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but is found by presenting the ancient Athenian as the example of the all-round man who saw life clearly and saw it whole (84), who was fully developed intellectually, aesthetically and morally.

The discussion of the moral aspects of Hellenic civilization is the weakest part of the argument, colored as it is by a perverse enthusiasm which refuses to look the facts squarely in the face. Surely a recital of modern short-comings does not prove ancient perfection. On page 54 the author says:

We have to admit that we are more selfish <than the Greek>, because we have not as yet so keen a sense of our duty to our fellows and to society as a whole.

But society as a whole did not consist in those days merely of the free male population of some particular state. Women, slaves and members of other communities certainly had a place in such society, yet towards these the attitude of the Greek was utterly selfish, even cruel. Throughout this portion of the argument the reasoning is ex parte and quite unconvincing.

This apart, the lecture is an exhilarating protest against the sordid materialism of the present day, and contains many a suggestion that deserves to be carefully pondered. But it is a pity that a lecture on art should itself be so inartistic, not to say slovenly, in form. It is marred throughout by the slap-dash style and superficiality that characterize all the author's lectures which the reviewer has chanced to hear.

Incidentally, it is a bit surprising to learn that the Athenian theater in the fifth century seated more than 30,000 spectators. In his lecture on the Greek theater the author puts the figure at forty thousand!

Far more pretentious in both style and scope is Miss Stephens's work on the Greek Spirit, which is an endeavor to tell somewhat of the message of Greek thought and action, of the lifting and broadening of the vision of human life associated with the social mind and will of the old-day Hellenes. my essay may reflect somewhat of the old Greek directness and Greek penetration of life.

I hope

Whether she has succeeded in realizing this hope the reader may judge for himself from the following extracts (pages 88, 93, 99, 229, 185):

Only extreme conditions of the old feudalism during2 under ideas evolved by new orders coming to the fore, by fresh blood and a new point of view of life spreading through Greek lands, permitted the tyrants' hold during the generations they continued.

In the Athens of these days the king disappeared by the shearing of the priest part of his office of basileus, and naming him archon for life.

Onward from the eighth century before Christ, we have seen, men's thoughts moved from the heroic glory that colored the age foredone to will, thought, feeling that the human being was of consideration.

The graceful Ionic column, on the other hand, animated, free in play of fancy, demanding and standing on its own base, whose beauty is complete within

"Apparently the participle of the obsolete verb 'dure' 'endure'.

itself, spending its strength in slender shoots upwards and in airy decoration, is eight and one-half to nine and one-half times its greatest diameter.

Men and women of a community, picked singers and dancers, clad in canonical robes and crowned with the velvet-leafed daphne or other green garland, singing hymns to the flute's accompaniment, wound marching through their pellucid air.

The style, it is clear, is inexcusably bad. Rare, even obsolete words and meanings of words are not infrequent, while such Hellenic qualities as simplicity, clearness, restraint and charm are conspicuous by their absence. Moreover, the book attempts too much, dealing as it does with Greek history, literature, philosophy, art, religion and a number of other subjects. Each of these, furthermore, is presented in such a manner that important aspects and trivial aspects are given equal weight, and the Greek spirit--whatever is intended by the phrase-never shines forth clear and bright, as in an Hellenic sky, but is dimmed and blurred by the fog of a perfervid enthusiasm.

Had the author been content to write only the first and the last chapters, somewhat expanded, she might have realized her desire to impart something of the message of Greek thought and action. By attempting too much she has defeated her object, and the reader lays the book aside baffled and weary.

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CLASSICAL LEAGUE OF PHILADELPHIA During the academic year ending last June there was broached at various times and places the idea of uniting in one Association all the teachers of Latin and Greek in institutions of all grades in Philadelphia and vicinity. The advantages of such a step are so obvious that it seemed remarkable that it had not been taken before. First, the union of so many teachers into one body would create a strong organization, one of whose aims would be to stimulate and encourage true education and sound learning and to discourage specious substitutions. Secondly, it would create an organization to protect and conserve the professional interests of those who have devoted their lives to education in the field of classical literature. Thirdly, it would furnish the opportunity for social intercourse and good fellowship among a large number of teachers whose aims and interests are identical. Fourthly, it would provide opportunities for literary pleasures and professional stimulation.

The organization was finally achieved on April 8, 1916. The officers for the present academic year are President, Emma L. Berry, of the Philadelphia High School for Girls; Vice-President, Thomas S. Cole, of the South Philadelphia High School for Boys; Treasurer, Mary S. Lee, of the West Philadelphia High School for Girls; Secretary, Arthur W. Howes, of the Central High School.

