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OF GOD; and, though that principle impels them into different roads, it is our hope and belief, that, if they add to their faith charity, they will meet in heaven.--If any one thinks differently on the fubject, I will have no contention with him; for I feel no difpofition to profelyte others to any opinion of mine : esteeming it a duty to speak what I think, I have no fcruple in doing that; but to do more is to affect a tyranny over other men's minds; it is to encounter not only the reason, but the passions, prejudices, and interefts of mankind; it is to engage in a conflict, in which Chriftian charity feldom efcapes unhurt on either fide.

Too much pains cannot be taken by the Clergy in examining the external and internal evidences of the truth of the Gofpel, in order that they may generate in their own minds a full conviction of the unspeakable importance of the work in which they are engaged; but that conviction being once produced, their time will be far more usefully employed in difcharging their pastoral office with fidelity, than in weighing the importance of all the difcordant fyftems of faith, which have in different ages and countries, not merely occupied the attention of Schoolmen and Monks, but unfheathed the fwords of princes, and polluted the temple of Chrift with more blood than was ever shed on the altars of Moloch, or in honour of Vitzliliputzuli, the God of Mexico. Happily for our age, this fpirit of perfecution is well nigh extinguished; for notwithstanding the fad fate of the Calas family in France; notwithstanding the demon of fanaticism which spread its delusion over London and Edinburgh, on the relaxation of the laws against Popery; notwithstanding the burning zeal of a few furious bigots amongst every fect of Chriftians; ftill may we foretel, from obferving the figns of the times, that the æra is approaching very faft, when Theological Acrimony fhall be fwallowed up in Evangelical Charity, and a liberal toleration become the diftinguishing feature of every church in Christendom. The ruling powers in Proteftant and Catholic ftates begin at length every where to perceive, that an uniformity of fentiment in matters of religion is a circumftance impoffible to be obtained; that it has never yet exifted in the church of Chrift, from the Apoftolic age to our own; and they begin to be ashamed of the fines, confifcations, imprifonments, tortures, of all the unjust and fanguinary efforts which they have feverally made ufe of to procure it. They perceive too that a diverfity in religious opinions may fubfift among the fubjects of the fame ftate, without endangering the common weal; and they begin to think it reasonable, that


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no man fhould be abridged in the exercife of natural rights, merely on the score of Religion. Thefe enlarged fentiments proceed not, I would willingly hope, from what the Germans have called Indifferentifm in Religion; but partly from a perfect knowledge of its true end, which is Charity; and partly from n that confcioufnefs of intellectual weaknefs, which is ever moft confpicuous in minds the most enlightened; and which, whereever it fubfifts, puts a ftop to dogmatifin and intolerance of every kind.

The Books and Tracts which I have here printed, are all of them fo well known, that there is little need to give a long account of any of them. I have chofen them out of a great variety, which fuggefted themselves to my mind; but I have no expectation that every one fhould be pleafed with the choice which I have made. I once knew a Divine of the Church of England, of great eminence in it, and defervedly esteemed a good fcholar, who, having accidentally taken up, in a friend's apartment, a book written by a Diffenter, haftily laid it down again, declaring, that "he never read diffenting Divinity." I ought to apologize to Men of this Gentleman's opinion, for having made fo much ufe of the works of the Diffenters in this Collection; but the truth is, I did not at all confider the quarter from whence the matter was taken, but whether it was good, and fuited to my purpofe; it was a circumftance of utter indifference to me, whether it was of Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, provided it was of Chrift.

As this Collection will probably fall into the hands of fome, who may wish to become acquainted with the fort of Queftions which are ufually maintained by thofe who proceed to the degree of Bachelor or Doctor in Divinity, I thought it might be of fervice to them, if I put down a few of thofe which have been publicly disputed on in the Theological Schools at Cambridge, within the last twenty-five or thirty years. I have not observed much order in arranging the queftions: the reader will remark, that they are not all of equal importance; and, what he may judge more extraordinary, he will perceive, that the fame doctrine is not maintained in them all. With regard to their importance, that must be expected to be variable, as they have been propofed by men of very different talents and judgenients. A fameness of doctrine might indeed have been fecured by the Profeffor, without whofe approbation no queftion can be propofed for disputation: but I, for my part, (though fome will probably blame me for it) have thought it more liberal and reasonable to fuffer this contrariety,

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contrariety, in fome inftances, to take place, than to oblige men to fupport what they did not believe, or to preclude them from fupporting what they did believe to be revealed in the Scriptures. Truth, I hope, has not fuffered from this conduct: the mere acceptance of a queftion is not understood to lay the Profeffor under any obligation to fupport it in the difputation; if he thinks it not founded in the word of God, it is his duty to endeavour to fhew the Refpondent wherein he is mistaken; and if he be not able to do that, ftill there is no fear of error being established by his inability to detect it, when it is confidered before what a learned audience the difputation is held; that the Refpondent must either be a Bachelor of Divinity, or a Master of Arts, of four years ftanding; and that three Mafters of Arts are the regular Opponents at every Divinity Act.





AB ANNO 1755 USQUE AD ANN. 1785,

Publicè difputatæ fub Præfidio S. Theologiæ Profefforum Reg. THOME RUTHERFORTH, RICARDI WATSON.

