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you, whether

TEXT. 9 For to this end, also, did I write, that I might know the proof of


be obedient in all things. 10 To whom ye forgive any thing, I forgive also: for, if I forgave any

thing, to whom I forgave it, for your sakes forgave I it, in the person

of Christ. 11 Lest Satan should get an advantage of us : for we are not ignorant

of his devices. 12 Furthermore, when I came to Troas, to preach Christ's Gospel, and

a door was opened unto me of the Lord, 13 I had no rest in my spirit, because I found not Titus, my brother :

but, taking my leave of them, I went from thence into Macedonia. 14 Now thanks be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in

Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge by us in

every place. 15 For we are unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are

saved, and in them that perish.

your sakes,

PARAPHRASE. 9 love to him, which I doubt not of. For this, also, was one

end of my writing to you, viz. To have a trial of you, and

to know whether you are ready to obey me in all things. 10 To whom you forgive any thing, I also forgive. For if I have

forgiven any thing, I have forgiven it to him for 11 by the authority, and in the name of Christ ; That we may not

be over-reached by Satan: for we are not ignorant of his

wiles. 12 Furthermore, being arrived at Troas, because Titus, whom I

expected from Corinth, with news of you, was not come, I was very uneasy! there; insomuch that I made not use of the

opportunity, which was put into my hands by the Lord, of 13 preaching the Gospel of Christ, for which I came thither. I

hastily left those of Troas, and departed thence to Macedonia. 14 But thanks be to God, in that he always makes me triumph

every where m, through Christ, who gives me success in

preaching the Gospel, and spreads the knowledge of Christ by 15 me... For my ministry, and labour in the Gospel, is a service,

or sweet-smelling sacrifice to God, through Christ, both in

NOTES. 12 | How uneasy he was, and upon what account, see ch. vii. 5—16. It was not

barely for Titus's absence, but for want of the news he brought with him;

ch. vii. 7. 14 m“ Who makes me triumph every where," i. e. In the success of my preaching,

in my journey to Macedouia ; and also in my victory, at the same time, at Corinth, over the false apostles, my posers, that had raised a faction against me amongst you. This, I think, is St. Paul's meaning, and the reason of his using the word triumph, which implies contest and victory, though he places that word so, as modestly to cover it.

TEXT. 16 To the one, we are the savour of death unto death ; and to the other,

the savour of life unto life; and who is sufficient for these things? 17 For we are not as many, which corrupt the word of God; but as of

sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God, speak we in Christ.


16 regard of those that are saved, and those that perish. To the

one my preaching is of ill savour, unacceptable and offensive, by their rejecting whereof they draw death on themselves; and to the other, being as a sweet savour, acceptable, they thereby receive eternal life. And who is sufficient for these things "? And yet, as I said, my service in the Gospel is well-pleasing to

God.' For I am not, as several are, who are hucksters of the 17 word of God, preaching it for gain ; but I preach the Gospel

of Jesus Christ in sincerity. I speak, as from God himself, and I deliver it, as in the presence of God.


16 - Vid. ch. iii. 5, 6.
17 • This, I think, may be understood of the false apostle.




His speaking well of himself, (as he did sometimes in his first epistle, and with much more freedom in this, which, as it seems, had been objected to him, amongst the Corinthians) his plainness of speech, and his sincerity in preaching the Gospel, are the things which he chiefly justifies, in this section, many ways. We shall observe his arguments, as they come in the order of St. Paul's discourse, in which are mingled, with great insinuation, many expressions of an overflowing kindness to the Corinthians, not without some exhortations to them.

