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civilization. We have the very true statement that "Greek civilization was essentially urban", but, when Dr. Radin goes on to say that "Egypt was to be transferred wholly within the sphere of Greek culture by means of a polis", he does not understand the fundamental element in the Ptolemaic rule of Egypt, the sharp differentiation between the handling of Greek and of native Egyptian. This is most strikingly brought out by the fact that, while the Ptolemies constantly supported the city state in the Aegaean world, cities in the Greek sense were practically non-existent in Egypt proper.

The history of the Jews in the period later than Biblical sources begins with the Persians. The Aramaic papyri from the Jewish community at Elephantine are utilized. The author rightly objects to a common placing in this period of much of the biblical writings and well points out that the bad economic conditions make such a proceeding unlikely. On the other hand, the argument loses much of its force when we hold that considerable portions date from the Hellenistic period. Dr. Radin evidently has not devoted much attention to the study of the Septuagint and to the question of the post-Septuagintal additions to the orthodox Hebrew


On the whole, the question of the relation of the Jew to Greek and Roman is well handled, the author's special competence in the field of administration and law giving weight to many of his arguments. Greek influence on the Orient in general is well summed up, but it is strange that he has missed the curious decree of 'the people of Sidon' which we can translate almost literally from the Phoenician back into the typical Greek stephanos inscription. We can hardly agree that the Greek city state was the model for the Jewish community. The city state is typical of the entire East, especially of Babylonia, from the very beginning of recorded history, and we have a striking illustration of the city state idea in the book of Lamentations.

Dr. Radin's explanation of the Antiochus Epiphanes episode is undoubtedly correct and could have been made only by a scholar acquainted with the classical world. Antiochus, he says, had no dislike for the Jews as such and there was no special attempt to Hellenize his subjects by persecution. But he recognized as true Jews only the Hellenizing aristocracy. These were comparatively few in number. When the 'Saints' began to increase in power, not as religious fanatics but as intense nationalists, the Hellenizers recognized an economic as well as a political danger and it was from this quarter that the impulse toward persecution proceded. Later Pharisaism is not related to this movement and the Pharisees had no part in the missionary work in the West. The last portion of this view is in part only correct. The Maccabacan revolt was supported by two parties, the nationalistic and the saintly. When the Maccabees began to fall away from earlier religious ideals, usurped the high priesthood to which they had no legal claim, and in their effort to avoid Seleucid vassalage became client princes of Rome, the 'Saints' abandoned them as renegades and it needed only the assumption of the royal title to bring the opposition from the group now called the Pharisees to a head. Later, the nationalists were alienated and we have the three groups, the Hellenizing aristocracy, in large part Sadducee, the Pharisees, democratic and religious, somewhat passivist in tendency, and the zealots or nationalists, the latter under strong Parthian influence.

No part of the book deserves more careful reading by the classical scholar than the pages which show how this Jewish nationalistic feeling was constantly fanned by the Parthians. Dr. Radin notes the uninterrupted

communication between the Jews of the Parthian Empire and those of the Roman, the "creation of political situations of no slight delicacy", and suggests with reason that all this "may have played a much more important part in determining the relations of the governing Romans to the Jews than our sources show". He observes how the "Parthian rulers seem to have brought to the Jewish religious philosophy a larger measure of sympathy and comprehension than most Roman representatives". We have concrete expressions of this pro-Parthian policy in the appeal of Aristobulus in the days of Pompey, and in the position of Antigonus as Parthian client prince in Jerusalem itself in the days of Antony. The position of Antigonus made Herod pro-Roman and explains why Augustus so well supported him. Much of the reputation of Herod is due to his history having been written by men of Parthian sympathies. Rome severely dealt with the revolt of 68 because the defection of Judaea threatened the existence of the Eastern empire by opening wide the frontier to the Parthians. Conversely, the hatred of the nationalist Jews to the Flavians accounts for that curious sympathy with Nero which even made him a convert and the ancestor of a famous Jewish scholar! In the case of the revolt against Trajan and Hadrian, likewise, there can be no doubt of the Parthian connection. The case of Judaea is typical. Here we have exceptionally full sources. We can understand the general history of the Eastern provinces only when we assume Parthian intrigue or at least Parthian influence even when our sources do not mention the fact.