The Board of Managers has decided to make haste slowly, and has arranged for two meetings only this

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IMPORTANT ACQUISITIONS BY THE BOSTON MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS

There has recently been exhibited in the Second Marble Room of the Boston Museum the head of a goddess, of colossal size, that is perhaps from the hand of one of the immediate followers of Praxiteles. The marble is Parian of a fine quality. The left side of the face is well preserved and has its original patina. The right side was injured by the pick of the excavator, and, having been more exposed to moisture, is covered with a brown, earthy stain. The nose, lips, and chin are also broken. But the poise of the head is majestic and graceful and illustrates well the spirit as well as the style and the technique of the great master. It is impossible to identify the goddess definitely, but she may be Hera, Leto, or Demeter, more probably Demeter.

Another addition to the Museum's collection is a marble head of heroic size, representing a goddess. It is a copy made in the Graeco-Roman period, perhaps of the first or the second century A.D., of an original made probably between the years 460 and 450 B.C. The material of this head is white marble of a fine grain and, like the one described above, was worked separately for insertion in a draped statue. The original was probably of bronze, but the copy, which is excellently preserved, except for the loss of the tip of the nose, is executed with great delicacy. Possibly Persephone is the goddess represented. The original belonged to the transitional period and certain features, as, for example the treatment of the hair, the full cheeks and rounded lower jaw, suggest that it may have been an early work of Phidias. WALTER DENNISON.

Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals The preparation of the list of Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals will again be in charge of Professor H. H. Yeames, of Hobart College, Geneva, and Mr. William Stuart Messer, of Barnard College, Columbia University. All readers of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY are invited to send to Professor Yeames or Mr. Messer or to the Maniging Elitor titles of such articles, especially of articles they have themselves contributed to various Journals (with some indication of the contents).

To save space a set form should be followed by all contributors. Thus, an entry like J. C. Stobart, The Glory that was Greece) indicates an unsigned review of the book named; an entry like J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough (Andrew Lang), indicates a review of Frazer's book by Andrew Lang; an entry like How did Thucydides write Numbers?, J. P. Mahaffy, indicates an article by Mahaffy; an entry like Professor Verrall or Sophocles's Ichneutae means an unsigned editorial or note or comment on the subject indicated. An entry like A Great Greek Statesman =(A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom) means that under the caption A Great Greek Statesman has appeared an unsigned review of Mr. PickardCambridge's book. Comments explanatory of titles, meant to

give some hint of the nature of the article or note, are given in square brackets. I

Athenaeum-May, An Ancient War Book [Aeneas Tacticus].— Sept., Minor Poetry: English and Latin = (Bradney, Carmina Jocosa; Pange Lingua: Breviary Hymns, Translated by A. G. McDougall; The Minor Poems of Vergil, Translated by J. J. Mooney); The British Academy: Cromer Greek Prize.

Century-Aug., A Cretan Snake Goddess [ill.], Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer.

Dial-June 8, Homer in English Hexameters, B. Q. Morgan. Fortnightly Review-July, Demosthenes and the Principles of Patriotism, I, W. L. Courtney.

Harvard Graduates' Magazine-May, J. W. White, Scholia on the Aves of Aristophanes (C. B. Gulick).

Hibbert Journal-July, Walter Leaf, Homer and History (Lawrence

Solomon).

Independent-May 29, Involuntary Archaeologists [at Saloniki].
International Studio-June, Prehistoric Greek Art; A New Greek
Marble (ill.).

