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THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by the Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Saturdays, from October to May inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or school holiday, at Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, New York City.

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 VOL. IV NEW YORK, JANUARY 21, 1910

In the Popular Science Monthly for December last is an article by John J. Stevenson, Emeritus Professor of Geology in New York University, on Classics and the College Course, in which as the result of long years of thinking he pours out his contempt for everything that classical literature means. In violent opposition to the views of Dr. Osler, as indicated in our last number, he finds practically nothing in Latin or Greek worthy of consideration. To his mind, what they did do, instead of furnishing the beginnings of serious study, constituted an obstacle which it took centuries to overcome. A few of his estimates of classical authors will not be without interest to classical teachers.

No one denies that the author of the Iliad had marvelous skill in description, but not a few have regretted that a writer of such ability had no better subject than the quarrels and combats of lustful savages, whose exploits, so vividly pictured, are those of mere brutes. In point of morals, the Homeric poems are not superior to the Kalevala, to which they are inferior in imagery. neither the Iliad nor the Aeneid is superior to Paradise Lost or to the Inferno, which, produced by greater intellects, are free from the grossness which characterizes the Homeric poems.

But

Aristotle no more typified Greek intellect than Ajax typified Greek physique, or than a building with forty-five stories typifies New York's dwelling houses. He was giant among pygmies, a phenomenon in the Greek intellectual sky as startling as was Donati's comet in our physical sky, half a century ago... Were he living now he would be but one of many, possibly the chief. It is unjust to compare him with Spencer, as some have done, for the latter lived in age of greater knowledge and greater advantages.

Plato's reputation is due in no small degree to the fact that his style is ponderous enough to prevent popularization of his works and to conceal defects in his system of social morals; he will continue to be read by only a few and the verdict of four centuries ago is likely to remain unchallenged. But his enduring reputation is due quite as much to his influence on Christian theology as to his profundity of thought.

Socrates, as described by his disciples, was a picturesque but by no means wholly inviting personality. A careless sloven, of unattractive face and figure, a lounger at street corners, neglectful of obligations to his family, casting public slurs on his burdened wife, he was able, in spite of all, to hold the admiration of a thoughtful dreamer like Plato, of a young rake like Alcibiades, of brilliant young men about town like Xenophon and Critias. His range of thought was wide and his versatility remarkable; he could discuss lofty and commonplace topics with equal ease; he was able to speak with authority

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respecting the immortality of the soul, and with equal authority he could advise the fashionable prostitute, Theodote, as to the best methods of coaxing and of retaining her lovers. Socrates was unquestionably a man of great intellect and through his disciples he has exerted great influence on the world; in his personal morals, he was far superior to his surroundings; but he was very far from being the ideal sage.

The essays by Cicero and Seneca are so lofty in tone that the reader is puzzled to determine whether they were written under the influence of a stinging conscience or simply to prove that high thinking may survive low living.... the dreary platitudes of a Marcus Aurelius shine amid the moral darkness as diamonds in a pile of rubbish.

The models of honor to be found among Grecian statesmen are such as one might seek to-day among the heroes of Central and South America. The history of Grecian public affairs is a continuous tale of treachery and dishonor.

These are merely specimens of his views. They need no discussion here, for, when a man is as blind as Professor Stevenson shows himself to be, he is beyond the power of any curative surgery. Some other remarks, however, in the article are worth serious attention. Professor Stevenson believes that the curriculum which ignores utility is wasteful and it is from this point of view that what he says of the Classics is important as indicating an attitude of mind which, in my opinion, is largely justifiable. He says, "If the noble lines of the Iliad and the majestic music of the Aeneid have exerted material influence upon the head and heart of youths in American colleges during the last half century, they must have done so through the 'Bohn', that essential part of the average man's equipment". I am afraid this is literally true and it is to our shame that it is true, but not to ours only but to that of all in authority who refuse to provide the proper facilities for adequate instruction. Professor Stevenson says further:

But granting that the ancients did excel the moderns in intellectual power and loftiness of thought, one is compelled to ask the classicist why college students are not permitted to come into contact with the authors themselves. One may assert without any fear of successful contradiction, that the teaching of Latin and Greek as given in the vast majority of our colleges during the last half century, has not done this; for few men have acquired in college such familiar knowledge of the language as would enable them to think much of what the author said. Their labor was expended on lexicon work and construction. If these extollers of classic intellect are honest in their plea, why do they neglect

genuine study of the authors in the college course? The answer to this plea that Professor Stevenson suggests is that these authors should be studied through the medium of translations. He does not seem to observe that his indictment is also one against the methods of teaching; otherwise he might think that if the teaching were better the results would be better; but at any rate that is the only answer that can be made to such strictures. That, however, Professor Stevenson has no genuine appreciation of the problems of teaching languages is shown by this sentence toward the close: “English, German and French are quite as difficult as Latin, and their literature is sufficiently inspiring". No one who is so ignorant of the actual differences between the classical and the modern tongues deserves to have his opinions treated seriously, but his indication of the results of classical study are of value in showing the views of a large number of people.