TEXT. i Do we begin again to commend ourselves ? or need we, as some

others, epistles of commendation to you, or letters of commendation

from you? 2 Ye are our epistle, written in our hearts, known and read of all men: 3 Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ,

ministered by us, written, not with ink, but with the Spirit of the

living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the heart. 4 And such trust have we, through Christ, to God-ward : 5 Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing, as of our

selves; but our sufficiency is of God;

PARAPHRASE. 1 Do I begin again to commend myself a ; or need I, as 2 some b, commendatory letters to or from you? You are

my commendatory epistle, written in my heart, known and 3 read by all men. I need no other commendatory letter, but

that you being manifested to be the commendatory epistle of Christ, written on my behalf; not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not on tables of stone , but of the

heart, whereof I was the amanuensis; i. e. your conversation 4 was the effect of my ministry. And this so great confidence 5 have I, through Christ, in "God. Not as if I were sufficient

of myself to reckon upon any thing, as of myself; but my

NOTES. a This is a plain indication, that he had been blamed, amongst them, for commending himself. b Seems to intimate, that their false apostle had got himself recommended to

them by letters, and so had introduced himself into that church. 3 The sense of St. Paul, in this 3d verse, is plainly this: that he needed no

letters of commendation to them; but that their conversion, and the Gospel, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of God, in the tables of their hearts, and not in tables of stone, by his ministry, was as clear an evidence and testimony to them, of his mission from Christ, as the law, writ in tables of stone, was an evidence of Moses's mission'; so that he, St. Paul, needed no other recommendation : this is what is to be understood by this verse, unless we will make “ the tables of stone” to have no signification here. But to say, as he does, that the Corinthiaus, being writ upon, in their hearts, not with ink, but with the Spirit of God, by the hand of St. Paul, was Christ's commendatory letter of him, being a pretty bold expression, liable to the exception of the captious part of the Corinthians; he, to obviate all imputation of vanity, or vain

glory, herein immediately subjoins what follows in the next verse. 4 - As if he had said, “ But mistake me not, as if I boasted of myself: this so

great boasting, that I use, is only my confidence in God, through Christ : for it was God, that made me a minister of the Gospel, that bestowed on me the

ability for it; and whatever I perform in it is wholly from him.” 5 e llenolonois, “ trust,” ver. 4, a milder term for “ boasting," for so St.

Paul uses it, chap. x. 7, compared with ver. 8, where also hoyezé obw, ver. 7, is used, as here, for counting upon one's self; St. Paul also uses aérodas, for “ zhou boastest," Rom. ii, 19, which will appear, if compared with ver. 17;

TEXT. 6 Who also hath made us able ministers of the New Testament, not

of the letter, but of the spirit ; for the letter killeth, but the spirit

giveth life. 7 But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones,

was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his countenance, which glory

was to be done away; 8 How shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather glorious ?

PARAPHRASE. sufficiency, my ability, to perform any thing, is wholly from 6 God: who has fitted and enabled me to be a minister of the

New Testament, not of the letter', but of the spirit; for the 7 letter kills, but the spirit gives life. But, if the ministry of

the law written in stone, which condemns to death, were so glorious to Moses, that his face shone so, that the children of

Israel could not steadily behold the briglıtness of it, which was 8 but temporary, and was quickly to vanish”; How can it be

NOTES. or if moyíoapguu shall rather be thought to signify here to discover by reasoning, then the apostle's sense will run thus: “Not as if I were sufficient of myself, by the strength of my own natural parts, to attain the knowledge of the Gospel truths, that I preach; but my ability herein is all from God.” But, in whatever sense noylocolou is here taken, it is certain zi, which is translated “any thing," must be limited to the subject in hand, viz. the Gospel that he preached to

them. 6 " Où ypápepalos, árad a veÚMQTOS, “not of the letter, but of the spirit.” By ex

pressing himself, as he does here, St. Paul may be understood to intimate, that “the New Testament, or covenant,” was also, though obscurely, held forth in the law: For he says, he was constituted a minister, aveópatos, “ of the spirit," or spiritual meaning of the law, which was Christ, (as he tells us himself, ver. 17) and giveth life, whilst the letter killeth. But both letter and spirit must be understood of the same thing, viz. “the letter of the law, and the spirit of the law.” And, in fact, we find St. Paul truly a minister of the spirit of the law; especially in his epistle to the Hebrews, where he shows what a spiritual sense ran through the Mosaical institution and writings. 8 " The letter kills,” i. e. pronouncing death, without any way of remissiou, on all transgressors, leaves them under an irrevocable sentence of death. But the

