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Crete about 12,000 years ago, and those at Susa in the Euphrates valley have been placed about 18,000 B. C. In these early days England was still continental and the Thames a tributary of the Rhine.

With the advent of the Neolithic invaders British civilization begins and may be said to be fairly continuous from that day to this. By that time the great beasts which had lived in Britain with palaeolithic man were no more, but the Irish elk and the aurochs survived into the Bronze Age.

The beginning of the Bronze Age in Britain is set not later than 1400 B. C., and about this time another invasion from the Netherlands, Denmark, and Gaul occurred, introducing some portion of the so-called Alpine race of Central Europe, from which came also those fair-haired heroes called Achaean who overran the Mycenaean bronze civilization of the eastern Mediterranean lands. The picture of the life and culture of the Bronze Age is naturally more complete and lifelike than that of the preceding, and we are given a full account of their social organization, agriculture, dwellings, dress, ornaments, etc., with something like the fullness with which we can trace this age in Crete and Greece.

Of especial interest at this point is the extended and sympathetic account of the voyage of Pytheas, that Greek explorer who first made Britain known to the civilized world. Sailing from Massilia about the time when Alexander was invading the far East, this early navigator not only circumnavigated the British Isles but made careful scientific observations of the lunar influence on the tides, of the altitude of the sun at noon at points along the coast, from which Hipparchus could calculate their latitude, and of the manners and customs of the inhabitants. Mr. Holmes settles upon St. Michael's Mount (not to be confounded with Mont St. Michel on the French coast) as the ancient Ictis (literally Channel island) from which the tin was shipped to the mouth of the Loire, thereby rejecting the long accepted etymological identification with the Isle of Wight.

One is impressed anew in the reading of this book by the fact that England, instead of being the "tight little island" she imagines herself to be, has in reality ever been open to invasion after invasion, and that that of the Normans is but the last (up to the present) of a long series the beginning of which antedates written history. About 400 B. C. the Brythons began to enter, from Gaul or Belgium, bringing with them the Celtic language and the use of iron, which by this time had spread over continental Europe. Of their civilization we have even a fuller picture, towns permanently inhabited, currency, operations of mining, works of art, reading and writing, and the Druidical system of religion. Such they were when Caesar reached them Aug. 26 (according to Mr. Holmes not Aug. 27) 55 B. C. Where did he land and whence did he set sail?

These vexed questions are treated at great length in special excursuses of Part II. Unfortunately for our peace of mind, Mr. Holmes himself in his still more recently published translation of Caesar's text changes front again and leaves the question of embarkation still open, despite the fact that in the preface to the book under review he regards it settled forever and is inclined to view with pity those crooked minds who refuse to be convinced by his invincible arguments: "the questions would have been settled long ago if any competent writer had bestowed upon them as much care as has been expended in investigating Hannibal's passage over the Alps". It is well known that the location of the Portus Itius (literally Channel port) from which Caesar sailed has had as many claimants as Homer's birth-city and with about as fair a chance of amicable adjustment. As early as the 15th Century Raymond de Marliano identified it with Calais, but of late the choice has been restricted to Wissant and Boulogne. So excellent are the reasons which Mr. Holmes adduces for his selection of Boulogne, that, were it not for his still more recent change, we might reasonably regard the inquiry as closed.

Equally insoluble has been the question of his landing-place; so said Mommsen, Tozer, and Kiepert. But our author is very sure that all is plain; at least he has not yet had occasion to change his own view. After discussing most carefully the evidence for Pevensey, Lympne (Romney Marsh), and Deal, he decides for the latter, finding that all conditions of wind, tide, and coast configuration are met by assuming the landing to have occurred on the open coast between Walmer and Deal in East Kent.

Other valuable notes follow on "Where did Caesar first encounter the Britons on the Morning after his second Landing?", "Where did Caesar cross the Thames?", "The Site of Cassivellaunus's Stronghold", "Did Londinium exist in Caesar's Time?", etc.

