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Professor PosTGATE (C.Q. XI. 169) speaks of 'the regrettable silence of the principal editors of Plautus upon the subject.' As a minor editor, I beg to defend my colleagues by pointing out that the scansions diutius and dyūtius are subject of a note in Dziatzko's and Hauler's editions of the Phormio of Terence (on line 182) and in the Plautus Report in Bursian of 1879 (p. 70). Also that a reference to the index of my larger edition of the Captiui (Methuen, 1900) will show that the word is discussed in my section on Prosody (p. 27): The same doubt exists regarding the scansion of diutius (e.g. Trin. 685), the by-form (equivalent to a dactyl diutius or to a proceleusmatic diutius) of the fuller form diutius (Rud. 93).'

Certainly the proceleusmatic is the only possible scansion of Phaedrus 3 epilog. 4:

fruar diutius si celerius cepero;

but this testimony is not so overwhelmingly convincing as appears at first sight (cf. Burs. 167, 27 on cut for cui, etc.). What has kept editors of Plautus from 'emending' Rud. 93, either by Professor Postgate's very attractive conjecture <tum> detinui or by the detestable 'detiniui,' was their recognition of the fact that isolated specimens of older pronunciation are not uncommon in Plautus. The claim of diutius to be the older pronunciation of the comparative of diu is supported by diūtine (Rud. 1241):

and diutinus (Mil. 503):

diutine uti bene licet partum bene,

longum diutinumque, a mani ad uesperum.

However, I do not mean to assert that Professor Postgate's theory is wrong. I am merely defending the reluctance of my brother-editors to discard diutius in Rud. 93:

eo uos, amici, detinui diutius.




American Journal of Philology. XXXVIII. 2. 1917.

H. V. Canter, Rhetorical elements in Livy's Direct Speeches. Part I. 67 out of 407 direct speeches have been examined for this study. Of the three kinds of oratory (genera causarum) recognized by the ancients nearly all Livy's speeches belong to the genus deliberatiuum. The genus demonstratiuum is represented in 28. 39 (Saguntine envoys) and 45. 51 (L. Aemilius Paulus): the iudiciale by the two speeches of Philip's sons before their father (40. 9-15). The accusation against Pleminius 39. 16-22 is also quasi-judicial. From a detailed examination of Livy's employment of various rhetorical devices, sententiae or general maxims, figures of rhetoric, as questions (most commonly in the indicative), irony, climax, apostrophe and exclamation, and antithesis, it is shown that Livy evinces restraint and absence of affectation in their use, and that in their choice he is careful to select what is appropriate to the speaker. W. W. Hyde, The Prosecution of Lifeless Things and Animals in Greek Law. Part I. The curious ritual of the Attic festival of Diipolia, in which an ox was killed and the weapon that slew him tried for the slaughter, is examined. The explanations of Mommsen, Robertson Smith, Frazer and Farnell are considered and pronounced unsatisfactory. All that we can say is that the ritual was connected with agrarian rites and probably had some form of totemism behind it. J. W. Hewitt, Religious Burlesque in Aristophanes and elsewhere. Such burlesque is not necessarily impious' but no motive for it can be assigned. A. T. Murray, On the Disposition of Spoil in the Homeric Poems. The apparent contradiction that Briseis is sometimes said to have been the gift of Agamemnon and sometimes that of the Greeks is solved by the assumption that spoil belonged to the collective army but that the leader often controlled its distribution. C. Knapp, Molle atque facetum. The Horatian phrase refers to the Eclogues and the Minor poems only and facetum means 'humorous.'

