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TEXT. 14 For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband : else were your

children unclean ; but now are they holy. 15 But if the unbelieving depart, let him depart. A brother or a sister

is not under bondage in such cases : but God hath called us to peace. 16 For what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy hus

band? or how knowest thou, Oman, whether thou shalt save thy wife? 17 But, as God hath distributed to every man, as the Lord hath called

every one, so let him walk: and so ordain 1, in all churches.


14 dissolve the marriage. You need have no scruple concerning

this matter, for the heathen husband or wife, in respect of conjugal duty, can be no more refused, than if they were Christian. For in this case the unbelieving husband is sanctified', or made a Christian, as to his issue, in his wife, and the wife sanctified in her husband. If it were not so, the children of such parents would be unclean", i. e. in the state of heatheps;

but now are they holyd, i. e. born members of the 15 Christian church. But, if the unbelieving party will separate,

let them separate. A Christian man, or woman, is not enslaved in such a case : only it is to be remembered, that it is incumbent on us, whom God, in the Gospel, has called to be Christians, to live peaceably with all men, as much as in us lieth; and, therefore, the Christian husband, or wife, is not to

make a breach in the family, by leaving the unbelieving 16 party, who is content to stay. For whať knowest thou, o

woman, but thou mayest be the means of converting, and so saving thy unbelieving hnsband, if thou continuest peaceably,

as a loving wife, with him? or what knowest thou, O man, 17 but, after the same manner, thou mayest save thy wife? On

this occasion, let me give you this general rule: whatever condition God has allotted to any of you, let him continue, and go on contentedly in the same e state, wherein he was called; not looking on himself as set free from it by his con

NOTES. 14 d'Hyraça, sanctified, ayoo, holy, and oxábapia, unclean,” are used here by the

apostle, in the Jewish sense. The Jews called all that were Jews holy, and all others they called unclean. Thus, “ proles genita extra sanctitatem,” was a child begot by parents, whilst they were yet heathens ; “ genita intra sanctitatem,” was a child begot by parents, after they were proselytes. This way of speaking St. Paul transfers from the Jewish into the Christian church, calling all, that are of the Christian church, saints, or holy; by which reason, all that

were out of it were unclean. See note, chap. i. 2. 17 ens signifies here, not the manner of his calling, but of the state and condition

of life he was in when called; and therefore outws must signify the same too, as the next verse shows.

TEXT. 18 Is any man called being circumcised ? let him not become uncircum

cised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not become circum

cised. 19 Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the

keeping of the commandments of God. 20 Let every man abide in the same calling wherein he was called. 21 Art thou called, being a servant ? Care not for it; but, if thou

mayest be made free, use it rather. 22 For he that is called in the Lord, being a servant, is the Lord's free

man : likewise also he, that is called being free, is Christ's servant.

PARAPHRASE. version to Christianity. And this is no more than what I 18 order in all the churches. For example, Was any one con

verted to Christianity, being circumcised ? Let him not become

uncircumcised. Was any one called, being uncircumcised ? 19 Let him not be circumcised. Circumcision or uncircumcision

are nothing in the sight of God, but that which he has a re20 gard to, is an obedience to his commands. Christianity gives

not any one any new privilege to change the state, or put off 21 the obligations of civil life, which he was in before.

Wert thou called, being a slave? Think thyself not the less a Chri

stian, for being a slave; but yet prefer freedom to slavery, if 22 thou canst obtain it. For he ihat is converted to Christianity,

being a bondman, is Christ's freedman”. And he that is converted, being a freeman, is Christ's bondman, under his