Besides many illustrations of prehistoric implements, three excellent maps are included in the volume, and the whole work is carefully indexed. STEPHEN A. HURLRUT.

In The (London) Nation for September 18, 1909, under the caption Marble's Language, in the course of an unsigned notice of that admirable book, A Literary History of Rome, by J. W. Duff (obtainable in this country through Charles Scribner's Sons), someone writes as follows:

If every language reveals the character of its race, the Roman language was pre-eminent in that power. Clear, solemn, and brief, it is designed for proclamation, for laws, for the record of events, and, above all, for inscriptions. It is, as St. Praxed's bishop said, "marble's language, Latin pure, discreet". Up till yesterday our fathers found a Latin epitaph easier to write than an English, and to-day

The

Or:

Professor Duff dedicates his book in Latin. very sight of the letters reminds us of the keen edges of marble freshly inscribed. The form and order of the words is like the construction of a fortress, and in the masters of Roman prose the sentences are compact together, like the cubic stones that built the rampart from the Solway to the Tyne. Marble found its language in Rome, and wherever the emblem of the Senate and the Roman People appeared throughout the world, there arose the sense of marble permanence and severity. But, as in the endearments of a strong and silent nature, what unexpected pleasure arises when the marble suddenly glows and this language of silence becomes eloquent with passionate emotion! To that very contrast is due much of the peculiar beauty of the Roman poets. Into the language of cold entablatures they have infused the stir and crimson of our common life, and the surprise of finding there also the touch of mortal things gives to those memorable expressions a double worth. So it is when Horace smiles, or when Tibullus calls to his lover to meet him barefooted, with her tangled hair let down, or when Propertius laments the many ladies dead:

Sunt apud infernos tot milia formosarum. And so it is when Terence shows the girl taking refuge for grief in her lover's arms-flens quam familiariter-or when he utters his famous Homo sum. Catullus could fire that chilly language with every mood of happy and tortured love. Odi et amo, he cries, and every lover knows his meaning. In a single line Lucretius could picture the vision of man's generations handing on the torch of life, like runners in the torchlight game, and in three lines he could inscribe his eternal panegyric on the master whose soul had journeyed far beyond the flaming ramparts of the world and traversed the immeasurable Whole.

But more than all the others-more even than Catullus-Virgil possessed the secret of this power. Perhaps no ear till Wordsworth came was so sensitive to the still, sad music of humanity, and he compelled that language of stones to utter it. In the mere use of words he had Milton's gift of suggesting intangible associations and inner meanings. As Prof. Duff says in an admirable chapter:

"Words were by Virgil so experimented on as to raise in the mind indefinable associations, transcending the ordinary meaning and transcending ordinary experience. A sense is constantly produced as of some dim realm of moods almost beyond expression—a background consisting of another world".

Instances of that mysterious skill in words are abundant, if we did not forget them; instances, too, of that still deeper and rarer power of sympathy in all human things, of regret over the long sorrows of mankind, of misgiving under the burden of the mystery-the heavy and the weary weight of all this unintelligible world. It was a power hardly to be found again till it reappeared among our fathers little over a century ago; and it was a power that Virgil's imposed theme rather hampered than called out; but in unmistakable glimpses we discover it. We need not recall the "lacrimae rerum", but rather let us remember such few lines

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Or:

Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus.

Quisque suos patimur Manes.

Or the great passage in the sixth book, beginning: Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram Those and the verses that follow are lines in which one might almost say that the Roman tongue reached its highest poetic accomplishment, and with the music of them vibrating in our memory we may close.

ANNUAL MEETING OF CLASSICAL TEACHERS IN SYRACUSE

The annual conference of the New York State Classical Teachers' Association occurs on December 30 in Syracuse. There will be a morning session at 9 o'clock, and an afternoon session at 2 o'clock. Both sessions will be held in Room 123, Central High School. A large attendance of classical teachers is expected. The programme follows.

