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TEXT. 11 For there is no respect of persons with God. 12 For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without

law; and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the

law;

13 (For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers

of the law shall be justified. 14 For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the

things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves :

PARAPHRASE. 11 and also on the Gentile. For with God there is no respect of 12 persons. For all that have sinned without having the positive

law of God, which was given the Israelites, shall perish

without the law; and all who have sinned, being under the 13 law, shall be judged by the law, (For the bare hearers of the

law are not thereby just or righteous in the sight of God, but

the doers of the law; they who exactly perform all that is 14 commanded in it shall be justified. For when the Gentiles,

who have no positive law given them by Gods, do, by the direction of the light of nature, observe or keep to the moral

NOTES. God, before the Messias : and that, under the Messias, the professors of Chri. stianity, consisting most of converted Gentiles, were the people of God, owned and ackuowledged as such by him, the unbelieving Jews being rejected, and the unbelieving Gentiles never received ; but that yet personally both Jews and Gentiles, every single person, shall be punished for his owu particular sin, as

appears by the two next verses. 12 f'ATOMOūvas, “ shall perish;" xpodnocytas, “ shall be judged.” Those under the law, St. Paul says,

shall be judged by the law;" and this is easy to conceive, because they were under a positive law, wherein life and death were annexed, as the reward and punishment of obedience and disobedience; but of the Gentiles, who were not under that positive law, he says barely, that " they shall perish." St. Paul does not use these so eminently differing expressions for nothing; they will, I think, give some light to chap. v. 13, and my interpretation

of it, if they lead us no farther. 14 6 Mvópor (xoyles, “ having not the law,” or not having a law. The apostle by

the word law, generally, in this epistle, signifying a positive law, given by God, and promulgated by a revelation from heaven, with the sanction of declared rewards and punishments annexed to it, it is not improbable, that in this verse, (where, by the Greek particle, he so plainly points out the law of Moses) by rópos, without the article, may intend law in general, in his sense of a law, and so this verse may be translated thus: “ for when the Gentiles, who have not a law, do by nature the things contained in the law; these, not having a law, are a law to themselves.” And so ver. 12, “ As many as have sivned, being under a law, shall be judged by a law." For though, from Adam to Christ, there was no revealed, positive law, but that given to the Israelites; yet it is certain that, by Jesus Christ, a positive law from heaven is giveu to all mankind, and that those to whom this has been promulgated, by the preaching of the Gospel, are all under it, and shall be judged by it.

TEXT 15 Which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their con

science also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while

accusing or else excusing one another) 16 In the day, when God shall judge the secrets of men, by Jesus Christ,

according to my Gospel. 17 Behold thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest

thy boast of God; 18 And knowest his will, and approvest the things that are more ex

cellent, being instructed out of the law; 19 And art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light

of them which are in darkness,

PARAPHRASE. rectitude, contained in the positive law, given by God to the

Israelites, they, being without any positive law given them, have 15 nevertheless a law within themselves; And show the rule of

the law written in their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness to that law, they amongst themselves, in the reasoning

of their own minds, accusing or excusing one another) 16 At the day of judgment, when, as I make known in my

preaching the Gospel", God shall judge all the actions of men, 17 by Jesus Christ. Behold, thou art namedi a Jew; and thou,

with satisfaction, restest in the privilege of having the law, as a mark of God's peculiar favour", whom thou gloriest in, as

being thy God, and thou one of his people; a people, who 18 alone know and worship the true God; And thou knowest

his will, and hast the touch-stone of things excellent', having 19 been educated in the law, And takest upon thee as one who

art a guide to the blind m, a light to the ignorant Gentiles, who

NOTES. 16 + 6 According to my Gospel," i. e, as I make known in my preaching the Gospel.

That this is the meaning of this phrase, may be seen, 2 Tim. ij. 8. And of St. Paul's declaring of it, in his preaching, we have an instance left upou record,

Acts xvii. 31. 17 i 'Etovouán, thou art named, emphatically said by St. Paul; for he, that was

such a Jew as he describes in the following verses, he insists on it, was a Jew only in name, not in reality; for so he concludes, ver. 28 and 29, he is not, in

the esteem of God, a Jew, who is 80 outwardly only. 17--20 k In these four verses St. Paul makes use of the titles the Jews assumed to

themselves, from the advantages they had, of light and koowledge, above the Gentiles, to show them how inexcusable they were, in judging the Gentiles, who were even in their own account so much beneath them in knowledge, for doing

those things which they themselves were also guilty of. 17 k Vid. Mic. iii. 11. 18 'Tà Slapéporla, signifies things excellent, convenient, controverted, or differing.

