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as individuals, are learning from their own indiscretion and infirmity, to exercise larger forbearance towards each other.

The singular fact has occurred in Prussia of the acquittal of a State prisoner of the name of Waldeck, who certainly would have been condemned under the old regime, and who owes his escape to a "trial by jury." This mode of trial has only recently been introduced into that country. The Constitution of England is said to "have been found in the woods of Germany." If so many of the noblest of the institutions which came from these woods have perished there; and we have had the satisfaction of restoring to the Fathers of our Constitution some of the privileges and advantages which we derived from them. Among these, is the trial by jury. Twelve plain men, shut up in a wooden box, and invested with temporary authority to see with their own eyes, to hear with their own ears, and to follow their own consciences, as to matters of fact, are, we believe, the best human security for the welfare and independence of nations.

But we must now turn to some of the home incidents of the month.

One is the creation of a new Institution, chiefly under the influence of Mr. Sidney Herbert, the Secretary of the Admiralty in Sir Robert Peel's last administration, for the protection of distressed females, and for their deportation, under the most careful superintendence, to those of our Colonies in which the disproportion between the sexes is the greatest. It is impossible to commend too highly the spirit of benevolence which has prompted this movement. It is a comfort to us to know that Mr. Herbert's vigor peculiarly adapts him for the carrying such a design into effect. And as we see that he has called Lord Ashley into his counsels, we may venture to hope that these truths may be kept in constant remembrance-that all such institutions must be based upon religion; that the protection, guidance, instruction of all these destitute, untaught, and often guilty and unreclaimed women, must be of a strictly religious character; and that we shall, in fact, have done little or nothing for them, unless, before we land them on a foreign shores, we endeavour to lead them to the feet of their Redeemer. Whoever has read a little book called the " Convict Ship," may see what may be expected, even among the worst order of prisoners, under the divine blessing, from judicious but zealous religious instruction. Let the “love of God" be laid as the corner stone of the Institution, and we venture to hope that its walls will rise and prosper.

Another important event of the month is the decease of her Majesty, Adelaide the Queen Dowager. On the 13th of December her Majesty's earthly remains were taken from Bentley Priory, the seat of the Marquis of Abercorn, where she died, to be interred in the royal sepulchre at Windsor. Her Majesty had expressed upon paper, a considerable time before her death, her strong desire that she might be carried to the grave "without pomp or state, in the day time, and without any procession-her coffin to be borne by sailors" to the place of interment. This wish was most properly respected: and the absence of all pomp and pageantry at the funeral had the effect of perpetuating that image of simplicity and lowliness which the living character had so strongly impressed upon the public mind. Few royal persons have gone down to the grave more sincerely honoured and lamented. We shall perhaps have our estimate of what she was, the most exalted by considering what she might have been. We need not seek far into the history of Courts, to know that she might, in the position which she occupied, have been haughty, intriguing, and factious. She might have created around her a rival court to that of the reigning sovereign; and, so, have split society into royal factions. She might have set an example of levity, expense, and dissipation. On the contrary, she was simple, upright, and unambitious. She did not linger about the steps of the throne which she had once occupied, to perplex the measures of her young successor. She lived quietly-gave largely-abounded in love and good works; and, as we have private reasons to know, died in humble dependence upon the compassion, righteousness, and intercession of a crucified Saviour.