G. L.

SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN

At a meeting of The New York Latin Club held in May, 1910, Professor F. F. Abbott, of Princeton University, read a paper entitled Some Reflections on the Pronunciation of Latin. We are very glad indeed to be privileged to print at this time Professor Abbott's own summary of the main parts of the paper. Professor Abbott prefaced his remarks by saying that he planned to lay before his hearers for their consideration some conclusions which seemed to him established and others which might appear only probable or calculated to suggest sounder methods of approaching certain practical questions of pronunciation than the methods in vogue at present.

The summary of the paper follows:

I.

While the accent in the speech of everyday life was marked by a stress, as we can see from the weakening of certain unaccented vowels and from such cases of syncope as stablum, the retention of long unaccented vowels (e. g. crēdēbátur, frūgālissimus) and the clear descriptions of the grammarians make it probable that in literary circles it was essentially a mater of pitch.

II.

The group, not the word, is the accentual unit. This is clear from (1) a study of certain accentual phenomena, (2) an examination of Latin verse, (3) the use of separation points in the inscriptions.-(1 a) The Latin writers tell us of word groups: e. g. Quintilian says (1.5.27), nam cum dico "circum litora", tamquam unum enuntio dissimulata distinctione, itaque tamquam in una voce una est acuta. (1 b) Plautus and Terence accent not óperam dáre but operám dare, etc. (1 c) The crystallized wordgroups in Latin, like invicem, and (1 d) Romance derivatives point to such grouping: e. g. Italian

ancora ad hanc hóram. (I e) The iambic shortening law in dramatic verse shows it: e. g. Quid ergo! dubitas quin lubenter tuo ero meus quid possiet, Pl. Poen. 881.-(2 a) Reduction of the quantitative value of fihal vowel + initial vowel in verse shows that they were run together. (2 b) A syllable in verse ending in short vowel and consonant, followed by initial vowel, is short; therefore an open syllable and final consonant must be carried over to next word: cf. atóm (= at home). (2 c) Final consonant + initial consonant makes long syllable. (2d) Short final vowel + 2 initial consonants usually makes long syllable. All this shows that the words were linked together in pronunciation.-(3) The points which are used to separate individual words in an inscription are often omitted between a preposition and substantive, etc.: e. g. INDE DEORSVM INFONTEM. This leads us to make the same infer

ence.

III.

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What results probably followed if Latin words were linked together in pronunciation? Cf. liaison in French, vous aurez de quoi vous occuper au logis. Was a similar method of rendering a sentence followed in Latin?

A. (vowels). When final precedes initial vowel in verse there is a reduction of quantity: e. g.

Alta petens, pariterque oculos telumque tetendit. As for the quality, there are two theories of its treatment: (1) first vowel cut off, (2) characteristic quality of both vowels heard. No evidence for first theory. Second rests on unwarranted assumption that when two vowels come together they do not influence the quality of each other. Cicero (Orator 150) seems to mean that neither vowel was cut off. Quintilian says of final m: "neque enim eximitur, sed obscuratur et tantum in hoc aliqua inter duas vocales velut nota est, ne ipsae coeant" (9.4.33-40). Gellius, 13.21.6, says that turrim had a pleasanter sound than turrem before in. Correct conclusion to be had from studying treatment of two concurrent vowels in the interior of words. Cf. cogo from co-ago, dego from de-ago, coepi.

B. (consonants). When two or more difficult consonants come together (1) one is assimilated: cf. irruo (= inruo), scriptus ( scribtus); (2) one is dropped: cf. ipse (= ispse); (3) a vowel is inserted, as in vehiculum, Henery. Only a few of the changes in pronunciation were indicated in spelling: cf. obtineo, urbs. Spelling was fixed by usage. We must look for light to the writing of the illiterate who spelled as they pronounced. From them we get such methods of pronunciation indicated as cun caris, con coniuge, Maurussun quem, quen quisque, cun filiis, usquedun veniat, im balneum, im fronte, etc., all showing an assimilation of the final to the following initial consonant. To the cases just cited may be added what Quintilian and Cicero, in a letter, have to say about the assimilation of final m in cum to an initial n. In pronouncing a final vowel or consonant an initial vowel or consonant, when we read a Latin sentence aloud, ought we not to take into consideration, for the word groups at least, the same phonetical laws as prevail in the interior syllables?