Journal of New York State Teachers' Association-June, The
Direct Method in Latin, D. W. Terry.
Nation-June 8, Sociology and Humanism, Irving Babbitt.--
June 15, Joseph Salathiel Tunison, T. F. Crane.-June 22,
Homer in English Hexameters, B. Q. Morgan.-June 29, The
Old Education and the New, P. E. More; Dr. Flexner's
"Modern School", H. R. Fairclough.-July 27. Slighting the
Classics, W. H. VanAllen; Virgil as a War Solace = (W.
Warde Fowler, Virgil's "Gathering of the Clans").-Aug. 10,
The Farmer's Guide = (The Georgics and Eclogues of Virgil
Translated into English Verse by T. C. Williams); (Maurice
Emmanuel, La Danse Grecque Antique, Translated by H. J.
Beauley). Aug. 17, A Parallel from Aeschylus (Pers. 818-
822), T. D. Goodell; (Life of Boniface by Willibald, Trans-
lated by G. W. Robinson).-Aug. 24, The Clemency of
Caesar, Duncan Savage.-Sept. 7, (Loeb Classical Library:
Perrin's Plutarch, Vol. 3; Haines's Marcus Aurelius; Fair-
clough's Virgil, Vol. 1; Nixon's Plautus, Vol. 1; Miller's
Ovid's Metamorphoses, 2 volumes); J. W. Cohoon, Rhetori-
cal Studies in the Arbitration Scene of Menander's Epitre-
pontes); (H. M. Hubbell, The Influence of Isocrates on Cicero,
Dionysius, and Aristides); (C. A. Manning, A Study of
Archaism in Euripides); (Harvard Studies in Classical
Philology, 27).-Sept. 21, The "Scrap of Paper" in Aristo-
phanes [Ach. 307 1., W. R. Riddell; (John Burnet, The
Socratic Doctrine of the Soul).-Sept. 28, Goliardic Poetry =
(The Cambridge Songs: A Goliard's Song-Book of the XI
Century, Edited by Karl Breul).-Oct. 5. (A. H. Weston,
Latin Satirical Writing Subsequent to Juvenal).
Poetry Review-Sept., New Songs of Sappho, Translated by
J. M. O'Hara.
Quarterly Review-July, The Trojan War, J. R. Bury (Walter
Leat, Troy, a Study in Homeric Geography; Homer and
History); The Last Days of Pompeius, J. P. Postgate =
John Masefield, The Tragedy of Pompey the Great; René
Pichon, Les Sources de Lucain; Lucanus De Bello Civili,
tertium edidit C. Hosius).

=

Revue Hebdomaire June 3, Démosthène et les Athéniens, Henri Welschinger. Spectator-May 20, Caesar and the Germans, R. N. Pearson.May 27, The Roman Empire = (G. F. Young, East and West through Fifteen Centuries); The Prime Minister, C. B. [Vergil, Aen. 10.693 ff.].-July 1, (W. Rhys Roberts, Patriotic Poetry, Greek and English).-July 8, Plautus on the War, H. C. (Mil. Glor. 222 ff.J.-July 15, Homer in English Hexameters, B. Q. Morgan.-July 22, Latin Tags and Modern Problems; Antiqui Tempora Veris (H. G. Rawlinson, Intercourse between India and the Western World, from the Earliest Times to the Fall of Rome).-July 29. (The Clouds and The Wasps of Aristophanes, with Translations, Introductions, and Commentaries by B. B. Rogers).-Aug. 12, Style, W. D. LeSeur [Mart. 10.46]; New Volumes in the Loeb Library (Pliny's Letters; Apuleius, The Golden Ass; Pindar; Hesiod and Homeric Hymns).-Aug. 19, Aristophanes, Hunter Smith [Gallipoli frogs].-Aug. 26, Cromer Greek Prize.-Sept. 2, The Study of Greek, Recluse.-Sept. 9. The Empire and the Land, Herbert Warren [Vergil and T. Č. Williams's translation].-Sept. 23. Lucan on the War, H. C.Sept. 30, Adhuc sub Judice, A "Briton"; The Study of Greek. Times (London) Literary Supplement -May 19, Pindar in English (Sir John Sandys. The Odes of Pindar, Loeb Class. Lib.).June 2, Manilius and "the Blonde Beast" [4.711], Nalus sub Geminis.-June 9, The Apostle of the Germans = (Willibald, Life of St. Boniface, Translated by G. W. Robinson).-July 14, Greek Thoughts (Love, Worship, and Death: Some Renderings from the Greek Anthology, by Sir Rennell Rodd).July 21, War Elephants in Antiquity.-Aug. 4, War Elephants in Antiquity, A. H. T. Clarke.-Aug. 11, Ovid and Germany, J. P. Postgate.-Sept. 8, (B. C. Rider, The Greek House); Germanicus on the Germans. T. G. Jackson.

Times (London) Educational Supplement-July 4, Classics and Science. A. C. Headlam. -Aug. 1, Classical Sixths, J. F. Roxburgh.

Times (London) Weekly Edition-June 16, A Poem Newly-found by Sappho.

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879
VOL. X
NEW YORK, DECEMBER 4, 1916

Miss Susan Paxson, of the Central High School, Omaha, whose booklet, Two Latin Plays (THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 5.1-2) has been much in use, has published A Handbook for Latin Clubs (D. C. Heath and Co. Pp. viii+149. 60 cents). This little Handbook has been prepared to meet the demand for the vivification of Latin instruction, by supplying supplementary material, for use in Clubs, and, I should myself add, in the class-room itself. Miss Paxson has aimed to help particularly the teacher in the small town.