Not the least incident of the month is the trial of the infinitely im

portant cause of "Gorham versus the Bishop of Exeter," before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. After the extended survey of this question in our last Number, we feel it inexpedient again at present to enter at any length upon it. It does not appear that much new matter was introduced into the argument by the removal of the cause from the Lower to the Upper Court, except as to two particulars-that Mr. Turner, the counsel for Mr. Gorham, established by larger evidence the authority of the Articles as the true standard of doctrine; and that Mr. Badeley, the counsel for the Bishop of Exeter, more explicitly avowed the doctrine of his client as to the identity of the doctrines of Baptism in the churches of Rome and England. We wish that we were not compelled to add, that Mr. Turner's advocacy of a right cause appears to us to have been as imperfect as Mr. Badeley's defence of a wrong one, was plausible and effective. As far, therefore, as depends upon the respective pleaders, we should not entertain any very sanguine hopes as to the result of the trial. But we have every confidence in the power of truth; in the merciful interference of God; and in the reluctance of the Supreme Court of the nation, to come to any decision which may fetter or burden the consciences of good men on either side of the question; and which would not be unlikely to issue in as complete a disruption of the Church of England as that which we have so much reason to deplore in the Church of Scotland. The Judgment of the Privy Council is, we understand, to be given about the middle of January. We must be permitted to express a double hope with regard to this almost overwhelming subject: in the first place, that no attempt will be made, in the Judgment of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, to deliver any positive enunciations of doctrine as to the effects of Infant Baptism; as such declarations must have the effect of harassing tender consciences on one side or the other. The Committee have but one question before thenviz., to decide whether Mr. Gorham's doctrine is, or is not, consistent with an honest subscription to all the Formularies of our Church; and, if they step beyond that question, they may inflict the most serious injuries upon the Church. Our other hope is, that the servants of God will, in the spirit of earnest and confiding supplication, commit this great question to the watchful and merciful superintendence of the great Head of the Church. It is there, that our true strength lies. Impatience, dogmatism, overwrought sensibility of conscience, self-will, precipitation, must injure any cause with which they are associated. Meekness, quietness, charity, and the spirit of devout prayer, cannot fail to surround us with something better even than "chariots of fire and horses of fire,"--with the immediate presence and blessing of a compassionate God.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

We have thought it desirable to discontinue, as not customary in publications such as this, the acknowledgment of books received.

We are sorry to say, in reply to several valuable Correspondents, that it will be impossible for us to insert notices of single Sermons, Pamphlets, and slight Works upon ordinary subjects.

F. G. M's book will be forwarded to the Publisher, if it should be sent to the present Editor.

The Editor thanks F. M. J. B. for his important suggestion, and will be obliged to him to assist in carrying it into effect.

The Editor does not think it desirable, especially at present, to insert a review on the subject of the book named by A. J.-So also, with regard to the Work and Tracts of J. W. T. B.

The Editor cannot undertake to return unused manuscripts, without a special application has been made for that purpose.

In reply to a question on the subject of "District Societies," we beg to say that, supposing the doctrinal opinions of the two parties in question to be equally scriptural a fact of which we entertain the strongest doubt-our Correspondent has an easy escape from his perplexity, by joining that Society which is under the guidance of the clergyman of his parish.

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[The Editor desires to be considered as not responsible, except for the general tone and character of the Papers in the "Miscellaneous" department of this Work.]

ON THE CHRISTIAN HOPE OF HEAVEN.

For the Christian Observer.

WHERE there is a certain experimental acquaintance with the real nature of Christian truth, and with the character of its operation on the mind, the disparaging comments or open attacks of unbelievers may sometimes afford a starting point for pleasant and profitable thought. It is at once felt that such comments and attacks proceed from one who is really ignorant of his subject, and who knows not what he says or whereof he affirms. Such have been my own feelings in reading a recent publication, which, in the midst of much that is beautiful in description and touching in sentiment, discloses the weakness, dishonesty, and misery of a sceptical mind. It was evident throughout that there was an incapacity to apprehend the real nature of moral greatness or goodness, and it was therefore not a matter of surprise that there should be an incapacity to appreciate, either the Christian system, or the characters which it is calculated to form. It seemed to the writer that what is called in Scripture "the world," had upon its side all that is most beautiful and attractive, courageous, noble, and free; and that the religion of nature in Heathen lands, had formed higher characters than had been formed by the Gospel system. Among other things it was insinuated, that our hope of Heaven is a lowering influence; that a far higher place is to be assigned to those who have suffered or died simply in obedience to their sense of right or generous feelings, and without any expectation of future rewards, than to those martyrs of Christianity who believed themselves to be securing an eternal recompense and an inheritance amidst the joys of Paradise.

This statement has led me to some considerations upon the nature of the Christian hope of Heaven, as it is. presented to us CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 146.

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in the Scriptures; which, as they interested my own mind, may possibly interest others.

The above objection has a plausible sound. But has it any foundation in truth?