XXXVIII. 3. 1917.

A. L. Wheeler, The Plot of the Epidicus. After a long and elaborate examination of the difficulties and obscurities of the play, which is shown to be in several respects abnormal amongst the dramas of Plautus, it is concluded that in all probability some of the peculiarities are due to his dealing with an unusual Greek original and others to the omission of a prologue or a passage of exposition early in the play, but that others, especially those connected with Epidicus' trickery, were caused by the curtailing, which has only 733 verses subsequent to Plautus. W. W. Hyde, The Prosecution of Lifeless Things and Animals in Greek Law (continued). The court at the Prytaneum which tried these cases must have existed from prehistoric times. The motive of such trials must have been indignation against the animals, etc., these being regarded as responsible. Similar views were held by other nations, as is shown by enactments of the Persians, the Jews and so on. W. S. Fox, Greek Inscriptions in the Royal Ontario Museum. On a fragment of a stele found in Egypt. A. S. Cook, Petrarch and the Wine of Meroe. Petrarch's references to this wine in Africa 6. 853 and elsewhere seem to be due to a misunderstanding of Lucan 10: 163.

Athenaeum (Pavia). V. 2. 1917.

E. Lattes discusses the following group of Etruscan words with verbal force: sta, stas; sca, sce, s'cuna, s'cune; mena, menaxe, mene, menu, mina, mine, mini, minu. C. Pascal treats of Pollio and his relations to Horace and Catullus. A dislike for Catullus was shared by both, and their political and literary ideas were akin. In Odes II. 1 Pollio appears as a writer of 'reasoned' history. Seneca says he was the first author to hold public readings of his own works. It is clear that Horace admired his genius and his personality. Petrus Rasi defends successfully the text of Ovid ex P. III. 1. 21 on grounds of geography as well as palaeography; also that of Horace Odes I. 27, rejecting a Dutch emendation of linquit for fugit.

V. 3. 1917.

M. Galdi thinks that Plutarch owes his ideas on the connexion of Fortuna' with the mystical she-wolf who fed Romulus and Remus to Trogus Pompeius, an Augustan prose-author, whose historical work was epitomized by Justin. C. Pascal examines the authority for the praenomen (Gaius or Quintus) of Catullus, and sums up in favour of Quintus on the ground of ancient tradition and the authority of Carmen LXVII. 5. 12, which has the probable reading Quintus. N. Pirrone deals with one of the inferior codices of Valerius Maximus, which shares the lacuna common to all extant codices. He classifies its peculiar mistakes in order to find its affinity to other better texts, and gives over thirty instances in which its reading is better than theirs. He concludes that its good variants are due not to the scribe, but to an original type more ancient than either A. or L. Several passages are discussed in the light of this view.

V. 4. 1917.

E. Romagnoli gives charming Italian versions of the fragments of Pindar published in the eighth volume of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. The versions cannot be published usefully without their commentary, which awaits the end of warconditions. Fragment 110 is rendered

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Agli inesperti piace la guerra; ma chi la conosce,
Quando ella si avvicina, trema nel fondo del cuore.'

C. Pascal shows that in Latin authors in Africa tradition persisted in upholding
Dido's constancy to Sychaeus. He mentions Tertullian, Macrobius, and Servius.
In later ages Virgil's version prevailed.

Berliner philologische Wochenschrift. 1917.

[This summary supplements and continues the summary printed in the last volume. Some numbers are still missing.]

Jan. 13. J. J. Hartman, De Plutarcho scriptore et philosopho (Bock). The book, about half of which has appeared in Mnemosyne, is valuable, but the writer has not made use of much of the recent literature on his subject. W. A. Baehrens, Überlieferung und Textgeschichte der lateinisch erhaltenen Origenes-homilien zum Alten Testament (Lehmann). Valuable though not free from faults.

Jan. 20. W. Norvin, Olympiodoros fra Alexandria og hans commentar til Platons Phaidon (Raeder). A careful study which throws light on the development of Neoplatonism. (1) K. Brugmann, EIPHNH, Eine sprachgeschichtliche Untersuchung ; (2) B. Keil, EIPHNH, Eine philologisch-antiquarische Untersuchung (Meltzer). (1) B. connects the word with the root er, ar in άραρίσκω, ἄρμενος, ἀρετή, which he finds also in εἴρη, εἰρεσιώνη, ἴρην. For the meaning he compares fax (πήγνυμι). (2) K., on the other hand, shows that the meaning of the word from Homer to early in the fourth century is a state of peace,' time of peace,' whereas the arrangement of



terms to end a war is expressed by σπονδαί οἱ συνθῆκαι. Κ. regards the words περὶ K. Tys εipnuns Bovλeiraobai 'Anvaíors in Thuc. IV. 118 as a gloss. W. Bannier contributes a paper, the sixth of a series begun in 1911, on Attic Inscriptions. discusses decrees of the fifth and fourth centuries.