Now let us see what practical conclusions follow if our reasoning be accepted. It follows that we should read prose and verse with little if any stress; that we are confronted no longer by the ictus-wordaccent-issue in verse; that our words should be grouped in reading into accentual units which will

be determined partly by our appreciation of the sense, as they are in English, partly by a study of Plautus and other sources, and finally that we can be helped in determining the treatment to be given to concurrent vowels and consonants which result from this liaison by observing the phonetic changes which the same combinations undergo within a word.

IMPORTANT EXCAVATIONS AT PERGAMUM, SARDIS AND DIDYMA1

But

Since Professor Chase in his good account of Greek Archaeology in 1909 (The Classical Journal 6.65 ff.) gives no details with regard to recent excavations at Pergamum, Sardis and Didyma, it may interest the readers of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY to know what was done last year at these Asia Minor sites. At Pergamum excavations were continued at Jigma-tepe, a large mound or tumulus in the plain of the Caicus which measures about 500 meters in circumference and is surrounded by a wall and had a flight of steps to the top. Dörpfeld had previously dug a trench into the centre and elsewhere without finding the burial place. Last year he dug trenches cross-wise, with similar failure. In fact he has removed about a fifth of the entire mound without finding the burial place; so well hidden was the corpse in some secret part of the tumulus. the most fruitful work was in the precinct of Demeter on a terrace on the slopes of the acropolis. Here were discovered a temple and altar at one end and a Propylon at the other. On the lower side were found the underground rooms of a portico which was 90 meters long with three rows of columns, commanding a beautiful view over the valley of the Caicus. On the upper side was unearthed a sort of odeum or square assembly-place where people could sit and watch the initiations and mysteries and rites in honor of Demeter, as at Oropus and Eleusis. The seats are well preserved and a door-way with enormous lintel still in place gives access from the odeum to a room above the Propylon. The temple was originally dedicated about 262 B. C. to Demeter alone, but a portico of six columns was added to the temple in antis by the Roman G. Claudius Seilianus Aesimus, in whose behalf also an altar was erected near the Propylon to virtue and temperance by Julia Pia, his wife. The dedication was made to include Kore also, as the inscription or the later architrave informs us (Δήμητρι Καρποφόρῳ καὶ Δήμητρος Κόρη Γ. Κλαύδιος Σειλιανός Αἴσιμο[ς] πρυτανεύων τὸν πρόναον κατασκεύασας ἐ[κγ]ονιαῖον ἀνέθηκεν). On the altar, eight meters long, was the inscription Evμμévns vπèρ τῆς μητρὸς Βίας Δήμητρι, which proves that the altar was built at the same time with the temple on the original architrave of which occurs the same inscription. This Eumenes then is Eumenes

1 This report is based on a visit to Pergamum and Didyma last April and on my particination in the campaign at Sardis as epigraphist.

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the elder and not the son of Apollonis, whose name occurs on the Propylon. In front of the Propylon were also found two altars, the one with an inscription ̓Αρετῇ καὶ Σωφροσύνῃ ̓Ακαστρίκιος Παῦλος Μύστης κατ ὄναρ, the other with the inscription Πίστει καὶ 'Ομονοίᾳ Ακαστρίκιος Παῦλος Μύστης κατ ̓ ὄναρ. In the case of the Propylon the ten steps which led down into the precinct are well preserved and two peculiar unfluted columns with reed capitals have been re-erected. The steps on the outside are also preserved and near them was discovered a Roman nymphaeum. Almost the entire entablature of the Propylon has been put together and the inscription on the architrave reads Βασίλισσα ̓Απολλωνὶς Δήμητρι [καὶ Κόρη] Θεσμοφόροις χαριστήριον τὰς στόας καὶ τοὺς οἴκους. Many inscriptions and interesting pieces of sculpture were also unearthed. In a cistern were found several beautiful Roman heads, among them portraits of Augustus, the elder Agrippina and Tiberius. These are now in Constantinople; but at Pergamum one still sees a relief of the threehaded Cerberus, who would appropriately find a place in a sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone. Also appropriate is a relief representing a priestess or the goddess herself near an altar with torch in one hand and bowl in other. Near her is a steer with its feet on bases and tied with a rope to a ring in the pavement such as have recently been found at Ephesus and Sardis. There is a similar relief in Athens but the interpretation is doubtful. These recent excavations at Pergamum are important and will throw much light on the celebration of the mysteries in Roman times2.