The book consists of a series of programs for the sessions of Latin Clubs, 36 in number. The programs proper, given in outline, cover pages 3-61. A complete list of the titles of these programs follows:

The Value of Latin; Pompeii; Ancient Rome; The Roman Forum; The Roman House; Roman Slaves; Roman Children; Education among the Romans; Some Common Professions and Trades among the Romans; Roman Doctors; The Roman Soldier; Caesar; Cicero; Vergil; Horace; Roman Literature; Some Famous Women of Ancient Rome; Roman Holidays; Funeral Customs and Burial Places; Roman Games; Some Famous Buildings of Ancient Rome; Some Famous Roman Letters; Some Ancient Romans of Fame; A Roman Banquet; Roman Roads; Some Roman Gods; Some Famous Temples of Ancient and Modern Rome; Some Religious Customs; Some Famous Pictures and Sculpture; Roman Books and Libraries; Ancient Myths and Legends; The Ancient Myth in Modern Literature; What English owes to Greek; Modern Rome; Italy of To-day; O Tempora! O Mores!

To give an idea of these programs I transcribe entire the program entitled Vergil (25-26): SONG. Opening Lines of the Aeneid.

An Experiment with the Opening Lines of the Aeneid. J. Raleigh Nelson. School Review. Vol. vii, p.

129.

Dido. An Epic Tragedy. Miller and Nelson. P. 57. VERGIL.

Outline for the Study of Vergil's Aeneid. Maud Emma Kingsley. Education. Vol. xxiii, p. 148. Vergil. Harper and Miller. Introduction. IN VERGIL'S ITALY.

Frank Justus Miller. Chautauqua. Vol. xxxiv, p. 368.

DIDO: A Character Study.

J. Raleigh Nelson. School Review. Vol. xii, p. 408. Vergil. Harper and Miller.

VERGIL'S ESTIMATE OF HIS AENEID.

Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement. Vol. ii, p. 636.

POEM.-The Doom of the Slothful. John Addington Symonds. ESSAY.-Paris and Helen.

No. 8

Adventures Among Books. Andrew Lang. P. 235, or Cosmopolitan. Vol. xviii, p. 173.

LEGENDS CONNECTED WITH VERGIL.

A History of Roman Literature. Charles Thomas Cruttwell. P. 278.

VERGIL IN MAINE.

Martha Baker Dunn. Atlantic Monthly. Vol. c, P. 773.

VERGIL'S INFLUENCE.

On Teaching Vergil. H. H. Yeames. School
Review. Vol. xx, p. I.

A TRAVESTY ON THE TAKING OF TROY.
Roba di Roma. William W. Story. P. 186.
North American Review. Vol. xcvii, p. 255.

ST. PAUL'S VISIT TO VERGIL'S TOMB.
Rome: The Eternal City. Clara Erskine Clement.
Vol. ii, p. 640.

POEM. To Vergil.

Poetical Works. Alfred Tennyson. P. 5II.
Littell's Living Age. Vol. clv, p. 2.

It is proper to quote here a short paragraph from Miss Paxson's Preface (iii):

The programs have purposely been made too long for one session in order that the teacher may have some choice in selection, and that, in case all references are not accessible, enough may be secured to insure a reasonably varied program.

After the programs proper comes a series of Selections that may be Used for the Programs (65-121). These selections consist of short passages, mostly in verse, dealing in divers ways with the Classics. A few selections are in Latin. Of these several are more or less macaronic in character. I must confess that to me progression from The Favorite Prayer of Mary, Queen of Scots,

O Domine Deus!
Speravi in te;
O care mi Iesu!

and Ultima Thule (from Seneca, Medea 375-379), on page 114, to these macaronic pieces (115-121) is something of a shock. Here, to be sure, as so often, De gustibus applies. To me, however, pages 115-121 are the one discordant note in this worthy book.

Next we have Songs that may be Used for the Programs (125-146). Here one finds, with the music in each case, and, in some cases, with English translation, Flevit Lepus Parvulus (125), Carmen Vitae (126127), Gaudeamus Igitur (128-131), Lauriger Horatius

(132-134), Integer Vitae (136-138), and, without music, Professor Kellogg's Latin Version of America (THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 8.7), a Latin version of Rock of Ages, Dies Irae, Ad Sanctum Spiritum, and De Nativitate Domini.