Jan. 27. W. S. Teuffel, Geschichte der römischen Literatur. Sechste Auflage, neu bearb. von W. Kroll and F. Skutsch. Vol. I. Die Literatur der Republik (Hosius). This volume has eighty more pages than in the last edition. Of these twenty are given to Cicero, the increase being chiefly in the general remarks and in the treatment of the rhetorical works. The references to recent literature, especially to non-German literature, on the subject are not always adequate.

Feb. 3. C. Lackeit, Aion: Zeit und Ewigkeit in Sprache und Religion der Griechen. I. (Meltzer). A study of the development of the meaning of the word from Homer to the early Byzantine writers. A second part is to follow treating the word in connexion with the history of religion.

Feb. 10. H. Blümner, Aus der archäologischen Sammlung der Universität Zürich. 25 Lichtdruck-Bilder in Mappe. 2 Seiten Text (Bieber). G. Lambeck and others, Quellensammlung für den geschichtlichen Unterricht (Berndt). A number of 32 pp. volumes in two Series: in Series I. the aim is to illustrate the most important events in the period treated in the volume (e.g. Greek History to 431 B.C.) from the original sources; in Series II. the aim is to provide in each volume a full collection of material on the subject selected, e.g. Pericles, Hannibal, Augustus.

Feb. 17. E. Norden, P. Vergilius Maro Aeneis Buch VI. erkl. von E. N. (Helm). In this second edition the book has been thoroughly revised and recent works connected with the subject have been considered. A long and interesting review continued in the next number. F. Novotný contributes to this number an article (in which he gives a summary of part of a forthcoming book) on Eine neue Methode der Klauselforschung.

Feb. 24. C. C. Conrad, On Terence Adelphoe 511-516 (Köhm). This paper supplements the writer's Dissertation on The technique of continuous action in Roman comedy.' W. A. Merrill, Criticism of the Text of Lucretius with Suggestions for its Improvement (Tolkiehn). Severely criticized. J. Sundwall, Weströmische Studien (Bauer). A useful collection of information as to officials and members of the Senate in the fifth century.

Mar. 3. E. Boisacq, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, étudiée dans ses rapports avec les autres langues indo-européennes (Güntert). The best and most trustworthy book on the subject. B. Prehn, Quaestiones Plautinae (Köhm). A valuable Dissertation on 'die Betrachtung der possenhaften Stellen bei Plautus mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ähnlicher Stoffe bei den Dichtern der mittleren und neueren griechischen Komödie.' E. Weiss, Studien zu den römischen Rechtsquellen (Lesser). Two studies (1) on the relation between lex and legis actio, (2) on Roman provincial edicts.

Mar. 10. F. Strenger, Strabos Erdkunde von Libyen (Capelle). A long review, continued in the next number, praising the book highly, but disagreeing with the author on many points. J. Mesk contributes to this number a paper in which he discusses the interpretation of Suetonius (Iul. 80) and Nicolaus Damascenus (Bíos Kaioapos c. 23). He disagrees with the view of M. E. Deutsch ('The plot to murder Caesar on the bridge,' reviewed in Berl. phil. Woch. December 9, 1916).

Mar. 17. W. Schur, Die Äneassage in der späteren römischen Literatur (Kraemer). A careful study of the development of the legend in the first century B.C. E. Pfeiffer, Studien zum antiken Sternglauben (Gruppe). A volume in the series edited by F. Boll, 'Studien zur Geschichte des antiken Weltbildes und der griechischen Wissenschaft.' The review, which is continued in the next number, gives a sketch of the contents

of the book. W. Bannier contributes to this number Zu attischen Inschriften. VII.