In either of these senses it may be understood here, though the last, viz. their difference in respect of lawful and unlawful, I think may be pitched on, as most suited to the apostle's design here, and that which the Jews much stood upon, as giving them one great pre-eminence above the defiled Gentiles,

TEXT, 20 An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, which hast the form

of knowledge, and of the truth in the law. 21 Thou, therefore, which teachest another, teachest thou not thyself?

thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost thou steal ? 22 Thou, that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou com

mit adultery? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege? 23 Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law,

dishonourest thou God? 24 For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles, through

you, as it is written. 25 For circumcision verily prosteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou

be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision. 26 Therefore, if the uncircumcision keep the righteousness of the law,

shall not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision?

PARAPHRASE. 20 are in darkness m, An instructor of the foolish m, a teacher of

babes m, having an exact draught, and a complete system of 21 knowledge and truth in the law. Thou, therefore, who art a

master in this knowledge, and teachest others, teachest thou

not thyself? thou that preachest that a man should not steal, 22 dost thou steal ? Thou that declarest adultery to be unlawful,

dost thou commit it? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou com23 mit sacrilege? Thou who gloriest in the law, dost thou, by 24 breaking of the law, dishonour God? For the name of God

is blasphemed amongst the Gentiles, by reason of your miscar25 riages, as it is written", Circumcision P indeed, and thy being

a Jew, profiteth ?, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a

transgressor of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircum26 cision; thou art no way better than an heathen. If, therefore,

an uncircumcised Gentile keep the moral rectitudes' of the

NOTES. 19, 20 m m « Blind, in darkness, foolish, babes," were appellations which the Jews

gave to the Gentiles, signifying how much inferior to themselves they thought

them in knowledge. 20. Mépowois, "form," seems here to be the same with TÚTOS, “ form," chap. vi.

17, i.e." such a draught, as contained and represented the parts and lineaments of the whole.” For it is to be remembered, that the apostle uses these expressious, and terms here, in the same sense the Jews spoke of themselves, vauntingly, over the Gentiles, he thereby aggravating their fault, in judging the Gen

tiles as they did. 24 · See 2 Sam. xii, 14. Ezek, xxxvi. 23. 25 P Circumcision is here put for “ being a Jew," as being one of the chief and most

discriminating rites of that people. ?“ Profit if thou keep the law;" because a Jew, that kept the law, s to

have life therein, Lev. xviii. 5. 26 Tà @ox gumala rož vómou,“ the righteousness of the law," I have taken the

liberty to render it, the rectitude of the law, in an appropriated sense of the

1

NOTE. word rectitude, in imitation of St. Paul, who uses Bozambalo here for all those precepts of the law, which contain in them any part of the natural and eternal rule of rectitade, which is made known to men, by the light of reason. This role of their actions all mankind, uncircumcised as well as circumcised, had, and is that which St. Paul calls Buxalwua Torci, ch. i. 32. Because it came from God, and was made by him; the moral rule to all mankind being laid within the discovery of their reason, which if they kept to, it was ex alwja, righteous. ness to them, or they were justified. And this rule of morality St. Paul says the Gentile world did acknowledge. So that Binabwua tū Orcū, ch. i. 32, signifies that rule of right, taken in general; and Bonausala tou 16 jou here signifies the particular branches of it, contained in the law of Moses. For no other part of the law of Moses could an heathen be supposed to observe, or be concerned in : and, therefore, those only can be the Binaubuala toũ hóucu here meant. 18 we consider the various senses that translators and expositors have given to this term Boxalwpa, in the several places of St. Paul's epistles where it occurs, we shall have occasion to think that the apostle used this word with great latitude and variety of significations; whereas I imagine, that, if we carefully read those passages, we shall find that he used it every where in the same sense, i. e. for that rule, which, it complied with, justified, or rendered perfect, the person or thing it referred to. For exainple:

Rom. i. 32. Arxalwpa so, translated “the judgment of God,” is that rule of right, which, if the heathen world had kept and perfectly obeyed, they had been righteous before God.

Rom. ii. 26. Arxandata toŰ rojov, “ the righteousness of the law," are those precepts of the law of Moses, which, if the uncircumcised, whom he there speaks of, had kept, they had been righteous before God.

Rom. v. 16. Els Boxandbua, " to justification,” is to the obtaining of righteousness.

