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sprung from gods and possess either the favour of Heaven (why, we are not told) or eminent virtue (vv. 129 sqq.):

pauci, quos aequus amauit

Iuppiter, aut ardens euexit ad aethera uirtus,

dis geniti potuere.

Aeneas, we are to suppose, has not yet been 'raised to heaven by the flame of virtue'—his trials and triumphs in Italy are yet in the future-so that his case is doubtful. What enables him to wrench the reluctant bough from its trunk, and as it were to force Fate, is his pietas, not the descent from Jupiter which he himself boasts. This cause the Sibyl later recognizes (403-5). If one may misquote Lamb: 'Such power has filial love for a moment to suspend the elseirrevocable law.'

Aen. VI. 567:

castigatque auditque dolos subigitque fateri.

Conington calls castigatque auditque a vσтeρov πрóтеρоv, ' perhaps intended to express the summary character of Rhadamanthus' justice, punishment following at once on examination.' How? Is he ate his dinner and sat down to table' more 'summary' than the normal style? I do not believe there is any such monster in literature-Latin or other as a vσrepov πрóτеρоv. When we light on an apparent example the proper course is to assume that the author is in his senses, and ask whether the passage cannot be understood in a reasonable way. Thus in Aen. II. 353, moriamur et in media arma ruamus, Conington gives a perfectly good explanation-the defeated Trojans must decide for death, as against escape, and fling themselves upon the swords of their foes. Similarly here: castigo does not only mean 'punish,' but 'chide' (cf. Caesar B. Civ. III. 55, crebris Pompeii litteris castigabantur; Livy XXVI. 20, castigati tantum uerbis Boeoti). Rhadamanthus is a kind of infernal Jeffreys, who reviles the prisoner as soon as he appears before his tribunal, next listens to his evasions (dolos), then extorts confession, and finally hands the sinner over to the Furies.

Another apparent vσтеρоv πρоτepov is XII. 924 sq. :

orasque recludit

loricae et clipei extremi septemplicis orbes,

since the spear of course met the shield earlier than the corslet. But et here is not the ordinary' and (also)' but as well as' (cf. the usage of Kaí). This view of et clears up another troublesome little passage, Aen. III. 570 sq.:

portus ab accessu uentorum immotus et ingens

ipse; sed horrificis iuxta tonat Aetna ruinis.

Why 'huge, but close to the eruption of Etna?' The real antithesis lies between immotus and the frightful upheaval not far away. The intention of the passage is: There is a magnificent harbour, not only extensive, but sheltered

from gales. But this quiet sheet of water is in terrible contrast with an active volcano close by.'

Aen. XII. 473 sqq.:

nigra uelut magnas domini cum diuitis aedes
peruolat et pennis alta atria lustrat hirundo,
pabula parua legens nidisque loquacibus escas,
et nunc porticibus uacuis, nunc umida circum
stagna sonat: similis medios Iuturna per hostes

fertur equis, rapidoque uolans obit omnia curru.

It is pleasant to think that this exquisite simile, set with subtlety and skill in the midst of violence and horror, is a picture drawn from the poet's memory. One imagines him strolling in the courtyard of Maecenas' house before anyone else is astir at any rate the salutantes who irked him so (Georg. II. 462) have not yet appeared (porticibus uacuis)-watching the busy little swallow which shows black against the marble colonnade as now it rises to the height of the pillars, now skims over the artificial pond which reminds both bird and poet of the country they have quitted.

Aen. XII. 546:

hic tibi mortis erant metae; domus alta sub Ida,

Lyrnesi domus alta, solo Laurente sepulchrum.

Erant is not were,' but are after all '-the Greek hoav apa used of a long-standing fact only now recognized. (Cf. Hor. Odes I. xxvii. 19 and xxxvii. 4.) Aeolus has lived and fought in the Troad, facing death many times on his native soil; but all the while the distant unthought-of place where he should die has been waiting for him. This interpretation is not merely more probable (since more vigorous) than to take erant as a simple historic ('here you died'): it is made certain by the word metae. The goal is fixed before the journey begins.

Ibid. v. 926:

per medium stridens transit femur.

In which thigh was Turnus wounded? Vergil indicates this in v. 941: umero cum apparuit alto balteus, where alto seems at first of little force, especially as the warrior has sunk to earth. Since the baldric passed from the sword at the left hip across the chest, the shoulder on which it appears must be the right. If this is altus, the other side must have sunk; the wounded thigh was therefore the left.






SINCE the time of Burman it has been amongst the aims of Phaedrian scholarship to endeavour to make good the imperfections of the direct tradition by recourse to the indirect. That losses have been sustained, one piece of evidence is enough to show. In the sixth line of his Preface to Book I. Phaedrus says that trees speak in his fables; but no trees speak in any fable now left to us, either in the five books as handed down in PR or in the Perottine Appendix.

