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THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is published by the Classical Association of the Atlantic States, weekly, on Saturdays, from October to May inclusive, except in weeks in which there is legal or school holiday, at Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, New York City.

All persons within the territory of the Association who are interested in the literature, the life and the art of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, whether actually engaged in teaching the Classics or not, are eligible to membership in the Association. Application for membership may be made to the Secretary-Treasurer, Charles Knapp, Barnard College, New York. The annual dues (which cover also the subscription to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY), are two dollars. Within the territory covered by the Association (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia,) subscription is possible to individuals only through membership. To institutions in this territory the subscription price is one dollar per year.

Outside the territory of the Association the subscription price of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY is one dollar per year.

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100 Washington Square

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FOR THIRD YEAR

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MACMILLAN'S LATIN SERIES

CORNELIUS NEPOS-Twenty Lives

Edited by J. E. Barss, Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn. Cloth, xiv +316 pp. Maps and Illustrations. 90 cents net.

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Entered as second-class matter November 18, 1907, at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of March 1, 1879 VOL. IV NEW YORK, DECEMBER 3, 1910

All teachers and friends of the Classics should be much interested in the following announcement just sent to THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY by Professor Kelsey. Those who wish a copy of this book should remit as soon as possible; the publishers wish to know before January how large to make the edition. G. L. In accordance with a suggestion made some months ago in the columns of THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY, and reinforced of late by requests from many quarters, it has been decided to publish in a volume the papers which have been given at the Michigan Classical Conference in recent years on The Value of Humanistic Studies. The volume will be entitled Latin and Greek in American Education, and will be edited by Francis W. Kelsey. It will contain, first, three papers by the editor on The Present Position of Latin and Greek, The Value of Latin and Greek as Educational Instruments, and Latin and Greek in our Courses of Study; these will be followed by a paper on The Nature of Culture Studies, by Robert M. Wenley. The greater part of the volume will be devoted to the Symposia. The titles of the Symposia and the names of the contributors are as follows:

Symposium I-The Value of Humanistic, particularly Classical, Studies as a Preparation for the Study of Medicine: Dean Victor C. Vaughan, Dr. Charles B. G. de Nancrède, Dean William B. Hinsdale.

Symposium II-The Value of Humanistic Studies as a Preparation for the Study of Engineering: Professor Herbert C. Sadler, Professor Gardner S. Williams, Professor George W. Patterson, Associate Dean Joseph B. Davis.

Symposium III-The Value of Latin and Greek as a Preparation for the Study of Law: Merritt Starr and Lynden Evans of the Chicago Bar; Dean (now President) H. B. Hutchins; Harlow P. Davock, Hinton E. Spalding and Levi L. Barbour, of the Detroit Bar.

Symposium IV-The Value of Humanistic Studies as a Preparation for the Study of Theology: President William Douglas MacKenzie, Rev. A. J. Nock, Francis W. Kelsey, James B. Angell.

Symposium V-The Value of Humanistic Studies as a training for Men of Affairs: James Bryce, James Loeb, and William Sloane (letters); John W. Foster, Charles B. Williams, Harvey W. Wiley and James Brown Scott.

Symposium VI-The Classics and the New Education: Edward K. Band, Robert M. Wenley, and Paul Shorey.

The volume will contain about 400 pages, and will be published by the Macmillan Company in March,

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No. 8

tion of the Middle West and South to provide themselves with copies of the volume, bound in cloth, at a reduced price, provided the remittance is received before publication; after publication the price will be $1.50. Members of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States who desire the volume are requested to remit eighty-seven cents ($.87) by postal order to Mr. Louis P. Jocelyn, Secretary of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, 545 South Division Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

IN THE CLASSICAL WEEKLY from time to time have been published remarks by Presidents of various Colleges and Universities which show clearly enough that not all such exalted personages are dead to the claims of the Classics. On February 10 last, at the banquet of the New York City Alumni Association of the University of Vermont, President Buckham of that University spoke as follows:

