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TEXT. 27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman,

burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompense

of their error which was meet. 28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge,

God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient ;

PARAPHRASE. their women did change their natural use, into that which is 27 against nature: And likewise their men, leaving also the

natural use of the women, burned in their lusts one towards another, men with men practising that which is shameful, and

receiving in themselves a fit reward of their error, i.e. idolatry). 28 And P, as they did not search out 9 God, whom they had in the

world, so as to have him with a due acknowledgment' of him, God gave them up to an unsearching and unjudicious mind, to do things incongruous, and not meet' to be done ;

NOTES. 27 “ Error," so idolatry is called, 2 Pet. ii. 18. As they, against the light of

nature, debased and dishonoured God by their idolatry, it was a just and fit recompense they received, in being left to debase and dishonour themselves by un

natural lusts. 28 p“ And.” This copulative joins this verse to the 25th, so that the apostle will

be better understood, if all between be looked on as a parenthesis, this being a continnation of what he was there saying, or rather a repetition of it in short, which led him into the thread of his discourse. I 'Oux idoxiuaoan, “ did not like," rather did not try, or search ; for the Greek word signifies to search, and find out by searching : so St. Paul often uses it, chap. ii. 18, and xii. 2, compared, and xiv. 22. Eph. v. 10. ''Ev értyváósi, with acknowledgment. That the Gentiles were not wholly without the knowledge of God in the world, St. Paul tells us, in this very chapter, but they did not acknowledge him as they ought, ver. 21. They had God diyor Bed, but ούκ εδοκίμασαν έχειν αυτόν εν επιγνώσει, did not so improve that knowledge, as to acknowledge or honour him as they ought. This verse seems, in other words, to express the såme that is said ver. 21. • Eis áðóximov yoûv, “ to a reprobate mind,” rather to an unsearching mind, in the sepse of St. Paul, who often uses compounds and derivatives in the sense wherein, a little before, he used the primitive words, though a little varying from the precise Greek idiom : an example whereof we have, in this very word, áðóxopos, 2 Cor. xiii. where having, ver. 3, used 8oxopen for a proof of his mission by supernatural gifts, he uses å8óximos for one that was destitute of such proofs. So here he tells the Romans, that the Gentiles, not exercising their minds to search out the truth, and form their judgments right, God left them to an unsearching, unjudicious mind.

Non explorantibus permisit mente non exploratricem. "A discourse like this of St. Paul here, wherein idolatry is made the cause of the enormous crimes and profligate lives men run into, may be read Wisdom xiv. 11, &c.

TEXT. 29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covet

ousness, maliciousness ; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malig

nity; whisperers, 30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of

evil things, disobedient to parents, 31 Without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affec

tion, implacable, unmerciful : 32 Who knowing the judgment of God (that they which commit such

things are worthy of death) not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.

PARAPHRASE. 29 Being filled with all manner of iniquity, fornication, wicked

ness, covetousness, malice, full of envy, contention, deceit, 30 malignity, even to murder, Backbiters, haters of God, insulters

of men, proud, boasters, inventors of new arts of debauchery, 31 disobedient to parents, Without understanding, covenant

breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: 32 Who, though they acknowledge the rule of right « prescribed

them by God, and discovered by the light of nature, did not yet understand w that those, who did such things, were worthy of death, do* not only do them themselves, but live well to

NOTES. 32 u Td doxalapa ToŨ €0, “ the judgment of God;" might it not be translated the