Spirit, i. e. Christ, ver. 17, who is a quickening Spirit, 1 Cor. xv. 45, giveth life. 7 h Kalapyoupévnv, “done away,” is applied here to the shining of Moses's face,

and to the law, ver. 11, and 13. In all which places it is used in the present teuse, and has the signification of an adjective, standing for temporary, or of a duration whose end was determined ; and is opposed to tu móvonta, “ that which remaineth," i. e, that which is lasting, and hath no predetermined end set to it, as ver. 11, where the Gospel dispensation is called od révoy, “that which remaineth." This may help us to understand &nd 86 Ens eis 86cav, ver. 18, “from glory to glory,” which is manifestly opposed to 36n xatapyouuém, “the glory done away,” of this verse ; and so plainly siguifies a continued, lasting glory of the ministers of the Gospel ; which, as he tells us there, consisted in their being TEXT. 9 For if the ministration of condempation be glory, much more doth

the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory. 10 For even that, which was made glorious, had no glory, in this

respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth. 11 For if that which is done away was glorious, much more that which

remaineth, is glorious. 12 Seeing then that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech :

PARAPHRASE. otherwise, but that the ministry of the Spirit, which giveth

life, should confer more glory and lustre on the ministers of 9 the Gospel ? For if the ministration of condemnation were

glory, the ministry of justification, in the Gospel, doth cer10 tainly much more exceed in glory. Though even the glory,

that Moses's ministration had, was no glory, in comparison of 11 the far more excelling glory of the Gospel ministryk. Farther,

if that which is temporary, and to be done away, were deli

vered with glory, how much rather is that which remains, 12 without being done away, to appear in glory?? Wherefore,

having such hope m, we use great freedom and plainness of

NOTES. changed into the image and clear representation of the Lord himself; as the glory of Moses consisted in the transitory brightness of his face, which was a

faint reflection of the glory of God, appearing to him in the mount, 9 i Asanovía tñs 8.xquocúrns, “the mivistration of righteousness ;" so the ministry

of the Gospel is called, because, by the Gospel, a way is provided for the justification of those who have transgressed ; but the law has nothing but rigid con. demnation for all transgressors; and, therefore, is called here “the ministra

tion of condemnation." 20 k Though the showing, that the ministry of the Gospel is more glorious than

that of the law be what St. Paul is upon here, thereby to justify himself, if he bas assumed some authority and commendation to himself, in his ministry and apostleship; yet in his thus industriously placing the ministry of the Gospel, in honour, above that of Moses, may he not possibly have an eye to the Judaizing false apostle of the Corinthians, to let them see what little regard was to be had

to that ministration, in comparison of the ministry of the Gospel ? 11 'Here St. Paul mentious another pre-eminency and superiority of glory, in the

Gospel over the law, viz. that the law was to cease, and to be abolished; but

the Gospel to remain, and never be abolished. 12 m“Such hope :” that St. Paul, by these words, means the so honourable em

ployment of an apostle and minister of the Gospel, or the glory belonging to his ministry in the Gospel, is evident, by the whole foregoing comparison, which he has made, which is all along between daxovid, " the ministry of the law, and of the Gospel, and not between the law and the Gospel themselves. The calling of it “ bope," instead of glory, here, where he speaks of his having of it, is the language of modesty, which more particularly suited his present purpose. For the conclusion, which, in this verse, he draws from what went before, plainly shows the apostle's design, in this discourse, to be the justifying his speaking freely of himself and others; his argument amounting to thus much :

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