We sympathize with the author in his protest against the German anti-Semitism which has read into the past the feeling of to-day. The prejudice against the Jew in ancient times is carefully analyzed and is shown to go back ultimately to Egyptian writers, such as Manetho. Dr. Radin very plausibly ascribes this hatred of the Jews to the fact that they regularly supported the Macedonians, whom the native Egyptians considered oppressors. He also shows that many of the anti-Semitic passages simply illustrate stock rhetorical types. The ritual murder is not the same as what is believed in the Russia of to-day. Some of the Roman contempt is due to confusion with Syrians, who in general had a bad reputation as slaves. But, while Dr. Radin does not minimize the unpleasant side of the picture, he also collects the passages which show an appreciation of the Jewish culture. With this in view, anti-Semitism cannot be said to be the normal attitude of the classical mind.

The discussion of the legal and administrative position of the Jews under the Empire is one of the best portions of the book. That the Jews of the Flaccus oration are not those brought to Rome by Pompey is proved in detail. The various expulsions from Rome are considered and qualified by a better appreciation of the Roman administrative practice. Also discussed is the Jewish community, apoikia or 'colony', and its legal freedom from the rule of the high priest at Jerusalem. Some of the best work done by Dr. Radin is to be found in these sections, but they do not adapt themselves to detailed review and must be read in the book itself.

The gentile scholar can find little to offend in our author. His dates are indeed B.C.E. and C.E. instead of B.C. and A.D. Taken out of its context, the comparison of Jesus with the "many swindlers" mentioned by Josephus might leave an unpleasant impression. Dr. Radin speaks also of the "heterodox Jewish propaganda". But he is acquainted with Christian literature to a praiseworthy degree and his whole tone is the very reverse of controversial.

The work is intended primarily for the Jewish youth and has therefore much that will seem unnecessarily

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The Eleventh Annual Meeting of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States and the Tenth Annual Meeting of The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity were held at the University of Pittsburgh, April 27-28. At one session, 125 or more persons were present. At one time or other nearly every member of The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity was present. On the other hand, very few members from the Eastern part of the territory of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States attended the meeting.

The programme was carried out very nearly as printed in THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY 10.177-178. In this closing number it is impossible to speak in detail of the papers. Most of them will be published in Volume 11. Some called forth considerable discussion, particularly those read on Saturday afternoon. It may be noted that Professor John A. Scott, the retiring President of The Classical Association of the Middle West and South, found himself unable, after all, to be present as delegate from that Association. A very interesting and inspiring letter, however, from him was read. Miss Petty, the President of The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity, at present on leave for study at Columbia University, was also unable to be present. Her interesting and instructive account of the history of The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity, was, however, laid before the meeting. In place of Chancellor McCormick, who had been called out of town, Professor Lynhart, Secretary of the University, made the address of welcome.

The social side of the meeting was well taken care of. The dinner on Friday night was attended by 65 persons; 40 sat down to luncheon together on Saturday. A most interesting and instructive incident in connection with the stay of the members in Pittsburgh was the presentation of the Menaechmi of Plautus, in Latin, by the students of The Pennsylvania College for Women. Those who stayed to witness this performance found themselves thoroughly repaid for so doing. The scenery and the costumes were attractive and effective, and the actresses rendered their parts uncommonly well.

Certain recommendations, made by unanimous vote

of the Executive Committee, were adopted by unanimous vote by the Association itself. One of these resolutions authorized the increase in price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY to subscribers, that is to say, to persons who are not members of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States. The increase in price will go into effect with Volume II, in Octobe next, and will apply to institutions (Libraries, Schools, etc.) as well as to individuals. The increase is made necessary by the great advances in the price of paper, and in printing costs in general. No change was made in the annual dues to be paid by members of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States.

Another recommendation to the effect that a Minute be adopted concerning the services rendered to The Classical Association of the Atlantic States and allied causes by the late Professor Walter Dennison. The Minute, as adopted, is as follows:

Walter Dennison came to Swarthmore College as Professor of Latin and Greek in the fall of 1910.