Finally, there is a Bibliography (147-148). The book is to be heartily commended. As Miss Paxson remarks in her Preface (iii), we may say of such a book as this, as of the work of Latin Clubs, usus est optimus magister, yet it is also true that Dimidium facti qui coepit habet (Horace, Epistulae 1.2.40). Miss Paxson has made an excellent beginning. It remains for her fellow-teachers to use her book sympathetically, and to give her any suggestions that occur to them for its improvement. C. K.

SECOND YEAR LATIN: MATERIAL AND
PREPARATION1

What Latin shall we read in the second year? In the normal course of five periods per week, how can we cover the College entrance requirements or their equivalent in a scholarly manner, without undue haste, without exhausting both teacher and pupil, and without arousing weariness and consequent hatred for the subject-matter? These are questions that have long been the most prominent and the most harassing in the minds of Latin teachers in the High Schools. Shall we take concerted action and in a body clamor for a reduction in the amount of reading required, or can a method be devised not merely to cover the ground, but to cover the ground easily and naturally?

What ground is to be covered? The Colleges require the reading of four books of Caesar's Gallic War or the equivalent, and this is likely to be the state of affairs for some time to come; and with reason, for in spite of spasmodic assertions to the contrary, we still maintain that Caesar's Latin is the ideal for beginners. Not to mention the usual arguments, such as frequent repetition of similar constructions, definite and useful vocabulary, etc., the subjectmatter in itself makes the book worth reading. Most children like history, and, in reading Caesar, they are reading about a series of events on which the foundation of French history is laid; history from the modern standpoint, not affected by tradition, but founded on fact; with geographical descriptions that are truly wonderful, seeing that Caesar had to make his own maps; with ethnological analyses as interesting as those of Tacitus; with stories of individual prowess and human weakness that indicate not only psychological insight, but a strong sense of humor. In short, the Gallic War is a plain, straight-forward narrative told in simple, direct language, and full of human and historical interest.

But a cry almost a wail— is heard: We are interested in the Gallic War, but our pupils are not.

This paper was read at The Tenth Annual Meeting of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, held at the Central High School, Philadelphia, April 15, 1916.

This must indeed be our conviction, for otherwise why should we continually beg the question by asking: How can we make Caesar interesting to the pupil? It is true that there should be a question in our minds, but that question should be: Why is Caesar not interesting to the pupil? And the answer undoubtedly is: Because they do not understand what they are reading. Most teachers have learned that the answers to such questions as Why did Orgetorix make a conspiracy? What is the story of the Helvetian expedition? are sadly disillusionizing. Even though we take about four months to translate the first thirty chapters of Book I-or perhaps because we do take so long, the story, as a story, is misty in the minds of about 95 per cent. of the pupils; and it is the story that should keep alive the interest. They have too many new conceptions, political and geographical, to take in all at once; and the day's work seems enough without the digestion of the real meaning of such expressions as consul, citerior provincia, ulterior provincia, etc., and of such ideas as Caesar's duty as governor, the condition of affairs on his boundaries, the relationship of the various tribes, and all the causes that brought about the whole campaign.

How then shall we correct this state of affairs? By making the above-mentioned concepts thoroughly a part of the pupil's mental equipment during the first year. But the answer may be made that all first year work attempts to do this. As it is clear that all first year work does not do what it tries to do, we must find another first year method. This paper does not claim that any startling discoveries in that line have been made, for probably many teachers present are employing a similar method and an equally practical one; it simply attempts to describe a method by which Caesar has been made interesting to pupils through the first year work.

Of all the varieties of first year books available, several can be found which excellently develop this method. A certain series of lessons, for example, prepares the student for the translation of a certain piece of Latin. This is not a strictly original idea, as it goes back to the old inductive method, now happily defunct; but it differs from the latter in that it does not attempt to introduce the actual story of the Gallic War for the first six or seven weeks. Those first lessons in vocabulary, declension and construction, however, are definitely aiming toward the reading of the De Bello Gallico, 1.1, lines 1-6, as their climax. In the meantime, the pupils, who have been daily facing a map of Gaul, have learned the principal geographical divisions and how to bound them in Latin, without books. They are on familiar terms with the ideas conveyed by Gallia and provincia, and are fairly well acquainted with the names and the locations of the principal tribal divisions. And they like it, for it is easy to interest beginners. They feel important because they can actually use a few words in a foreign language; so that such an exercise as bounding a

country in Latin, which would not be likely to excite

a second year class, is not far from exhilarating to the younger pupils.