Morning session (at 9 o'clock): President's address, Professor John R. Greene, Colgate University; The Teaching of Ancient Languages, C. F. Wheelock, Second Commissioner of Education; The Academic Syllabus, Principal M. W. Downing, North High School, Syracuse; Some Problems of First Year Latin, Principal H. K. Russell, Owego Academy; Interest in First Year Latin, Miss M. A. Fuller, Cortland High School; On Reading and Translating, Professor H. B. Ward, Hamilton College; Vergil as Literature, Professor H. H. Yeames, Hobart College.

Afternoon session (2 o'clock): The Classics from the Standpoint of an Engineer, Professor W. P. Graham, College of Applied Science, Syracuse University; Vulgar Latin, Professor C. L. Durham, Cornell University.

The annual address under the auspices of the Association will be given at the close of the afternoon session by President Rush Rhees, Rochester University, upon the subject Educational Values.

The forty-second annual meeting of the American Philological Association will convene at Brown University, Providence, R. I., on Tuesday, December 27, at 3.30. The annual address of the President, Professor Paul Shorey, of the University of Chicago, will be delivered at a joint session with the Archaeological Institute on the evening of the 27. The sessions of the Association will conclude on Thursday afternoon, the 29. The programme promises the usual variety of theme, and every effort has been made to secure more time both for discussion and for social pleasures. Reduced rates have been secured as far west as Buffalo and Pittsburgh.

The Archaeological Institute of America will meet at the same time and place.

The next issue of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY will be dated January 14, 1911.

THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by the Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Saturdays, from October to May inclusive, except in weeks in which there is a legal or school holiday, at Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY), are two dollars. Within the territory covered by the Association (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia) subscription is possible to individuals only through membership. To institutions in this territory the subscription price is one dollar per year.

Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is one dollar per year.

Editor-in-Chief

GONZALEZ LODGE, Teachers College, Columbia University

Managing Editor

CHARLES KNAPP, Barnard College, Columbia University

Associate Editors

ERNST RIESS, Boys' High School, Brooklyn HARRY L. WILSON, Johns Hopkins University

Business Manager

CHARLES KNAPP, Barnard College, New York City

Communications, articles, reviews, queries, etc., should be sent to the editor-in-chief. Inquiries concerning subscriptions and advertisIng, back numbers or extra numbers, notices of change of address, etc., should be sent to the business manager.

Printed by Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.

FOR LATIN SIGHT READING

TEXT EDITIONS OF

Caesar-Episodes from Gallic and Civil Wars (In press)
Caesar's Gallic War-Eight books ($0.40)
Nepos-Twenty-five Lives ($0.40)

Cicero's Orations-Ten, with Selected Letters ($0.40)
Cicero's De Senectute ($0 30)

Virgil-Eclogues and Georgics ($0.25)
Virgil-Complete Aeneid ($0.50)

Ovid-Selections from Metamorphoses, Fasti, Tristia, etc, ($0.50)

Viri Romae-Selections ($0.25)

Kirtland's Selections from the Correspondence of Cicero, (with notes) ($0.50)

Knapp's Aulus Gellius-Selections (with notes) ($0.30) AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 VOL. IV NEW YORK, JANUARY 14, 1910

American scholarship is to be congratulated upon the appearance of the first volume of Professor Bennett's monumental Syntax of Early Latin. This book will take the place hitherto occupied by Holtze's Syntaxis Priscorum Scriptorum Latinorum. The present volume deals with the verb; the second volume will treat the cases, the adjectives, the pronouns, and the particles.. G. L.

Dr. William Osler, formerly Professor in the Johns Hopkins University, now Regius Professor of Medicine in Oxford University, who is by common consent "the greatest physician in the English-speaking world", contributes to the December American magazine an eloquent article on Man's Redemption of Man. Beginning with the statement that of man there has been published a triple gospel-of his soul, of his goods, of his body—, he passes with a mere glance at Christianity and the long struggle of twenty centuries to make the gospel of Christ the earnest, desire of the best people of the race, and the long struggle of mankind to cause acquiescence in the principles of eternal justice, to the third gospel-that of the body, the fight to save human beings from physical pain and suffering.

