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the total number is small, and there is little difference between the usage of the three Tragedians. Now come the exact figures:

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The first thing one notices is the large use made of the idiom in Dialogue, especially by Euripides. No doubt it is essentially more appropriate to choral passages, but it established itself apparently as a definite feature of Tragedy as a whole. Aeschylus has roughly 1 in 30 lines, Sophocles 1 in 100 lines, Euripides in 77. Only in three plays does Euripides approach to the Aeschylean standard, Cyclops, Phoenissae, and Rhesus, if it be his. It did not

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seem advisable to include the fragments in the table, but a study of them shows a constant use in those of Aeschylus and Sophocles, and a comparative absence in the fragments of Euripides, which are so largely sententious, that one does not wonder at the fact. One notes that the poet is often tempted to multiply instances in a choral passage, e.g. in the Ajax between lines 208 and 253 there are seven cases, and in the Septem there are ten instances between lines 127 and 180. If Sophocles uses the idiom more sparingly, his instances strike us often as more elaborate bits of poetic experiment than the other two usually give us.

From an examination of all the instances, it appears that it is really impossible to distinguish in many cases the active and passive meaning in the compound. Not merely are adjectives compounded with e.g. -popos, -Bopos, -KTOVOS used in both ways, but there is a residuum of cases in which you cannot say whether the poet intended an active or a passive meaning, so that the rule of Alexandrian scholars as to accentuation becomes meaningless. Who shall say whether dapunpopol Tiμaí (to omit the accent) is more correctly translated laurel-bearing honours' or 'honours of laurel borne'? Did the poet know himself? If ȧvdрokμns is used by Aeschylus as an epithet of πέλεκυς, λοιγός, μόχθοι, τύχαι, ἀγωνίαι, it would seem for him to have taken on the signification of 'murderous,' though it does not follow that he gave a transitive sense to xáμvw. In particular I would contest the usually accepted view-that a word ending in -Tos must have a passive sense. Thus, for instance, Mr. Prickard, on P.V. 109 νарОпкоπλńρwтоν пνрòs wŋyý, says: 'According to analogy it should mean 'filled with reeds,' the form being passive. But Aeschylus uses such compounds with much freedom. The passive sense seems to be always present, but sometimes has to be reached circuitously. Thus ναρθηκοπλήρωτον is equivalent to οὗ (τοῦ πυρὸς ἐπληρώθη ó vápen. Is this tenable? Against it are the following points. All three Tragedians use compounds with -ρυτος: Aeschylus, αἱμόρρυτοι φλέβες (Sisyphus fr.); Sophocles, yovàs Xpvoopútovs (O.C. 950) and πŋуàs veоpρúτovs (El. 894) ; Euripides, λαιμορρύτου σφαγᾶς (Hel. 355) and ῥανίσιν αἱματορρύτοις (Ι.Α. 1515). If Aeschylus has póvov aiμatoσTayŷ (Ag. 1307), he has also in a similar sense δακρυσίστακτον ῥέος (P.V. 400) (cf. Eur. Cycl. 898 πυριστάκτῳ πέτρα). Can Euripides' opaλμотÉYKтw πλŋμμvpídı (Alc. 184) be anything but active? Are not κράτος καρδιόδηκτον (Αg. 1470) κοπάνων ἀνδροδαίκτων (Cho. 860) and ἀνδροδάικτον κόπον (Myrm. fr.) equally clear cases ? Probably ἄτης πανάλωτου (Ag. 361) is an experiment by false analogy, and the same may be said of νεόκμητον νεκρόν (Rhes. 887). At least everyone must admit that ἀθηρόβρωτον opyavov (a periphrasis for TTÚοv, Soph. fr. 454 Pearson) is a clear case. Having thus premised that, if I am right, nearly all the verbal terminations can be used in an active or a passive sense, let me attempt to classify the instances under the following heads, though often an instance will fall under more than one head:

1. Transference of Epithet.-(a) Simple; active rožovλk❀ λýμati (Pers. 55),

ἆθλον οὐρανοστεγή (Aesch. fr. 312), ὠμοφάγους δαῖτας (Eur. fr. 475), τυμβοχία Xεiрwμата (Sept. 1625), and probably μarépos ȧvlovóμovs éπwñás (Supp. 539), XEIPOTÓVOVS Xitás (Sept. 172); passive, κapáтoμos èpnμía veaviŵv (Tro. 564) for καρατόμων, ἀρτιτρεφεῖς βλαχαί (Sept. 350), ὠμοδρόπων νομίμων (Sept. 333). (6) Complex, νεοδμῆτες γάμοι (Med. 1366), λαιμοτόμητ ̓ ἄχη (Eur. fr. 122), Vuktitλáyktwv keλevμáтwv (Cho. 751); the baby cries, but the nurse walks him about in her arms (on the other hand, VUктíπλауктоS Tóvas Ag. 330 and Vνктíπλауктα deípara Cho. 524 are cases of simple transference). This seems sometimes to involve an artificial shuffling of the elements. If máxva KovρoВópw (Ag. 1513) is not corrupt, it must be that a bloody eating of children' is inverted, and in any case it is a mistake to try and classify κουροβόρος as either active or passive. σπείραι δικτυόκλωστοι (Ant. 347) means 'the woven meshes of the net.' This last instance falls also under heading 2.

2. Redundancy.—Such expressions as evýpeтμos пλáта (O.C. 716), Bíos μακραίων (Ο.Τ. 518), λόγος κακόθρους (Ai. 318), εὔπαις γόνος (Ι.Τ. 1234), εὐπήχεις χεῖρες (Hiῤῥ. 200), ἐπημαξευμένη τροχοῖσιν (Ant. 251), illustrate this type. Thus we have ἀστύνικον πόλιν (Εum. 915), λαίλαπι χειμωνοτύπῳ (Supp. 34), oivoxúтov πúμaτos (Phil. 715: πôμa is the genus, olvos the species): 5ο πώματος ύδρηχόου (Eur. fr. 884), κρήναισι υδροχύτοις (Cycl. 68). In the unique expression καρατόμοις χλιδαῖς (Soph. Εl. 52), where καράτομος really ought not to mean 'cut from the head,' but 'beheaded,' is it possible that κápa is the whole, and xdaí 'ornamental locks' the part, and so it falls under this class? Soph. Electra 156 πλoûтоv Xpavópavтov is 'wealth of gold displayed.' In the figure of which äxaλños ȧσπídшv is a type there is the same combination of genus and species.

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3. Brachylogy.-As öğʊπλnyas yóous (Soph. fr. 523) seems to mean wailing of women who deal fierce blows,' so áλíτuπа ßápn (Pers. 945) seems to mean 'griefs for sea-tossed (corpses).' If þiλobúτwv ópyíwv means 'rites paid by willing worshippers,' it is of the same kind. It seems very unnatural to take Tρvσávwp (Phil. 208) in any but an active sense. Can an exhausting cry' be a sort of brachylogy for 'the cry of an exhausting malady'? σITOVÓμOS EXTÍS (Phil. 1091) 'food-providing hope'= hope that food will be provided. If σтóvоv Варvßρŵτa (Phil. 695) go together, the expression is of this kind. I may add here iπñoμavî Xeiμŵva (Ai. 143), about which there is unnecessary difficulty. It seems to me quite poetical to say that 'a meadow is wild with horses,' and quite unnecessary to analyze it into èp' ♣ oi íππol μαίνονται.

4. Comparison.-Homer's pododákтvλos 'Hús is the type of this; the streaks of light in the dawn are like rosy-fingers (cf. Soph. xpvσavyǹs kрóкos). Thus we have ἱπποβάμοσιν καμήλοις (Aesch. Supp. 284), ὀδύναις κεντροδαλήτισι (Aesch. Supp. 563), kvμaтoayeîs âтai (O.C. 1243). The Aeschylean instances are simpler; the Sophoclean is a compressed simile.

5. Inversion of the Prosaic Order.-This may account for some of those

e acfective is usualy translated as if it were equivalent to a parole in the genie Some of these have already been 2 these highly artificial phrases it is inevitable that core can one actor in their construction. Prose would say - - Meschylus bas λινόφθοροι λακίδες, where λακίδες is in apposition. Euripides has Bopa

cm, the prose form of which is 'men killed for food.'