The authors of most text-books of this sort, however, have a mistaken idea that the path of Caesar is too rough at first for youthful feet, and try to mend matters by furnishing, before the actual text, a simplified version, called a development exercise, as a preparation. Some of these exercises merely cut up a long sentence into smaller parts; but sometimes the effect is exceedingly confusing. Compare e.g.

Illud Caesari renuntiatur: Helvetii habent in animo iter facere. Caesari renuntiatur, Helvetiis esse in animo iter facere. Helvetiis est in animo per agrum Sequanorum et Aeduorum iter in Santonum fines facere.

This 'development' idea is mentioned merely because of its pleasing result: the pupils requested that they be not required to study via the development exercise, because, in the popular idiom, 'they got all mixed up in the story'. Some of the best students actually disapprove of spoiling the Latin! Consequently, in the second term, at any rate, the Caesar itself is read at once without previous explanation.

The objection has been made that too many things must be taken for granted at the beginning (e.g. ad effeminandos animos in Chapter I), with the pernicious result that pupils are compelled to learn by heart what they do not understand. But in the whole of Chapter I the only notes really needed are as follows: (1) translation of relative pronoun and of ipse; (2) on ad effeminandos animos; (3) on qua de causa; (4) on dictum est. Compare this with the voluminous notes in any edition of Caesar. Besides, there is even an advantage in these very things. Memories are sharp and interest eager in the beginning stages, and so, when the pupils later are learning the gerundive construction, for example, the recollection of familiar phrases like ad effeminandos animos and ad eas res conficiendas is of considerable assistance.

At the end of the first year we have completed 14 and frequently, 15 chapters of Book I. In passing, mention should be made that 13 and 14 are read in simplified form, and the heavens. have not yet fallen. We do not even go back at the beginning of the second year and wilt our tender flower of interest by rereading these chapters, especially as Chapter 15 starts out with the continuation of the simple narrative. For it goes without saying that we do not go back and start all over again at the beginning of the second year. What would be the use? The story has been studied intensively for a whole year; furthermore, what teacher of French or German or Spanish would think of repeating the reading of the first year?

What, then, have we gained toward our second year work? The pupils continue a subject with which they feel well acquainted; they are familiar with the ideas; they are interested in the fate of the Helvetians; they have a real admiration for the 'hero' of the story;

and last, but not least, they have translated 14 chapters of their second year Latin, an amount which ordinarily requires nearly three months to cover. It is easily possible then to finish Book I the first term; therefore the rest of the work can be done with dignity and ease in the second term instead of in the frenzied rush that usually characterizes the last few weeks.

Perhaps this result seems too ideal to be possible. It must be understood that this method by no means places either teachers or pupils where they can rest on their oars and float placidly along. The work is, of course, difficult at the beginning of the second year, especially after the summer vacation, but it is distinctly not so difficult, even with the handicap of an inferior class, as when the work of the first year has been done in a different way. Indeed it is with such a class that the difference in preparation is most apparent. Results appear more quickly, larger assignments can be given, ground can be covered more rapidly. After the first six or eight weeks the difference between a first-term Caesar class and a second-term class would not be immediately obvious to an observer accustomed to the old method.

Book II can easily be finished, including the composition based upon it, well within the first two months of the second term; in such Schools as do not reorganize in the middle of the year from a week to ten days are saved in addition to this. Our pupils are gaining in experience by this time, so that the third book, containing only 29 chapters, many of which are very short, can be read within the next month, especially as much sight reading may be done; be it understood, however, that this sight reading is always reread the following day, along with the regular review work. This is an especially good chance for those unfortunates, the A pupils, who now have an opportunity to show what they can do; for it is a well-known fact that many of our best pupils are in danger of being infinitely bored by being compelled to adapt their own pace to that of much inferior students. Most Latin teachers know that there is also a spirit of rivalry in sight reading that seems to animate even the slowest, so that they often do better work under its inspiration than they usually do in regular class work. As for prose composition, the second year work in the Girls' High Schools of Philadelphia covers the course in D'Ooge's Composition, Part I, through the lessons based on Books I-III; and this allows for an average of one lesson per week for the whole year. If we keep the composition parallel with the reading-a matter of choice with the individual teacher-we finish Book III and the composition for the whole period six or seven weeks before the end of the year, even though we do not count on more than a week or two in June.

As often suggested, portions of Book IV, especially those referring to Britain, and selected passages from the other books, may be read next instead of the usual requirement. The West Philadelphia High School for Girls for the last two years has been substitut

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