or

College problems are in the air. We have had more public discussion of such problems within a few months past than in a whole generation heretofore. These problems are of two kinds-those concerning educational values in general, and those pertaining to individual institutions. As regards the first, while the forms of opinion are various, there has been one general trend, a trend toward liberal culture. After the experience of a generation in the other direction, toward practical results more less narrowly estimated, there is a manifest dissatisfaction with the general outcome. The public, even the uneducated or half-educated portion of the public, misses something which is expected of fine scholarship. They do not fail to notice that the few men who speak to them with the ring which touches their imagination are not products of the new régime. Not that modern changes have been wholly mistaken many of them were inevitable: some of them will be permanent: but it is time for a recall to ideals temporarily overborne. We read much of "passings" and "renascences". We rarely take up. a magazine without seeing headlines about the passing of something or the renascence of something. In the educational world it is the renascence of liberal culture and the passing of narrow specialism. A generation ago culture was thrust out of the windows with jeers today it is invited in at the front door with cheers and garlands. What is the culture we thrust out and now want to get in again? It is the education of the man for the sake of manhood and character and not merely for the sake of what he can be made to turn out in material products. I should not wonder if as a part of this general renascence of liberal culture there should be a renascence of that discipline which used to furnish so fine an example of it, the classical discipline. I should not wonder if Greek, and what Greek stands for, should have a revival in our higher Institutions. There are a few Institutions, of which the University of Vermont is

one, which still require Greek, and what Greek stands for, in order to the A. B. degree. If I may venture on a prophecy, he who speaks to you in my place ten years hence will be able to congratulate you on the additional number of Institutions requiring Greek for the A. B. degree. Not that I would have all students study Greek, but that I would have Greek taught in all higher Institutions, and I would have no Institution empowered to grant the A. B. degree in which Greek is not taught. I would have that which Greek stands for and of which it is in all history the finest embodiment and expression diffused through the atmosphere and the life of every Institution, reaching into the brain and heart of every student in every department, banishing what is coarse and mean and sensual, and bringing in sweetness and light and all the fine things of the spirit. What a right public judgment misses, what a growing thoughtful judgment is demanding, is more high and fine thinking, more imagination, more humanity, more spirituality, in fine more culture in the teaching and the life of our Institutions of learning. C. K.

THE CLASSICAL ELEMENT IN GRAY'S POETRY1 The poet Gray was accounted by his friends the most learned man of his time. If omniscience was not his foible, it was acknowledged as his possession, with the exception of mathematics, his ignorance of which he deplored. One does not need profound learning in order to recognize him as the scholarpoet, and to one who has an acquaintance with the great works of ancient and modern literature every line of Gray is reminiscent of some earlier poet. Yet with all this erudition he has written one thing which is perhaps the best known short single poem "in the world, written between Milton and Wordsworth". I here quote Edmund Gosse, Gray's latest biographer, who says again "The Elegy may be looked upon as the typical piece of English verse, our pem of poems". The "exquisite felicities", as Gosse loves to call them, of this poem and of the last part of the Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College have become in the interchange of daily speech as fully common property as the usual Shakespearean quotations. In this respect, as Gosse says, the poems have suffered from an excess of popularity.

Yet with all his learning and with all his recognition by the vulgus profanum of the unlettered, Gray has still not had Sappho's good fortune in becoming a poet beloved of poets. Gosse is far from right when he maintains that Swinburne is the only writer of authority since the death of Johnson who has ventured to depreciate Gray's poetry. Birkbeck Hill has assembled in his notes on Johnson's Life of Gray the adverse criticisms of many a fellow craftsman which support the harsh verdict of "The Great Bear" himself. Coleridge, for

1 This paper was read at the Fourth Annual Meeting of The Classical Association of the Atlantic States at New York City, April 23, 1910.

9 Gray's name for Johnson.

example, finds his poems "frigid and artificial". Carlyle calls them a "laborious mosaic through the hard, stiff lineaments of which little life or true grace could be expected to look". Hazlitt finds his Pindaric odes stately and pedantic, a kind of methodical borrowed frenzy. Wordsworth says that he "failed as a poet not because he took too much pains, but because his pains were of the wrong sort". "He wrote English verse", says Wordsworth, "as his brother Eton school-boys wrote Latin, filching a phrase now from one author and now from another. I do not profess to be a person of very various reading; nevertheless, if I were to pluck out of Gray's tail all the feathers which I know belong elsewhere, he would be left bare indeed".

cance.