Though by birth and education, both in College and in University, Professor Dennison belonged to the Middle West, he gave at once, on coming to the East, unreservedly his whole-hearted support to every agency he found at work there in the cause of the Classics. 1912-1915 he was Vice-President, for Eastern Pennsylvania, of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States. In 1915-1916 he was President of the Association, and in that capacity he presided throughout the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Association, April 14-15, 1916. He played the leading part also in the preparation of the pamphlet known as The Practical Value of Latin, published by the Association. From the fall of 1913 he was an Associate Editor of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY, and in that capacity rendered abundant and valuable service.

Professor Dennison was also one of the most important participants in the movement which led to the establishment of The Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Liberal Studies, and was the first President of the Society.

In less than seven years, then, Professor Dennison had rendered multifarious and most valuable services to the cause of the higher culture of Eastern Pennsylvania, to The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, and to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY. In all this service he was wholly altruistic and unselfish. Forgetting self, he was working for causes in which he believed with all his heart and soul and mind and strength. As a result of his unselfishness, of his resourcefulness in ideas for the advancement of the Classical cause, and of the unsparing devotion with which he helped to carry out those ideas or the ideas of others, he won for himself high standing in the admiration, the respect, and the affection of all true lovers of the Classics, and the things for which they

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Barringer High School, Newark, New Jersey, Mr. Floyd P. Johnson, Friends' School, Wilmington, Delaware, Miss Mary E. Armstrong, Goucher College, Baltimore, Professor W. W. Baker, Haverford College, Professor Evan T. Sage, University of Pittsburgh, and Professor Charles S. Smith, George Washington University, Washington, D. C.

Resolutions were adopted by the Association expressing its appreciation of the courtesies extended to the Association by the University of Pittsburgh, by The Classical Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity, and by The Pennsylvania College for Women.

The Report of the Secretary-Treasurer is summarized as follows (the full Report had been audited, and the books of the Secretary-Treasurer examined, together with receipts, checks, check book, and bank books, by Messrs. Roscoe Guernsey and William Stuart Messer, of Columbia University, and a copy of the full Report had been sent to each member of the Executive Committee several days before the meeting):

The balance on hand in the treasury of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, April 10, 1916, was $315.67. During the year the sums collected for dues were, for 1915-1916, $36.10, for 1916–1917, $1,198.40, for 1917-1918, $240.20, a total of $1474.70. Other receipts were, interest on Savings Bank account, $12, from sale of the pamphlet entitled The Practical Value of Latin, $67.30, from sale of the pamphlet containing a reprint of Professor Cooper's paper, $4. The total, then, in the funds was $1874.37. The expenditures included the following items: for Annual Meeting, 1916, $48.45, clerical assistance, $275, interest, $12, transferred to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY account, $737, postage, miscellaneous items, $29.75, special items, $68.92, printing, general, $47.77, 5,000 copies of The Practical Value of Latin, $73.76, rebates to various Classical Associations, $100, special office supplies, $46.50, etc. making a total of $1486.45. The balance, April 21, 1917, was $387.92. In addition, there is in the Savings Bank, drawing the sum of $367.99. The total assets, then, of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States were $755.21.

On April 10, 1916, the balance in the treasury of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY check account, was $669.54. The total receipts for the year were $2325-47. The total in the funds was thus $2984.97. The expenditures of every sort were $2673.64. The balance, April 21, 1917, in the check account was $311.33, $358.21 less than it was at the close of the preceding year. This decrease was due in the main to two factors. First, in the course of the year two sets of mailing envelopes for the paper, aggregating 135,000 envelopes, were paid for. In view of the constant rise in the cost of paper, it seemed wise to purchase in large lots, and to buy ahead of time. The envelopes now in hand for mailing THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY will last through Volume 11. Secondly, during the year THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY paid for some

things which, though absolutely necessary for the conduct of its business, it had not paid for previously. Under this head must be reckoned two typewriters. One of these was of a special make, light in weight, and so easily portable (the Managing Editor of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY must have a typewriter with him, even in the country, to conduct the business which falls to his lot). The effort to buy with proper economy caused purchases to be made in large lots; proper cabinets to hold this material had to be built. Finally, a sum exceeding $100 was expended for 15,000 copies of a pamphlet, prepared some months ago, before the war situation became so acute, to be distributed next fall to secure new members for The Classical Association of the Atlantic States and new subscribers for THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY. In a Savings Bank account, there is to the credit of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY the sum of $538.53, drawing interest at 4%. The total assets of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY Were thus $849.86.