Sardis for many years has been in the eyes of Asia Minor archaeologists as a promising site for excavation. Its varied history from early Lydian days down to Roman times, when it became one of the seven branches of the Asia Minor candlestick, was well known, and so the granting of a firman to Professor Howard Crosby Butler was welcomed by all scholars and it is a matter for congratulation that the Americans have invaded Asia Minor. The American excavations began last March with a very wide trench which was dug back from the river Pactolus toward the two unfluted columns which have always been known to travellers. Early in the campaign was discovered a very ancient building of soft blackish sandstone. The steps which led up to this are well preserved and all about the building were found bases of statues and steles, none of them, however, inscribed. This structure is probably Lydian and was completely covered by the large temple subsequently erected. The discovery of limekilns which got their supply of marble from the large temple was discouraging but the south side

2 Within the last few months the temple of the mother of the gods with identifying inscriptions has been excavated under the personal direction of the aged veteran Conze.

of the temple was destroyed to a much greater extent than the north, where the original steps came to light. In the last days of the campaign part of the wall of the cella, which had a base with a moulding as the Parthenon was cleared and here in situ was an exceptionally interesting and informing inscription of Hellenistic date which definitely assigns the so-called temple of Cybele to Artemis. Many other inscriptions and some sculptures were found and a preliminary report on them and on the excavations will be found in The American Journal of Archaeology, 1910, No. 4. The hills across the Pactolus are honeycombed with tombs, several of which were opened. They have a passage-way or dromos leading to a large chamber with benches on all sides for the dead, somewhat as in Etruscan tombs. Lydian pottery and beautiful jewelry were found in considerable abundance. In one tomb the portal bore an inscription in the Lydian language which no one as yet has been able to read. The characters show great resemblance to the early alphabets of Pamphylia and to Etruscan, especially in a symbol which resembles the figure eight. The inscriptions run from right to left and the left panel repeats the inscription which is above, and possibly contains the word Gyges. More such Lydian inscriptions will be found in coming campaigns and the tradition of Herodotus that the Etruscans came from Lydia will probably be substantiated.

About ten miles to the south of Miletus is the temple of Didymaean Apollo, the largest and most highly decorated temple in Asia Minor and to-day the most splendid ruin of a temple anywhere in that country. A sacred way leading from the harbor of Panormus, about a mile and a half distant, was lined on either side with large Ionic seated archaic statues, many of which are now in the British Museum. There are no remains of the old temple, which was thoroughly destroyed by the Persians. The existing ruins, from which the more than sixty houses and windmill which covered them have recently been cleared away at great expense by Dr. Wiegand, date from the third century B. C. This Ionic temple, 108 meters long by 55 broad, had a double colonnade of 120 columns about it, with ten columns at the ends and 21 on the sides. The capitals and bases were richly and variously ornamented. Of the inner row of the north peristyle two fluted columns remain standing with their architrave. The third column, which belongs to the inner row of the south peristyle, is unfluted, proving that the temple was never finished. There were seven steps on the side, which have sunk in the middle on the south side, where there was no foundation except sand. Here was probably the sacred spring of the oracle. Twelve steps led up to the main entrance on the east, which had a portico in front of three rows of four columns, besides the

two rows of columns on the colonnade. An enormous door with a threshold weighing over thirtytwo tons, and side jambs weighing over fifty tons gave access to the front room. On either side was

an entrance to a long vaulted passage-way, which led directly down into the cella or main room, possibly a private entrance to the adyton for the priests. In the front room were two columns and on either. side doors leading to a stair-case to the roof, which is well preserved on the south side. Even the paint on the carved maeander pattern on the ceiling remains. From the front room three doors, not one as the French plan gives, with engaged Ionic columns on the inner side opened with a descent of over twenty steps into the main room, which is not yet excavated. When the debris in the cella is removed, this will be one of the grandest ruins in Asia Minor.

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.

DAVID M. ROBINSON.

REVIEWS

Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals. By E. Norman Gardiner. London: Macmillan and Co. (1910). Pp. xxvii 533. $2.50 net.

It is a curious commentary on nineteenth century studies of the past that Germany, a comparatively unathletic country, should have supplied the only authoritative works we have on Greek athletics, whereas athletic England has produced nothing in the way of a complete treatise on the subject. In Mr. Gardiner's book we have at last secured, in attractive English dress, a full and weighty discussion which ought to be welcomed both by the trained scholar and the trained athlete. Heretofore the interpretation of Greek sports, e. g. throwing the discus, has been largely in the hands of persons who knew either too little of Greek or too little of sports; but readers of the Journal of Hellenic Studies, who have already had occasion to admire the scholarship and practical knowledge which Mr. Gardiner has evinced in several essays on the discus, on wrestling, the pentathlon, and the like, will welcome this book with confidence.

The work falls into two parts. Part I is a historical survey, dealing with the progress of athletics in general from the earliest times to the abolition of the Olympic games, and including very complete accounts of the great national festivals. Part II is descriptive and expository, treating with much fresh material the stadium, the hippodrome, the gymnasium, and the palaestra, and describing anew the various sports. There are good indices and a fairly complete bibliography, wherein even the little that has been done by Americans in this field is noticed. One misses, however, reference to von Mach's article on the discus, and McDaniel's on ball-playing.

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