The article is in the main a sketch of the development of preventive medicine, but he has occasion in this sketch to go back to the origin of the movement, which he finds (like the origins of so much else that dominates our thought to-day) in the thinking of the ancient Greeks. His words on this subject, representing as they do the belief of one whose belief is entitled to the highest consideration to which the belief of one single man can be entitled, are so interesting and so important that all teachers of the Classics should read them. Besides them such vitriolic outpourings as those of Professor Stevenson, to which I shall allude in the next number, fall into insignificance. Dr. Osler's words are these:

Man's redemption of man is the great triumph of Greek thought. The tap-root of modern science sinks deep in Greek soil, the astounding fertility of which is one of the outstanding facts of history. As Sir Henry Maine says: "To one small people

it was given to create the principle of progress. That people was the Greek. Except the blind forces of nature nothing moves in this world which is not Greek in its origin". Though not always recognized, the controlling principles of our art, literature and

No. 12

philosophy, as well as those of science, are Hellenic. We still think in certain levels only with the help of Plato, and there is not a lecture-room of this university in which the trained ear may not catch echoes of the Lyceum. In his introductory chapter of his Rise of the Greek Epic, Professor Murray dwells on the keen desire of the Greeks to make life a better thing than it is, and to help in the service of man, a thought that pervades Greek life like an aroma. From Homer to Lucian there is one refrain-pride in the body as a whole; and in the strong conviction that 'our soul in its rose-mesh' is quite as much helped by flesh as flesh is by soul, the Greek sang his song "For pleasant is this flesh". Just so far as we appreciate the fair mind in the fair body so far do we apprehend ideals expressed to-day in every department of life. The beautiful soul harmonizing with a beautiful body is as much the glorious ideal of Plato as it is the end of the education of Aristotle. What a splendid picture in Book iii of the Republic of the day when "our youth will dwell in a land of health, amid fair sights and sounds and receive the good in every thing; and beauty, the effluence of fair works, shall flow into the eye and ear like a health-giving breeze from a purer region, and insensibly draw the soul from earliest years into likeness and sympathy with the beauty of reason". The glory of this zeal for the enrichment of the present life was revealed to the Greeks as to no other people, but in respect to care for the body of the common man we have only seen its fulfilment in our own day, but as a direct result of methods of research initiated by them.

Philosophy, as Plato tells us, begins with wonder; and staring open eyed at the starry heavens on the plains of Mesopotamia, man took a first step in the careful observation of nature, which carried him a long way in his career. But he was very slow to learn the second step-how to interrogate nature, to search out her secrets, as Harvey puts it, by way of experiment. The Chaldeans who invented gnomen, and predicted eclipses, made a good beginning. The Greeks did not get much beyond trained observation, though Pythagoras made one fundamental experiment when he determined the dependence of the pitch of sound on the length of the vibrating cord. But so far did unaided observation and brilliant generalization carry Greek thinkers that there is scarcely a modern discovery which by anticipation cannot be found in their writings. Indeed one is staggered at their grasp of great principles. Man can do a great deal of observation and thinking, but with them alone he cannot unravel the mysteries of nature. Had he been able the Greeks would have done it; and could Plato and Aristotle have grasped the value of experiment in the progress of human knowledge, the course of European history might have been very different.

G. L.

WHAT AND WHY IN GREEK AND LATIN

to say.

COMPOSITION'

The title of this paper was selected under pressure, before I had a very definite idea of what I wished Hence it is, I fear, somewhat misleading. In fact, What Not and Why Not would in some respects be more suitable. A quite different title suggested itself to me later. I thought of calling it, Bread or a Stone? And perhaps you will pardon me if I ask you to accept this as a sub-title. Please pardon me also if personal experiences enter more or less into the discussion. I am to consider both Greek and Latin. Sometimes I expressly mention both in my statements, but often I name only one, meaning, with the necessary modifications, usually the other as well.