It is certain that the Christian system clearly embodies, and habitually employs, the doctrine of future reward and punishment, and appeals to hope and fear, in regard to the world to come, in the strongest imaginable terms. Nor has there been any want of writers to prove, or of readers to feel, on the one hand, how suitable to human nature, how reasonable in itself, how effective for good, and indeed how essential, from the state of the case, is this part of the Christian system; and on the other hand, how foolish and injurious are the notions of those who, "pretending to a more spiritual, refined, and sublime theology, have, among other their subtle doctrines, delivered this for a certain truth, that the obedience which is excited by the hope of reward is not a true but a servile obedience; and, so, not to be allowed in Christians under the Gospel." It is with justice that old Bishop Bull reflects upon the connection between the error which lies in such half false, half truthful, sayings, and the heresy of the Sadducees, "which heresy arose from a saying of Antigonus, master of Sudoc, which the learned Drusius relates out of good authors, "Be not ye like those servants who serve their master for reward; but be ye like those servants who serve their master, but not for reward."

But without bringing into the field such ponderous artillery as the Sadducees, Bishop Bull, and the learned Drusius, let us take for granted that "it is lawful to have respect unto the recompence of the reward;" that the Gospel calls us to do so; that human nature requires the use of this principle; and that the servants of God have always found in it, not indeed the prime motive of their actions, but a powerful stimulus, encouragement, and support. The question is, Does not such a motive diminish the grandeur of their grand examples? Does it not give a lower and commoner tone to their characters? A man does or suffers great things; he gives all his goods to feed the poor, or he gives his body to be burned; but when we are told that, in so doing, he is under the firm persuasion that he is about, in consequence of this, to inherit a heaven of glory and joy, will not a high-minded man feel his admiration of such a character impaired? Or, at least, has not an unbeliever a right to make such observations as those which have been cited above? May he not be allowed to think, that the principle of compensation invests with something of an ordinary and human character a system which purchases its great deeds with such promises, and carries them through by such persuasions? In the case of a false religion, Heathen or Mahommedan, we should willingly suffer an historian to indulge in such reflections, and whilst he told, for instance, how the warriors of Islam sacrificed their lives in the confidence that they thus secured the desired joys of Paradise, we should feel that the observation was

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far from elevating the character of their courage? Why is it anything more than a prejudice, to feel shocked when similar remarks are applied to the heroes and martyrs of our own faith?

Every one will see that the view we take of this motive, in its connection with the more remarkable achievements and sufferings of Christians, must necessarily extend to the influence of religion on our daily conduct. In the first place, then, it is evident to all who know the true Gospel system in its operation on the mind, that there is an absolute falsehood in representing the hope of obtaining Heaven as the moving spring which prompts the Christian to his particular acts of sacrifice or obedience. Believing that inheritance to be already purchased for him by the sacrifice and obedience of another, he acts under the constraining power of the love of Christ, and of a conscience animated with new-born instincts of holiness and truth. It is abundantly evident that, independently of all respect to "the recompence of the reward," these lofty and unselfish principles of action have been the grand sources of those conquests over self and over the world, those triumphs over all that the world loves or fears, which raise the annals of the Christian Church above all other records of man.

Still the hope of Heaven has its own place in that assemblage of new motives, which the Gospel lodges in the mind. While the Christian presses forward, he has his eye fixed on "the prize of his high calling" he speaks of a "crown which is laid up" for him; his mind dwells on the prospect of a world where he will have every thing according to his own wish—a state of rest and security, pleasure and happiness, glory and honour and immortality.

Now a wise thinker, who should know no more of a Christian's hope than this rudimental account of it, would at once discover such a motive of action to be, not merely useful in the present condition of our nature, but morally elevating to the mind which is under its influence. It has been often observed, that every thing which carries man beyond the present, which connects him strongly with the past or with the future, is a wholesome influence, and has a tendency to improve and exalt the character. If this be true, even when the scene of such remembrances or expectations is laid in the present world, it is surely more true, when the region with which the mind has formed its associations is more distant, more lofty, more remote from the world of sense. A sure persuasion of things hoped for, a sense of personal connection with things not seen, is an exercise of those highest and most far-reaching principles of our nature by which man is most raised above the beasts that perish. But, without dwelling further on such preliminary observations, let us proceed to the real point from which the subject should be viewed. The question is, not as to the moral value of such a motive as the expectation of a future reward and the prospect of a heavenly inheritance,

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