importance to a possible student of Caesar, but with the definite aim of equipping pupils adequately in English grammar and thus giving to the majority of first year pupils

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