Scholars have accordingly turned their eyes to the prose collections of the medieval fabulists, and attempted with more or less success to exhume the poems from this prose. I should follow their example without more ado or apology, were it not that a Latin scholar of repute, Professor J. Hartman, had challenged the legitimacy of the method. On p. 64 of his opusculum de Phaedri Fabulis, 1890, he asseverates that there is and can be no Latin sentence 'quin ex ea lenissima mutatione senarius Phaedrianus effici possit.' Amongst his illustrative examples is a conversion of the opening words of the Gallic War with just such a senarius :

in partes omnis tres diuisast Gallia.

The objection is but a shallow one, but it may as well be dealt with as it strikes at the root of our procedure.

Shortly then we are not here concerned with isolated sentences convertible into verses by simply shuffling their constituents, but with strips of apparent prose which by their phrasing, by the order of their words, or by both together, declare themselves to be something different, and which moreover are often metrical as they stand. The proofs of this may be sought in the following fables and their restorations. For an example it is enough to refer to lines 5, 6, 7 of the Gnat and the Bull.' It is no argument against the method that in some cases the metrical form cannot now be restored with completeness or with certainty. In the present article however I shall deal only with fables in which the state of our materials affords us a reasonable prospect of success.

For the sake of those to whom the subject is strange, and who would desire some assistance in controlling the application of the method, I give the

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as this is not a composition in plain

eg. laniger and liquor and by the Status identical, as we see, with one of recovered without difficulty, one by by another paraphrast's 'longeque ng the commonplace iniuste into an ntimate line is given, so far as sense dicta est fabula' of more than one of Thiele's apparatus l.c.

s contributions to the criticism of our ased medieval collections of fables render it be his views upon this question. In his Illustrated

Luan Lengija 14, he had expessed discontent with the principle and results of these restorations There be maintains that Romulus, i.e. the chief medieval late Latin, collection, which passes under this, the name of its reputed

author, is to be sharply distinguished from Phaedrus and to be reconstructed by itself and to be used with the greatest caution for the restoration of lost fables. According to him the Fabulae Nouae in the editions of Burman, Dressler and L. Mueller have no real foundation because they sometimes used the Romulus texts, sometimes the 'Phaedrus' tradition in the Anonymus (Nilantii), otherwise Ademar, and sometimes combined them both, and in a footnote he includes Zander's 'ingenious' treatise De generibus et libris Paraphrasium Phaedrianarum (1897) in the same censure. For Herr Thiele's warnings against incautious procedure we cannot be too grateful. We must never forget that in these reconstitutions (which by the way Herr Thiele does not altogether abjure himself) we tread on treacherous ground. But because we must walk warily, there is no reason why we should stand still. The truth or the falsity of Thiele's genealogy and history of the Romulus and other collections does not really concern the editor of Phaedrus. It is allowed that fragments and vestiges of the fabulist's work appear in all the collections. Whether they have got into them by the straight road of transmission or some cross-country route of importation (interpolation) is a matter of no moment, provided their ultimate origin is the Fables and provided that they are not derived from anything now extant elsewhere. The restorations of Burman and Mueller are unsatisfactory for quite other reasons. Burman's extensive knowledge of Phaedrus did not include a mastery of his metre. L. Mueller had this; but his arbitrary temperament led him astray. He took no pains to discover the original if it was not obvious at the first glance, and so his New Fables of Phaedrus are often only the metrical compositions of Lucian Mueller upon a given theme. In particular he failed to a greater degree than Burman in accommodating the phrasing of his versions to the diction of Phaedrus. The need for a patient regard to this may be illustrated by two examples. In the Fable of the Churlish Horse, v. 3, Burman displaces large by 'largiter,' Mueller by 'liberaliter,' and Thiele actually omits it altogether. It is however genuinely Phaedrian, as may be seen from II. 6. 15 'large diuisit dapem.' The second example is a rejected conjecture of my own. In the Fable of the Town and the Country Mouse I had thought of introducing aduenerunt in the sense of they arrived'; but found on examination that the verb is not thus used by Phaedrus, who has it thrice but only in combination with dies. Let me add in conclusion that in part the method of restoration has been discredited from its being applied to compositions where the original metrical form is lost beyond recovery. M. Havet (p. 275) has shown a prudent reserve in not attempting to restore more than a portion of the Fable of the Ass and the Ox (Ademar 34).

In utilizing the evidence of Ademar and the other paraphrasts the following cautions should be observed. Poetical or semi-poetical words and phrases are frequently replaced in the paraphrasts by those of ordinary prose. Idioms and vocables of late, vulgar or even medieval Latin are substituted for those of classical Latinity. The expression is sometimes shorter than that of

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