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ON fuit Deo indignum mortis poena fancire, ne primi hominum generis parentes unius cujufdam arboris fructu vefcerentur.

2 Quod genus humanum fit laboribus et morti fubjectum propter Adami peccatum, docetur in facra pagina, nec eft rationi contrarium.

3 Lapfum olim fuiffe Angelorum patet ex facris literis.

4 Verus erat ferpens, per quem Eva decepta fuit; fed facultatibus, quæ ipfi non effent naturaliter infitæ, utebatur.

5 Univerfus ferpentum cultus apud Gentiles ad confirmandam generalem interpretationem Diaboli fub ferpentis forma latentis, prout in facris Scripturis traditur, apte convenit atque inde derivari videtur.

6 Præfcientia divina non erat caufa lapfûs Adami.

7 Peccatum originis non eft in imitatione Adami fitum, fed eft vitium et depravatio naturæ cujuflibet hominis ab Adamo propagati. 8 Lapfus Adami humanam naturam ad peccatum procliviorem reddidit.

9 Chriftus ante erat quam humana natura ab eo induebatur.

10 Non fuit indignum Filio Dei, hominum generis redimendi caufa, humanam naturam induere.

11 Sacrificia juffu Dei principio funt conftituta.

12 Sacrificia principio conftituta funt ut effent typi mortis Chrifti. 13 Remiffio peccatorum per Mediatorem et Sacrificium vicarium haud Deo eft indigna.,

14 Satisfactio pro peccatis hominum per mortem Chrifti non repugnat


15 Chriftum ipfum infontem, a Deo ad mortem datum effe pro fontibus, eft credibile.

16 Quod traditur in facris Scripturis de lapfu, redemptione, et futuro ftatu humani generis, non contradicit divinis perfectionibus. 17 Chriftiana revelatio rationis inventa fuperat rerum divinarum numero et certitudine.

18 Ratio fola nullam poteft invenire conditionem, qua Deus velit hominibus dare peccatorum veniam et impunitatem.

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19 Mors

19 Mors Chrifti eft propria et plena fatisfactio pro peccatis hominum. 20 Chriftus pro omnibus eft mortuus.

21 Opera juftorum vitam æternam per fe non merentur.

22 Juftitia Chrifti non fic hominibus imputatur, ut Dei judicio, ipfi cenfeantur eam præftitiffe.

23 Coram Deo homo reputatur juftus non propter meritum fuum, fed propter meritum Jefu Chrifti, per fidem in ejus nomine.

24 Neque docent facræ Scripturæ, neque articuli Ecclefiæ Anglicanæ, Chrifti juftitiam nobis imputari in juftificationem, fed fidem


25 Paulus et Jacobus, quanquam de hominum juftificatione verbis difcrepare videantur, fententiis tamen non difcrepant,

26 Juftificatio nec fine fide et poenitentia poteft comparari, nec fine fidei et pœnitentiæ fructibus confervari.

27 Sacræ Scripturæ nullibi docent homines per fidem folam, bonorum operum fructibus carentem, fupremo die juftificandos,

28 Non eft ea religionis Chrifti ratio, ut omnibus qui per eam jufti apud Chriftum habeantur, certa falutis confequendæ fiducia in hac vita ingeneretur.

29 Fides Chriftiana nec cum ab hominibus fufcipiatur, nec poftquam fufcepta fit, rationis ufum afpernatur.

30 Fuit Mofes verus Propheta a Deo miflus.

31 Non fuit a Dei natura alienum Ifraelitas in populum fibi peculiarem eligere.

32 Mofes fpem vitæ æternæ Ifraelitis oftendit.

33 Diftributio præmiorum et pœnarum temporalium quæ promiffa fuit in libris Mofaicis, non erat pro meritis fingulorum, nec in rebus adminiftrandis ita erat acta.

34 Colligi non poteft ex libris Mofaicis veteres Judæos æterna impiorum fupplicia apud inferos pati.

35 Lex Mofaica non ideo Deo indigna cenfenda eft, quia docet, Deum iniquitatem patrum in filios vifitare.

36 Poena talionis, quam lex Mofaica conftituit, non fuit Deo legiflatore indigna.

37 Licentia falfos Deos colendi non fuit Ifraelitis conceffa.

38 Quod religio Judaica fit minus perfecta quam Chriftiana, id nihil probat contra divinam hujus et illius originem.

39 Ifraelitæ, fpoliis Egyptiorum auferendis, legem naturæ non viola


40 Non erat Deo indignum Canaanæos Ifraelitis exfcindendos tradere, 41 Filia Jephthæ non fuit immolata.

42 Per legem Mofaicam Judæis non licuit pro victimis homines immo



Mandatum Abrahamo datum de immolatione Ifaaci ad mortem Chrifti repræfentandam, haud alienum fuit divinæ fapientiæ aut juftitiæ.

44 Non fuit Deo indignum diras Noachichas in Chamum conficere. 45 Nullæ in libro Pfalmorum obnunciantur diræ, quæ oftendant eos non fuifle divino inftinctu confcriptos,

46 Scriptura

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