rectitude of God, i. e. that rule of rectitude which God had given to mankind, in giving them reason? as that righteousness, which God requires for salvation in the Gospel, is called “the righteousness of God,” ver. 17. Rectitude, in the translation, being used in this appropriated sense, as Sexabwa is in the original. Vid. note, chap. ii. 26. w Oủx évóng av 77ı, did not understand that they who commit, &c. This reading is justified by the Clermont, and another ancient ms. as well as by that which the old Latin version followed, as well as Clement, Isidore, and Ecumenius : and will, probably, be thought the more genuine by those, who can hardly suppose that St. Paul should affirm, that the Gentile world did know, that he, who offended against any of the directions of this natural rule of rectitude, taught, or discoverable by the light of reason, was worthy of death ; especially if we remember what he says, chap. v. 13, “That sin is not imputed when there is no positive law," and chap. vii. 9, "I was alive without the law, once :" both which places signifying, that men did not know death to be the wages of sin, in general, but by the declaration of a positive law. * Evveudoxovos tois wpdorouos, “have pleasure in those that do them.” He that considers, that the design of the apostle here, manifest in the immediately following words, is to combat the animosity of the Jews against the Gentiles; and that there could not be a more effectual way to shame them into a more modest and mild temper, than by showing them that the Gentiles, in all the darkness that blinded them, and the extravagancies they ran into, were never guilty of such au absurdity as this, to censure and separate from others, and show an implacable aversion to them, for what they themselves were equally guilty of :

II. 1 Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that

judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself;
for thou that judgest dost the same thing.

PARAPHRASE. gether, without any mark of disesteem, or censure, with them II. I that do them. Ý Therefore, thou art inexcusable, O man,

whosoever thou art”, that judgest a or censurest another; for


he, I say, that considers this, will be easily persuaded to understand oureubout here as I do, for a complacency, that avoided censuring, or breaking with them, who were in the same state and course of life with themselves, that did nothing amiss, but what they themselves were equally guilty of. There can be nothing clearer than that ouvevooroīds, have pleasure, in this verse, is opposed to upíveis, judgest, in the next verse, without which I do not see how it is possible to make

out the inference which the apostle draws here.
1 y“ Therefore.” This is a term of illation, and shows the consequence here,

drawn from the foregoing words. Therefore the Jew is inexcusable in judging,
because the Gentiles, with all the darkness that was on their minds, were never
guilty of such a folly as to judge those who were no more faulty than themselves.
For the better understanding of this place, it may not, perhaps, be amiss to set
the whole argumentation of the apostle here in its due light : it stands thus :
“ the Gentiles ackpowledged the rectitude of the law of nature, but knew pot
that those, who break any of its rules, incurred death by their transgression ;
but, as much in the dark as they were, they are not guilty of any such absurdity,
as to condemn others, or refuse communication with them, as unworthy of their
society, who are no worse than themselves, nor do any thing but what they
themselves do equally with them, but live in complacency, on fair terms with
them, without censure or separation, thinking as well of their condition as of
their own; therefore, if the blinded heathen do so, thou, O Jew, art idex-
cusable, who having the light of the revealed law of God, and knowing by it, that
the breaches of the law merit death, dost judge others to perdition, and shut
them out from salvation, for that, which thou thyself art equally guilty of, viz.
disobedience to the law. Thou, a poor, ignorant, conceited, fallible man, sittest
in judgment upon others, and committest the same things thou condemnest them
for : but this thou mayest be sure, that the judgment and condempation of God is
right and firm, and will certainly be executed upon those who do such things. For
thou, who adjudgest the heathen to condemnation for the same things which
thou dost thyself, canst thou imagine that thou thyself shalt escape the same
judgment of God? God, whatever thou mayest think, is no respecter of persons :
both Jews as well as Gentiles, that are perversely contentious against others,
and do not themselves obey the Gospel, shall meet with wrath and indignation
from God; and Gentiles, as well as Jews, whom the goodness and forbearance
of God bringeth to repentance, and an humble, submissive acceptance of the
Gospel, shall find acceptance with God, and eternal life, in the kingdom of the
Messias; from which, if thou art contentious to shut out the Gentiles, thou
manifestly shuttest out thyself.”
2“ O man, whosoever thou art." It is plain from ver. 17 and 27, and the
whole tenour of this chapter, that St. Paul, by these words, means the Jews;
but there are two visible reasons, why he speaks in these terms: Ist, he makes
his conclusion general, as having the more force, but less offence, thau if he had

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TEXT. 2 But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth,

against them which commit such things. 3 And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such

things, and dost the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of

God? 4 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness, and forbearance, and

long-suffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?