Mar. 24. F. Marx, A. Cornelii Celsi quae supersunt, rec. F. M. (Kind). The Prolegomena (100 pp.) contain much that is new and are discussed at some length. The app. crit. is trustworthy. In this and the two following numbers is printed a paper by T. Hoech on Die Hauptformen der römischen Triumphbogen und der Stil der römischen Münzen.

Mar. 31. Euclidis Opera. Vol. VIII. H. Menge, Euclidis Phaenomena et scripta musica; J. L. Heiberg, Euclidis Fragmenta (M. C. P. Schmidt). Text with Latin translation and Prolegomena (40 pp.). Highly praised. J. Weiss, Das Urchristentum, I. Teil, 1.-3. Buch (Soltau). The author left a further portion of his work nearly ready for the press. R. Berndt contributes to this number some interesting reviews of school books.

July 21. A. Wilhelm, Attische Urkunden II (Bannier). This paper (37 pp.), in which certain inscriptions belonging to the last three centuries B.c. are interpreted, is highly praised. J. H. Lipsius contributes to this number an article 'Zur attischen Nomothesie' in which he examines the evidence afresh.

Aug. 4 (Double number). R. Ehwald, Die Metamorphosen des P. Ovidius Naso. Vol. II. Buch VIII-XV, erkl. von O. Korn, 4th ed. by R. E. (Magnus). The text is improved, and the commentary, especially in the new edition, is remarkable for learning, taste and intimate knowledge of the poet. W. Strehl and W. Soltau, Grundriss der alten Geschichte und Quellenkunde. Vol. II. Römische Geschichte (Lenschau). A trustworthy handbook (600 pages) and a guide to the literature of the subject. L. Pareti, Studi siciliani ed italioti (Lenschau). Twelve studies, mostly of Sicilian subjects. The most important are the two in which the battle of Himera and the history of that time are discussed.

Aug. 11. Die Anfangsstadien der griechischen Kunstprosa in der Beurteilung Platons (Münscher). The author of this dissertation has tried to form from the longer speeches of the sophists in Plato an idea of the earlier stages of the development of artistic prose. A long and interesting review, not wholly favourable. A. G. Groos, De weg tot de kennis der oude geschiedenis (Kraemer). The reviewer gives a summary of an interesting lecture on the work of the historian.

Aug. 25 (Double number). O. Schroeder, Aeschyli Cantica, iterum digessit O. S. (Radermacher). The publication of U. v. Wilamowitz' Aeschylus has caused S. to revise his edition of the choruses. J. A. Heikel, Eusebius' Werke: Die demonstratio evangelica, hrsg. von J. A. H. (Preuschen). The addition of a subject-index increases the value of this volume. K. Halm, Cicero in Catilinam and pro Archia, erkl. von K. H. (Ammon). The fifteenth edition thoroughly revised by W. Sternkopf may almost be described as a new work. The number of pages is increased from 142 to 231. Guil. Dittenbergerus, Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum a G. D. condita et aucta, nunc tertium edita. Vol. alterum (Larfeld). The reviewer gives a summary of the additions and other changes in the new edition.

Sept. 1. H. Hofmann, Über den Zusammenhang zwischen Chorliedern und Handlung in den erhaltenen Dramen des Euripides (J. Ziehen). The author of this dissertation defends Euripides from the criticism of Aristotle (Poet. 1456a 26-32). He divides the plays into groups according to the part played by the chorus. E. Wenkebach, Pseudogalenische Kommentare zu den Epidemien des Hippokrates (Kind). The author shows that this work (which is reprinted by Kühn, XVII.A 313-462) is a forgery made between the years 1588 and 1617. K. Huber, Untersuchungen über den Sprachcharakter des griechischen Leviticus (Helbing). Specially good on the syntax. K. Brugmann and B. Delbrück, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. 2. Bearb. II. Bd.: K. Brugmann, Lehre von den Wortformen und ihrem

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