παρά τους εστία, ἐσχάρα, ἡδονή, ἦμαρ, and τιμή, and I possible decide whether the poets were conscious of a ve and passive in these various instances. On the other as probably right in regarding åpeþáτoi àyŵves (Eum. 914), Le pa Eur. Supp. 603), as probably active; for sch is so exactly like тožovλæộ Xýμari, and seems I sample transference. In view of the frequency of aipa póvos αἷμα = φόνος Suph. 5. pop actually has alμa ovyyevès Kreivas for 'having de marter of a kinsman ), Elmsley is perhaps right in regarding -es Compounds as active, e.g. aîμatos μntpoкtóvov (Orest. 1649) The more primitive (BV) type is illustrated by μатρоmother-murder woe.'

kad ...z. 1. — This class is very dubious, but it stands or falls with the 2 of withers in which Jebb holds this explanation, dɩxpaτeîs SCEL κρατοῦσαι, πυκνόπτεροι ἀηδόνες = πολλαὶ καὶ kan kebe, écrirous (though his note on this last is * Is There is a group in -popos which may have this ... auce are to believe that δαφνηφόρους κλῶνας (Ion 422) todave with laurel on them.' It seems to mean 'branches Sopa. ir 11 radaλýdopov dépos seems to be a 'leopardSun 102 dugo aypay is translated 'beast-fed prey,' but Ta 2730 means. Either Elmsley is right in reading Tema a ki. Morice's conjecture Onpópopov äypav ‘a prey of Cast You!, should be adopted. Soph. fr. 89 is difficult: Kepao póeynes of horn worn' by the reindeer, as it seems

5. Na od quilt of the reindeer to the antlers.

This is well illustrated by χρυσόκολλος

ala poverovala (Soph. fr. 378) is 'gold-glue incrusta1860s a who gold is glued on, and кάπŋν xрvσókodλov μεταχείς μετα But we also find χρυσοκολλήτοις δίφροις το παλι προσφορές (Res. 305), ῥινοκόλλητον χρῆμα (Soph. Read Purge a thing made of glued hides, where in the ust as well. Euripides has kаλλíπUρуov ǎσTU les (Bacch. 19), and Hesychius has the Instructing these -Tos compounds, it really Axe was a verb like xoλλáw in use or not. Aeschylus this is probably only a fire made (-70s)

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with pitch and pine-cones.' Exactly the same tendency is to be observed in English, e.g. barefoot,' 'barefooted.'

8. Weakening of Verbal Element.-As many older editors have observed, the verbal idea seems often to disappear in the compound. Thus Taλaíparos Tρóvoia (Trach. 828) seems only a more grandiose word for Talaia. The same may be said about endings in -ήρης (ἀγχήρης Soph. fr. 7, τυμβήρει θαλάμῳ Ant. 947 = simply sepulchral), -αυλος, -νομος, -γενης, -πορος, -ελατος (cf. Ion 1306, where it is difficult to believe that enλáтovs edpas could mean 'the seat to which you have been driven by the god.' Ion would not say so!), and -δματος, e.g. in Pindar (Ol. 3. ΙΙ θεόδματον χρέος Isthm. 5. 15 θεοδμάτους ἀρετάς).

If this humble attempt to deal with a very difficult subject, on which I cannot possibly hope to have hit the mark in everything I have said, succeeds in eliciting a treatment of it by more competent hands, my object in writing will have been entirely attained.

G. C. RICHards.

A SPURIOUS MIME FRAGMENT (XXI. RIBB.).

ON p. 382 of his third edition of the Comici Romani Ribbeck assigns the number xxi. to a fragment consisting of a single word, ingluuiae, a word which he has extracted from Goetz' Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum: Gloss. Amplon. C.G.L. V. 367 G. "in mimo ingluuiae, quod tantum ad mimarios et mimographos pertinet."' This is what is variously called the First Amplonian or First Erfurt Glossary and is identical with the older and more accurate Épinal Glossary. Goetz in his apparatus has printed the Épinal variants, a fact overlooked by Ribbeck: ingliwae and tamen (Ampl. I. has the symbol tm). Both variants are right. We have here not the Latin word ingluuies (-ia) but the two Anglo-Saxon words in gliwae in a play'; and the following sentence is apparently a torso from a scholium on the Mime. The Corpus College MS. containing a cognate glossary to this one was so faithfully reproduced in Dr. Hessels' apograph (Cambridge, 1890) that it was excluded by Goetz from the volumes of the C.G.L. and from the index to these volumes, the Thes. Gloss. It was therefore ignored by Ribbeck, as it has been unfortunately overlooked by various foreign publications (e.g. by the great Latin Thesaurus often). The Corpus College MS. has merely In mimo: in gliowe (omitting the torso).

This part of these glossaries contains a batch of Orosius glosses, and in mimo comes from Orosius' story of Augustus (Hist. 6, 22, 4): nam cum eodem spectante ludos pronuntiatum esset in mimo "O dominum aequum et bonum,' So Ribbeck's fragment is a phantom.

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etc.

W. M. LINDSAY.

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