Wordsworth's harsh description, it cannot be denied, sets forth the method which Gray consciously or unconsciously pursued. But his genius has made the results great and noble poetry. A remark of his in a letter to Horace Walpole is of great signifiHe writes "I send you a bit of a thing for two reasons; first because it is one of your favorite's, Mr. M. Green; and next because I would do justice; the thought on which my second Ode turns is manifestly stole from thence. Not that I knew it at the time, but having seen this many years before, to be sure it imprinted itself on my memory and, forgetting the author, I took it for my own". There is a resemblance that is not without its meaning between Gray's poetical workmanship and that of Horace described by the latter in his Pindar ode:

ego apis Matinae
more modoque

grata carpentis thyma per laborem
plurimum circa nemus uvidique
Tiburis ripas operosa parvus
carmina fingo.

At the present time it is a very usual thing to say about Gray that he is Greek in his poetic art. Gosse finds that he is Simonidean in his gift of pure cold song and Palgrave writes that he is "reminded of Sophocles or Pindar by Gray's splendid odes". This judgment appears to me peculiarly inapt and a somewhat close study of the sources of Gray's poetic thought and phrasing confirms me in the belief that Gray is influenced by the Latin literature far more than by the Greek and that in his English verse as in his Latin his great masters are Vergil, Horace and Lucretius. His contemporary, William Collins, has the Greek feeling in his directness and sincerity. Comparing him with Gray Swinburne says "as a lyric poet Gray is unworthy to sit at the feet of Collins". But Collins with all his points of contact with Gray stands alone in the eighteenth century. Gray's qualities, whether you call them "exquisite felicities" with Gosse or "cumbrous splendors" and "rhetorical elaborations" with Johnson and Swinburne, are characteristic of that century and eminently Latin, as I hope to show somewhat in de

tail. The great English sources of his style among his predecessors are Milton and Pope. It is sometimes difficult to decide whether he has got his classical phrases at first-hand or through the medium of their poetry.

Gosse finds that Gray first shows his Greek quality in the Ode to Adversity. "Perhaps the fragments of such lyrists as Simonides", Gosse writes, "gave Gray the hint of this pure and cold manner of writing. The shadowy personages of allegory throng around us and we are not certain that we distinguish them from one another”. “These shadowy personages of allegory", however, are borrowed from Horace's Ode to Fortune or suggested by that Ode, and Gray's use of them is reminiscent of Horace and Vergil rather than of the Greek lyric poets. Simonides has nothing like this. Gray's poem, also, owes its inception and some of its best lines to an English translation of a Graeco-Roman ode of the reign of Hadrian, written by a Cretan Greek, Mesomedes, who was music-master at the Roman court of Hadrian and Marcus Antoninus. This Greek ode was long attributed to Dionysius, but was vindicated for Mesomedes by Burette in the Histoire de l'academie des inscriptions et belles lettres (1729). Mesomedes according to notices of him in Eusebius and Jerome was a protegé of Hadrian and wrote a eulogy of Antinous. Antoninus raised a tomb to him, though according to Julius he had at one time in a fit of economy reduced his salary. Of his hymns three have come down with their musical notation, namely, To the Muse, To the Sun, To Nemesis.

Although Gray in a prefatory note states that his Ode to Adversity was suggested by Dionysius's (sic) Ode to Nemesis, his indebtedness to the translation has been, I believe, entirely overlooked. James Merrick, a scholar and religious poet of Gray's own time translates the Greek verses thus (Bell's Fugitive Poetry, 18.161)':

Nemesis, whose dreaded weight
Turns the scale of human fate,
On whose front black terrors dwell,
Daughter dire of Justice, hail!
Thou whose adamantine rein
Curbs the arrogant and vain,
Wrong and force before thee die,
Envy shuns thy searching eye,
And, her sable wings outspread,
Flies to hide her hated head
When thy wheel with restless round
Runs along the unprinted ground.
Humbled then at thy decree
Human greatness bows the knee.
Thine it is unseen to trace
Step by step each mortal's pace,
Thine the sons of pride to check
And to bind the stubborn neck.
'Till our lives directed stand

1 For the Greek text of Mesomedes's hymn see Musici Scriptores Graeci, edited by Carolus Jan (Leipzig, 1895).

By the measure in thy hand
Thou observant sitst on high
With bent brow and steadfast eye
Weighing all that meets thy view
In thy balance just and true.
Goddess, look propitious down,
View us not without a frown,
Nemesis whose dreaded weight
Turns the scale of human fate.
Nemesis be still our theme,
Power immortal and supreme!
Thee we praise, nor thee alone
But add the partner of thy throne;
Thee and Justice both we sing,
Justice whose unwearied wing
Rears aloft the virtuous name
Safe from hell's voracious claim,
And when thou thy wrath hast shed
Turns it from the virtuous head.

