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C ο Ν Τ Ε Ν Τ S

OF THE

SECOND VOLUM E.

A History of the Apostles and Evangelists, Writers of the

New Testament. In three Volumes. Containing ge-
neral Observations upon the Canon of the New
Teftament, and a History of the four Evangelists,
with the Evidences of the Genuineness of the four
Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles, the Times
when they were writ, and Remarks upon them. By
NATHANIEL LARDNER, D. D. Lond. 1760.

This book of Dr. Lardner, otherwise intitled the Supplement to the
Credibility of the Gospel History, was published in 1756-7. It is so full
and judicious on the Subject of the Canon of the New Testament, that
it may of itself be sufficient to give the Reader very satisfactory in-
formation on that Point. Du Pin published a complete History of the
Canon and Writers of Books of the Old and New Testament, which
was translated into English in 1699, 2 Vols. Fol. Bp. Colin published
a Scholastical History of the Canon of the Holy Scripture, in 1672,
4to. In Carpzovius's Introduction to the Canonical Books of the old
Teftament, the Reader will find many learned Remarks on the Consti-
tution of the Canon of Scripture. He may also, if he thinks fit, con-
sult Jones's full Method of settling the Canonical Authority of the New
Testament; Mills? Prolegomena; Richardson's Defence of the Canon
of the New Testament, against Toland; Dr. Clarke's Reflexions on
Amyntor, &c. Dr. Owen published a sensible Tract in 1764, intitled,
Observations on the four Gospels, tending chiefly to ascertain the
Times of their Publication, and to illustrate the Form and the Manner
of their Composition ; his Scheme of the Times, &c. is printed at the
End of this Volume. Much information on the same subject may be
had in Macknight's Preliminary Dissertations; in Michaelis's Intro-
ductory Lectures; in Georgii Pritii Introductio in Lectionein Novi
Teftamenti, and in a variety of other Authors.

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NE W T E S T A M E N T.

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Gineral Denominations of the Collection of sacred Books, received by Christians.

1. Scripture. II. Bible. III. Canon. IV. Old and New Testament.

V. Instrument. VI. Digeft. VII. Gospel.

1.
ON

NE of the general denominations of sacred books
is Scripture, or Scriptures, literally, and primarily

Scripture. fignifying writing. But by way of eminence and distinction the books in the highest esteem are called Scripture, or the Scriptures.

This word occurs often in the New Testament, in the Gospels, the Ats, and the Fpiftles. Whereby we perceive, that in the time of our Saviour and his Apostles this word was in common use, denoting the books received by the Jewish People, as the rule of their faith. To them have been fince added by Christians the writings of Apostles and Evangelists, completing the collection of books, received by them as facred

Some of the places, where the word Scripture is used in the singular number for the books of the Old Testament, are these. 2 Tim. iii. 16. All fcripture is given by the inspiration of God. And Luke iv. 21. John 11. 22." Aas i. 16. viii. 32. 35. Rom. iv. 3. Gal. iii

. 8. James ii. 18.23. 1 Pet. ii. 6. 2 Pet. 1. 20. Scriptures, in the plural number, in these following, and many other places. Matth. xxi. 42. xxii. 29. xxvi. 54. Luke xxiv. 27. 32. 45. John v. 39. Acts xvii, 2. 11. xviii. 24. 28. 2 Tim. iii, 15. 2 Pet. iii. 16.

А

St. Peter

and divine.

1

VOL. II.

St. Peter applies this word to the books of the New, as well as of the Old Testament, to St. Paul's Epistles, in particular. 2 Pet. iii. 16. . . as also in all his epislles . . which they that are unlearned, wrest, as they do also the cther scriptures, unte their own destruction. Plainly denoting, that St. Paul's Epistles are Scriptures in the highest sense of the word.

II. Bible is another word, which has now been long in use Bible,

among Christians, denoting the whole collection of writings received by them, as of divine Authority.

The word, primarily, denotes book. But now is given to the writings of Prophets and Apostles by way of eminence. This collection is the Book, or Bible, the book of books, as superior in excellence to all other books. The word seems to be used in this sense by Chryfoftom in a parfage already (a) cited. 6. I therefore exhort all of you to procure to your« felves Bíbles, B.Críc. If you have nothing else, take care to have the “ New Testament, particularly, the Aets of the Apostles, and the Gor"pels, for your constant instructors.” And Jerome says, “ That (b) the « Scriptures being all writ by one Spirit, are called one book.” We likewvise law formerly a passage of Augustin, where he informs us, “ That () “ some called all the canonical scriptures one book, on account of their « wonderful harmonie, and unity of design throughout.” And I then faid: “It is likely, that this way of speaking gradually brought in the general use of the word Bible, for the whole collection of the scriptures, or the books of the Old and New Testament.”

In short, the ancient Christians were continually speaking of the Di. vine Oracles, and the Divine Books, and were much employed in reading them, as Chrysostom directs in a passage, transcribed (d) below : where he tecommends the reading the divine books daily, forenoon and afternoon. At length the whole collection was called the book, or the bible.

Dr. Heumann has an Epistle, or short Dissertation (e) concerning the origin of this name of our sacred collection of books. And for fome while he was of opinion, that (f) it was so called, as being the most ex. cellent of all books: in like manner as the Jews had before called their collection the Scriptures, by way of eminence. So Acts xviii. 24. and 28. But (8) afterwards he suspected, that the origin of this name was in

those

* Hac parte (quod bene notandum eft) Petrus canonizat, ut ita loquar, id est, in canonem facrarum scripturarum afcribit, atque canonicas facit epiftolas Pauli. Dicens enim, ficut & ceteras fcripturas, utique fignificat, fe etiam illas in fcripturarum numero habere. De sacris autem fcripturis eum loqui, in confeffo eft. E. in loco (a) Vol. X. p. 349:

(6) The fame. po 158. (c) The same. p. 256. (4) Αλλά δεί ααία καιρόν επιτήδειον ηγείσθαι προς την των πνευματικών λογα,

4. Δυνησόμεθα και επί οικίας διατρίβονίες, και μετά την επιάσιν, και στο της έσιάσεως μετά χείρας λάβονίες τα θεία βιβλία της εξ αυτών καρπεσθαι ωφέλειαν. In i. Gen. hom. x. T. 4. p. 81. C. Bened, (e) De origine nominis Biblioruin. Heum. Poecile. Tom. i. p. 412... 415.

Sufpicari deinde capi, ideo Biblia diétum effe facrum codicem, quod tanquam liber omnium przeltantiflimus rzeł itoxny dictus fit sa B.C.a. Suppetias conjecturæ huic ferre videbatur illa appellatio, qua idem divinum opus vocari folei ai ypompas. e. gr. Act: xviii. 24. 28. It ib. p. 413. (8) Ibo po 4140

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