NOTES. 20 f Mevétw, “Let him abide.” It is plain, from what immediately follows, that this

is not an absolute command; but only signifies, that a man should not think himself discharged, by the privilege of his Christian state, and the franchises of the kingdom of Christ, which he was entered into, from any ties or obligations he was in, as a member of the civil society. And, therefore, for the settling a true notion thereof, in the mind of the reader, it has been thought courenient to give that, which is the apostle's sense, to ver. 17, 20, and 24, of this chapter, in words somewhat different from the apostle's. The thinking themselves freed by Christianity, from the ties of civil society and government, was a fault, it seems, that those Christians were very apt to run into. For St. Paul, for the preventing their thoughts of any change, of any thing, of their civil state, upon their embracing Christianity, thinks it necessary to warn them against it three times, in the compass of seven verses; and that, in the form of a direct command, not to change their condition, or state of life. Whereby he intends, that they should not change upon a presumption that Christianity gave them a new or peculiar liberty so to do. For, notwithstanding the apostle's positively biddivg them remain in the same condition, in which they were at their conversion ; yet it is certain, it was lawful for thein, as well as others, to change, where it was

lawful for them to change, without being Christians. 22 s 'Atrodeúdepos, in Latin, " libertus,” siguifies not simply a frecuau, but one who,

having been a slave, has had his freedom given him by his master.

TEXT. 23 Ye are bought with a price; be not ye the servants of men. 24 Brethren, let every man, wherein he is called, therein abide with

God. 25 Now, concerning virgins, I have no commandment of the Lord, yet

I give my judgment, as one that hath obtained mercy of the Lord to

be faithful. 26 I suppose, therefore, that this is good for the present distress; I say,

that it is good for a man so to be. 27 Art thou bound unto a wife? Seek not to be loosed. Art thou

loosed from a wife? Seek not a wife. 28 But and if thou marry, thou hast not sinned ; and if a virgin marry,

PARAPHRASE, 23 command and dominion. Ye are bought with a price ", and

so belong to Christ: be not, if you can avoid it, slaves to any 24 body. In whatsoever state a man is called, in the same he is

to remain, notwithstanding any privileges of the Gospel, which gives him no dispensation, or exemption, from any

obligation he was in before, to the laws of his country. 25 Now concerning virgins. I have no express command from

Christ to give you : but I tell you my opinion, as one whom

the Lord has been graciously pleased to make crediblek, and 26 so you may trust and rely on, in this matter. I tell you,

therefore, that I judge a single life to be convenient, because

of the present straits of the church; and that it is best for a 27 man to be unmarried. Art thou in the bonds of wedlock ?

Seek not to be loosed. Art thou loosed from a wife? Seek 28 not a wife. But if thou marriest, thou sinnest not; or,

if a

NOTES. 23 Slaves were bought and sold in the market, as cattle are ; and so, by the price

paid, there was a property acquired in them. This, therefore, here is a reason for what he advised, ver. 21, that they should not be slaves to men, because Christ had paid a price for them, and they belonged to him. The slavery he speaks of is civil slavery, which he makes use of here, to convince the Corinthians, that the civil ties of marriage were not dissolved by a man's becoming a Christian, since slavery itself was not; and, in general, in the next verse, he tells them, that nothing in any man's civil estate, or rights, is altered by his becoming

a Christian. 25 i By virgins, it is plain St. Paul here means those of both sexes, who are in a

celibate state. It is probable he had formerly dissuaded them from marriage, in the present state of the church. This, it seems, they were uneasy under, ver. 28 and 35, and therefore sent some questions to St. Paul about it, and particularly, What, then, should men do with their daughters ? Upon which occasion, ver. 25–37, he gives directions to the unmarried, about their marrying, or not marrying; and in the close, ver. 38, answers to the parents, about marrying their daughters; and then, ver. 39 and 40, he speaks of widows. * In this sense he uses στιςός άνθρωπος, and πιςός λόγος, 2 Τim. ii. 2.