During the year the sum of $274.42 was forwarded to The University of Chicago Press, for 162 subscriptions to The Classical Journal, Volume 12, and 67 subscriptions to Classical Philology, Volume 12. Foi the last five years, the number of subscriptions made to The Classical Jou.nal, through the Secretary-Treasure of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States, has been 128, 132, 147, 143, 162. The subscriptions to Classical Philology have numbered 70, 64, 62, 63, 67.

The membership for 1915-1916, as reported a year ago, was 722. During the year 18 others made payment of dues, so that the final membership for 19151916 was 740. The membership for 1916-1917 on April 21 last was 751. The membership for the last six years has been 497, 575, 683, 704, 740, 751. A year ago 79 subscriptions to Volume 9 of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY were reported; during the year 21 more for that volume were received, so that the final figures for Volume 9 were 815. For Volume 10 on April 21 last 865 subscriptions were recorded. The subscriptions for the last six years have been 499, 558, 630, 715, 815, 865. The total figures for members and subscribers combined, for the same period, have been 996, 1133, 1313, 1419, 1555, 1616.

In conclusion it may be stated that the cost of printing 15,000 copies of the pamphlet, The Practical Value of Latin, has been $275.41. From sale of this pamphlet we have received $268.65. This leaves a deficit in this account of $6.76. To this must be added the postage in sending out copies-not kept separate from other postage of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States. 5,000 copies of Professor Cooper's paper cost $30.77. From sales of this pamphlet the sum of $32.10 has been received. This leaves an apparent profit of $1.33. Over against this are the postage costs. C. K.

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Cole, T. S.: Twentieth Century Latin Teaching
College Greek, Virginia C. Gildersleeve... 114-117
Conrad, C. C.: The Technique of Continuous
Action in Roman Comedy (Flickinger). 147-151
Conrad, C. C.: The Technique of Continuous
Action in Roman Comedy (Hodgman)...
Cum-Clauses, H. C. Nutting...
Dalton, O. M.: The Letters of Sidonius

Deferrari, R. J.: Lucian's Atticism:
Morphology of the Verb (Sturtevant)
Dennison, W.: Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
Determined Futurity in Greek, F. H. Fowler







Dimsdale, M. S.: A History of Latin Litera-
ture (Showerman)

178-181, 185-188


Droop, J. P.: Archaeological Excavation



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Duckett, Eleanor S.: Studies in Ennius (Rolfe)
Dwyer, W. M.: The Latin Language and Lit-
erature in Relation to Culture..



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Eastman, F. C.: Traveling Collections of Lan-

By Charles Knapp:

An Questions in Cicero, Cat. 1.2-3.
Bibliographical Helps-Travelling Collec-

tions of Lantern-Slides, etc.

Cicero, Cat. 1.5, and Horace, Sermones 1.3.

120 121

Joint Meeting, The Classical Association
of the Atlantic States and The Classical
Association of Pittsburgh and Vicinity. 177-178
On an Imitation of the Roman Volumen. 121-122
An Index to The Classical Weekly 1-10;
An Index to Classical Philology 1-10...
Maps Illustrating Ancient History and
Ancient Geography



Pamphlets on the Value of the Classics105-106, 113
Miss Paxson's Handbook for Latin Clubs 57-58
On the Reading of Latin Aloud 81-82, 89-90, 97-98
Value of Latin to the Student of Modern


Vitalizing Secondary Latin.

Ways of Helping the Classical Cause.

Professors Murray and Shorey at Colum-
bia's Summer Session, 1916...



.96, 223-224

Baltimore, Western High School.
Classical Reading League.
Middle West and South.





By N. G. McCrea:

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By W. B. McDaniel:

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55-56, 80

By H. H. Yeames:

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