Rom. v. 18. Al ords Box au matos, “ by one righteousness,” is by one act, whereby he was justified or completely perfected, to be what he had undertaken to be, viz. the Redeemer and Saviour of the world. For it was 8d wah purw, or, as some copies read it, 8ed walhpatos, by his suffering, viz. death on the cross, that he was perfected, Heb. ii. 9, 10, and 14, 15, and v. 7-9. Rom. v. 10. Phil. ii. 8. Col. i. 21, 22.

Rom. viii. 4. ad Brnaíwpa toŰ ubyov, “ the righteousness of the law." Here, as Rom. ii. 20, it is that rule of right, contained in the law, which, if a man exactly performed, he was righteous and perfect before God.

Heb. ix. 1. Astoupata halpolas, Ordinances of divine service," are those rules or precepts, concerning the outward worship of God, which, when conformed to, render it perfect, and such as was right and unblamable before God.

Heb. ix. 10. Aixas para caprós, “ carnal ordinances,” are such rules, concerning ritual performances, as, when observed, justified the flesh. By these observances, according as they were prescribed, the flesh, or natural outward man, obtained a legal outward holiness, or righteousness ; there was no exception against him, but he was freely admitted into the congregation, and into the sanctuary.

In the same sense Birampata is also used in the Apocalypse.

Rev. xv. 4. Tà Box auspata con i Pavepubönoav, “thy judgments are made manifest," i. e. those terms whereupon men are to be justified before God, were clearly and fully made known, under the Gospel. Here, as Rom. i. they are called Biraud para tou, the terms which God had prescribe to men, for their justification. And,

Rev. xix. 8. Tà Brxamópata güv dylu, “the righteousness of the saints," i. c. the performances, whereby the saints stand justified before God.

TEXT. 27 And shall not uncircumcision, which is by nature, if it fulfil the law,

judge thee, who by the letter and circumcision dost transgress the

law? 28 For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh:

PARAPHRASE. law, shall he not be reckoned and accounted of as if he were 27 circumcised, and every way a Jew? And shall not a Gentile,

who, in his natural state of uncircumcision, fulfils the law,

condemn thee, who, notwithstanding the advantage of having 28 the law and circumcision , art a transgressor of the law ? For

NOTES. So that, if we will observe it, 8ıxaiwus is the rule of right; as having God for its author, it is exabwrece koll; as contained in the precepts of the law, it is Orxasu patx Toữ vómov; as it concerns the external, instituted rites of the Levi. Lical worship of God, it is sixarupata haspelas; as it concerns the outward, legal, or ritual holiness of the Jews, it is 8ıxarajata oxfxos; as it is in holy men nade perfect, it is dexascuata dylwe.

It may not be amiss to take a little notice also of St. Paul's use of the other term bere, vómos, “law," which he commonly puts for a positive rule given to men, with the sanetion of a penalty annexed ; and in particular, frequently (sometimes with, sometimes without, the particle) for the law of Moses, without naming what law he means, as if there had been no other law in the world, as indeed there was not any other in St. Paul's notion of a law, from the fall to our Saviour's time, but only the law given by God to the Israelites, by the hand of Moses. Under the Gospel the law of Moses was abrogated: but yet the δικαιώματα του νομού were not abrogated. The δικαιώμα του Θεού not only stood firm, but was, by the divine authority, promulgated anew, by Jesus Christ, the King and Saviour of the world. For it is of this that he says,

" that he is not come to destroy the law, but to fulfil it," i. e. to give it positively and plaiuly, in its full latitude and extent, and set these dixasuyaTa Toữ vópoll in their due light and full force; and accordingly we see all the branches of it more expressly commanded, and with penalties more vigorously enforced, on all his subjects, by our Saviour and his apostles, than they were in the law of Moses.

Thus we see that, by the doctrine of St. Paul and the New Testament, there is one and the same rule of rectitude set to the actions of all mankind, Jews, Gentiles, and Christians; and that failing of a complete obedience to it in every tittle makes a man unrighteous, the consequence whereof is death. For the Gentiles, that have sinned without a law, shall perish without a law; the Jews, that have sinned, having a law, shall be judged by that law; but that both Jews and Gentiles shall be saved from death, if they believe in Jesus Christ, and sincerely endeavour after righteousness, though they do not attain unto it; their

faith being accounted to them for righteousness, Rom. ii. 19-24. 27 : “ Judge thee.” This he saith, prosecuting the design he began with, ver. I,

of showing the folly and unreasonableness of the Jews, in judging the Gentiles, and denying them admittance and fellowship with themselves, in the kingdom of the Messias. +

It is plain that “ by nature," and " by the letter and circumcision,” are there opposed to one another, and mean the one, a man, in his natural state, wholly a stranger to the law of God revealed by Moses; and the other a Jew, observing the external rites contained io the letter of the law.

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