TEXT. she hath not sinned: nevertheless, such shall have trouble in the

flesh; but I spare you. 29 But this I say, brethren, the time is short. It remaineth, that both

they that have wives be as though they had none; 30 And they that weep, as though they wept not; and they that re

joice, as though they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as though

they possessed not; 31 And they that use this world, as not abusing it: for the fashion of

this world passeth away. 32 But I would have you without carefulness. He that is unmarried

careth for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please

the Lord : 33 But he that is married careth for the things that are of the world,

how he may please his wife. 34 There is difference also between a wife and a virgin. The unmarried

woman careth for the things of the Lord, that she may be holy,

PARAPHRASE. virgin marry, she sins not : but those that are married shall have worldly troubles; but I spare you, by not representing to you how little enjoyment Christians are like to have from

a married life, in the present state of things, and so I leave ♡ you the liberty of marrying. But give me leave to tell you,

that the time for enjoying husbands and wives is but short!. But, be that as it will, this is certain, that those who have

wives should be as if they had them not, and not set their 30 hearts upon them; And they that weep, as if they wept not;

and they that rejoice, as if they rejoiced not; and they that

buy, as if they possessed not: all these things should be done 31 with resignation and a Christian indifferency. And those who

use this world, should use it without an over-relish of it m, without giving themselves up to the enjoyment of it. For

the scene of things is always changing in this world, and no32 thing can be relied on in it. All the reason why I dissuade

you from marriage is, that I would have you free from anxious cares.

He that is unmarried has time and liberty to 33 mind things of religion, how he may please the Lord : But

he that is married is taken up with the cares of the world, 34 how he may please his wife. The like difference there is

between a married woman and a maid: she that is unmarried,

NOTES. 29 · Said, possibly, out of a prophetical foresight of the approaching persecution

under Nero. 31 m Kalax pou svou does not here signify “ abusing,” in our Englisli sense of the word,

but “intently using.” " All, from the beginuing of ver. 28, to the end of this ver. 31, I think, may be looked on as a parenthesis.

TEXT. both in body and in spirit: but she that is married, careth for the

things of the world, how she may please her husband. 35 And this I speak for your own profit, not that I may cast a snare

upon you, but for that which is comely, and that you may attend

upon the Lord without distraction. 36 But if any man think he behaveth himself uncomely towards his

virgin, if she pass the flower of her age, and need so require, let him

do what he will: he sinneth not: let them marry. 37 Nevertheless, he that standeth stedfast in his heart, having no ne

cessity, but hath power over his own will, and hath so decreed in his heart, that he will keep his virgin, doth well.


has opportunity to mind the things of religion, that she may be holy in mind and body; but the married woman is taken

up with the cares of the world, how to please her husband. 35 This I say to you, for your particular advantage, not to lay

any constraint upon you', but to put you in a way, wherein you may most suitably, and as best becomes Christianity, apply

yourselves to the study and duties of the Gospel, without dis36 traction. But, if any one thinks that he carries not himself

as becomes him to his virgin, if he lets her pass the flower

of her age unmarried, and need so requires, let him do as 37 he thinks fit; he sins not, if he marry her. But whoever is

settled in a firm resolution of mind, and finds himself under no necessity of marrying, and is master of his own will, or is at his own disposal, and has so determined in his thoughts, that he will keep his virginity P, he chooses the better

NOTES. 35 ° Bfóxos, which we translate a snare, signifies a cord, which possibly the apostle

might, according to the language of the Hebrew school, use here for binding; and then his discourse ruus thus : Though I have declared my opinion, that it is best for a virgin to remain unmarried, yet I bind it not, i. e. I do not declare it

to be unlawful to marry. 37 P Slapbevoy seems used here for the virgin state, and not the person of a virgin;

whether there be examples of the like use of it, I know not; and therefore I propose it as my conjecture, upon these grounds : 1. Because the resolution of mind, here spoken of, must be in the person to be married, and not in the father, that has the power over the person concerned: for how will the firmness of mind of the father hinder fornication in the child, who has not that firmdess ? 2. The necessity of marriage can only be judged of by the persons themselves. A father cannot feel the child's flames, which make the need of marriage. The persons themselves only know whether they burn, or have the gift of continence. 3. 'Escuolar é xei wepi toll islou Jeań uomos, “ hath the power over his own will," must either signify, can govern his own desires, is master of his own will," but this cannot be meant here, because it is sufficiently expressed before, by españos tñ xapdię, “ stedfast in heart;" and afterwards too, by κέκρινεν εν τη καρδία, “ decreed in heart;" or must signify, “ has the disposal

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