PARAPHRASE. wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself: for

thou, that judgest, art alike guilty, in doing the same things. 2 But this we are sure of, that the judgment that God passes

upon any offenders is according to truth, right and just. 8 Canst thou, who dost those things which thou condemnest in

another, think that thou shalt escape the condemning sentence 4 of God? Or slightest thou the riches of his goodness, for

bearance, and long-suffering, not knowing, nor considering, that the goodness of God ought to lead thee to repentance ?

NOTES. bluntly named the Jews, whom he is very careful, in all this epistle, to treat in the softest manner imaginable. 2dly, He uses the term, man, emphatically, in opposition to God, in the vext verse. • Judgest." There will need nothing to be said to those who read this epistle with the least attention, to prore, that the judging, which St. Paul here speaks of, was, that aversion, which the Jews geverally had to the Gentiles; so that the unconverted Jews could not bear with the thoughts of a Messias, that admitted the heathen, equally with them, into his kingdom; nor could the converted Jews be brought to admit them into their communion, as the people of God, now equally with themselves : so that they generally, both one and the other, judged them unworthy the favour of God, and out of a capacity to become his people any other way but by circumcision and an observance of the ritual parts of the law, the inexcusableness and absurdity whereof St. Paul shows

in this chapter. 26" According to truth," doth, I suppose, siguify not barely a true judgment,

which will stand in opposition to an erroneous, and that will not take effect, but something more, i. e. according to the truth of his predictions and threats. As if he had said, “But if God in judgment cast off the Jews from being any longer his people, we know this to be accurding to his truth, who hath forewarned them of it. Ye Jews judge the Gentiles not to be received into the people of God, and refuse them admittance into the kingdom of the Messias, though you break the law, as well as they ; you judge as prejudiced, passionate men. But the judgment of God against you will stand firm." The reason why he does it so covertly, may be that which I have before mentioned, his great care not to shock the Jews, especially here in the beginning, till he had got fast hold upon them. And hence possibly it is, that he calls obeying the Gospel obeying the truth, ver. 8, and uses other the like soft expressions in this chapter.

TEXT. 5 But, after thy hardness and impenitent heart, treasurest up unto

thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the right

eous judgment of God; 6 Who will render to every man according to his deeds: 7 To them who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory

and honour and immortality, eternal life: 8 But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but

obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, 9 Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doth evil, of

the Jew first, and also of the Gentile; 10 But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to

the Jew first and also to the Gentile:


5 But layest up to thyself wrath and punishment, which thou

wilt meet with, at the day of judgment, and that just retribu

tion, which shall be awarded thee by God, in proportion to thy 6 impenitency, and the hardness of thy heart; Who will retri

bute to every one according to his works, viz. Eternal life to

all those who by patience and gentleness in well-doing seek 8 glory and honour, and a state of immortality: But to them

who are contentious * and forward, and will not obey the

truth , but subject themselves to unrighteousness; indignation 9 and wrath; Tribulation and anguish shall be poured out upon every

soul of man that worketh evil, of the Jew first., and also 10 of the Gentile. But glory, honour, and peace, shall be be

stowed on every man, that worketh good, on the Jew first,

NOTES. 7. Patience, in this verse, is opposed to contentious * in the next, and seems

principally to regard the Jews, who had no patience for any consideration of the Gentiles, but, with a strange peevishness and contention, opposed the freedom of the Gospel, in admitting the believing Gentiles to the franchises of the king

dom of the Messias, upon equal terms with themselves. 8 a Though by “ truth,” the Gospel be here meant, yet I doubt not but St. Paul

used the term, truth, with an eye to the Jews, who though some few of them received the Gospel, yet even a great part of those few joined with the rest of their nation in opposing this great truth of the Gospel, that, under the Messias, the Gentiles, who believed, were the people of God as well as the Jews, and as

such were to be received by them. 9, 10 ¢ « The Jew first, and also the Gentile." We see, by these two verses, and chap. i. 16, that St. Paul carefully lays it down, that there was now, under the Gospel, no other national distinction between the Jews and the Gentiles, but only a priority in the offer of the Gospel, and in the design of rewards and punishments, according as the Jews obeyed, or not. Which may farther satisfy us, that the distinction, which St. Paul insists on so much here, and all through the first part of this epistle, is national; the comparison being between the Jews, as nationally the people of God; and the Gentiles, as not the people of

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