This is a classical association. Permit me to quote from the official prospectus: "All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the literature, the life, and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actively engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association". Here, then, are six things mentioned— the literature, the life, the art of Greece, and the same of Rome-interest in any one of which (for I assume that the word 'and' may be interpreted 'or') makes eligibility. Nothing is said of those who are interested in the languages of the two nations mentioned and not in the three things of the list. Such persons are presumably not eligible for membership, whether engaged in teaching the Classics or not. Yet much of our teaching of Greek and Latin is of a kind adapted to induce, if any interest at all, interest in the languages and nothing more. Let me read a short letter On The Study of Greek which appeared recently The Times Saturday Book Review.

In his admirable essay on The Use of Translations, Prof. Richardson asks the reader to remember "that a Keats who knew not a word of Greek got nearer the heart of Greek literature than a hundred Porsons could do". I have often wondered whether the heads of the Greek departments in our High Schools and colleges plan to make Porsons of all their pupils. It would seem so, for throughout the course nothing is dwelt on but grammatical constructions, irregular verbs, and minute distinctions between figures of speech. But there is very little done to make the student feel that passion for beauty which characterizes almost all Greek literature. The learned professors forget, apparently, that all men cannot be Porsons, and that it would not be to their advantage if they could be. But an appreciation of the spirit that made Keats compose his Ode on a Grecian Urn and that has left all of our poetry, from ShakesDeare to Phillips's Marpessa, so much richer for its influence cannot but make us better and nobler.

Despite the saving grace of the words "whether actively engaged in teaching or not", it is probable

1 This paper was read at the meeting of the Classical Association of the Atlantic States, held at New York City, April 22, 1910.

that a majority of those here present, members of this association, are teachers either in college or in school. Those of us who are in secondary schools have in our classes fifty, seventy-five, a hundred, perhaps a hundred and fifty, or more. Let us suppose that it were decided to open membership in this association to these students-I mean, to make an effort to secure as members those of our students who could qualify in one or more of the six divisions of interest. How many students in the secondary schools could qualify? Some of mine could, perhaps, but I have to confess that many more could not. Some of you would, I think, have to make similar confession. But, we say, they must learn the language now; later, when they become proficient, they will gain an interest in the other things. It is frequently maintained, and I have heard it said by a college professor, that the secondary course in Greek and Latin must be mainly linguistic. Perhaps that would be so, or better so, if the secondary course could always be followed up by a tertiary course in the college, and quarternary course in the university or graduate school, in which Greek and Latin could be systematically pursued for many years. But when we remember that only a very small number of our secondary school pupils studying Latin ever go to college or to any higher institution where they continue the study, it is obvious (is it not?) that now or never is an interest to be formed in the things for the appreciation of which the language is an instrument. Of course the acquisition of some power to use the instrument is necessary for that which should follow later on; but it seems plain that secondary courses in Latin, and in Greek too, should be planned primarily for those who will never see a college from the inside; and that the interests of the large majority should not be sacrificed to those of the small minority.

At this point some one may raise the question (a question most persistently raised by teachers of other subjects as well as by the laity) whether it is worth while for the ordinary secondary school pupil to study Latin and Greek. That question I shall not discuss in this presence. If you and I did not believe that to the bright or average pupil four, three, or two years of Latin were better than no Latin, and that to the bright pupil three years, two years, or even one year of Greek was far better than no Greek, most of us would have no excuse except a mercenary one for holding the positions which we hold. I shall try, rather, to consider whether it is not possible to lighten the present burden during a part of the course, and, without sacrificing anything of real or vital consequence, give the student a chance to gain a deeper knowledge and higher appreciation of the literature, life, and art of ancient Rome, an interest in which will, in the fulness of

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