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Fortune in Horace is attended by saeva Necessitas with her stern emblems, and by Hope and "whiterobed Honor, too seldom seen".

The last two stanzas of Gray go back to the translation of the Greek hymn of Mesomedes and are an expansion of the lines

Goddess, look propitious down,

View us not without a frown.

The best stanza is the last and far outdoes Horace with his prayer for Caesar's preservation and his irrelevant pessimism:

Thy form benign, oh goddess, wear,
Thy milder influence impart,

Thy philosophic train be there

To soften, not to wound my heart.

The generous spark extinct revive,
Teach me to love and to forgive,
Exact mine own defects to scan,

What others are to feel, and know myself a man.

To this we owe those wonderful lines of the Ode to Duty:

Stern Lawgiver! but thou dost wear
The Godhead's most benignant grace,
Nor know we anything so fair
As is the smile upon thy face.
Flowers laugh before thee in their beds
And fragrance in thy footing treads.
Thou dost preserve the stars from wrong
And the most ancient heavens

Through thee are fresh and strong.

Since by Wordsworth's own confession this perfect ode of his is modelled on Gray's ode, we may well wonder at Wordsworth's gibe about the feathers that could be plucked from Gray, leaving him so bare. To pluck this perfect poem from Wordsworth because he has taken form, meter, and tone from Gray would be no more unfair than to condemn Gray, as Wordsworth has done, for filching, to use Wordsworth's odious word. If there is filching in the case of either poet, both are, as Swinburne called Milton, "celestial thieves" and repay to the world a thousandfold what they have taken from their brother-poets. Wordsworth in his Ode reaches a height of perfection that is as great as that of Sophocles or Aeschylus and greater for us because the poem is freed from mythology, with no alien Zeus or goddess Dike or Moira. Wordsworth indeed deserves to be ranked by this Ode and his other great one with those poets of Greece of whom Matthew Arnold says at the close of his essay on Religious Sentiment: "No other poets who have so well satisfied the thinking power have so well satisfied the religious sense". But, as I have already said, I do not feel that Gray's intellectual compeers are Simonides, Pindar, Sophocles, and Aeschylus, but rather the thoughtful and philosophical among the Latin poets, Vergil and Lucretius above all. ode of Mesomedes has reminiscences of Aeschylean thought and phrase, slight though it is. But Gray's

The

Ode to Adversity is not Aeschylean in feeling; rather it is a sententious and allegorical peom in the Latin style of Horace, ennobled and raised above the moralizing of that cheerful worldling by the Vergilian sense of tears in human things, which is so marked in the work of Gray.

I have considered the Ode of Adversity first, out of its chronological order, because of the fact that it so directly follows a Latin and a Greek poem. The Ode to Spring is his earliest ode. It was sent to his friend West before Gray was informed of the latter's death. This poem is suggested by Horace 1.4 Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni, and in it Gray's muse is entirely Latin and Horatian, not yet touched with the Vergilian tenderness and melancholy, as in the deeper notes of later poems. Faint echoes of the gorgeousness of the Pervigilium Veneris appear in the first stanza

Lo! where the rosy-bosom'd Hours,
Fair Venus' train, appear,

Disclose the long-expecting flowers
And wake the purple year!

This is a version chilled and diluted by transference from the torrid zone to the mists and fogs of Britain of these lines of that tropical poem: Ver novum, ver iam canorum, ver renatus orbis est, ipsa geminis purpurantem pingit annum floribus, ipsa surgentes papillas de Favoni spiritu urget in nodos feraces.

The line ipsa geminis purpurantem, etc., Gray translates again in the reference to Shakespeare in the Progress of Poetry:

This pencil take, she said, whose colours clear
Richly paint the vernal year.

Gosse criticizes Gray for borrowing "rosy-bosomed Hours" from Milton and "purple year" from Pope. But Gray is acquainted with Pope's source and mildly paraphrases, as I said, that burning poem.

I have already spoken of Gray's writing to Walpole that he had got from Green's Grotto the moral on which the poem turns. Green's verse is

While insects from the threshold preach. Gray's moralizing in this Ode is of the Horatian sort. The insects say

On hasty wings thy youth is flown;
Thy sun is set, thy spring is gone-
We frolic while 'tis May.

Such thoughts, too, the spring suggests to Horace:

O beati Sesti,

vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam.

Immortalia ne speres, monet annus et almum quae rapit hora diem.

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